Unemployment, youth male (% of male labor force ages 15-24) (national estimate) - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 South Africa 48.60 2016
2 Lesotho 44.30 2008
3 Swaziland 44.20 1995
4 Congo 41.00 2005
5 Cabo Verde 40.80 1990
5 Libya 40.80 2012
7 Namibia 37.70 2016
8 Tunisia 35.70 2012
9 Gabon 30.60 2010
10 Botswana 29.60 2010
10 Mali 29.60 2016
12 Egypt 27.20 2016
13 Algeria 22.10 2014
14 Morocco 20.80 2014
15 Mauritius 18.30 2016
16 Ethiopia 17.10 2016
17 Angola 16.80 2011
18 Kenya 15.90 1999
19 Sierra Leone 14.80 2014
20 Zambia 14.60 2012
21 Seychelles 12.10 2015
22 Zimbabwe 11.70 2014
23 Comoros 11.40 2004
24 The Gambia 9.10 2012
25 Cameroon 9.00 2014
26 Nigeria 8.90 2013
27 Malawi 7.40 2013
28 Mozambique 7.10 2015
29 Guinea 6.90 2002
30 São Tomé and Principe 6.20 1991
31 Burkina Faso 5.30 2014
32 Benin 5.20 2011
32 Senegal 5.20 2015
34 Burundi 4.40 2014
35 Ghana 4.20 2013
36 Togo 3.40 2011
37 Tanzania 3.10 2014
38 Côte d'Ivoire 2.80 2016
39 Liberia 2.50 2010
40 Uganda 2.00 2013
41 Rwanda 1.40 2014
42 Madagascar 1.00 2012
43 Niger 0.80 2011

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Development Relevance: Paradoxically, low unemployment rates can disguise substantial poverty in a country, while high unemployment rates can occur in countries with a high level of economic development and low rates of poverty. In countries without unemployment or welfare benefits people eke out a living in vulnerable employment. In countries with well-developed safety nets workers can afford to wait for suitable or desirable jobs. But high and sustained unemployment indicates serious inefficiencies in resource allocation. Youth unemployment is an important policy issue for many economies. Young men and women today face increasing uncertainty in their hopes of undergoing a satisfactory transition in the labour market, and this uncertainty and disillusionment can, in turn, have damaging effects on individuals, communities, economies and society at large. Unemployed or underemployed youth are less able to contribute effectively to national development and have fewer opportunities to exercise their rights as citizens. They have less to spend as consumers, less to invest as savers and often have no "voice" to bring about change in their lives and communities. Widespread youth unemployment and underemployment also prevents companies and countries from innovating and developing competitive advantages based on human capital investment, thus undermining future prospects. Unemployment is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. [SDG Indicator 8.5.2]

Limitations and Exceptions: The criteria for people considered to be seeking work, and the treatment of people temporarily laid off or seeking work for the first time, vary across countries. In many cases it is especially difficult to measure employment and unemployment in agriculture. The timing of a survey can maximize the effects of seasonal unemployment in agriculture. And informal sector employment is difficult to quantify where informal activities are not tracked. There may be also persons not currently in the labour market who want to work but do not actively "seek" work because they view job opportunities as limited, or because they have restricted labour mobility, or face discrimination, or structural, social or cultural barriers. The exclusion of people who want to work but are not seeking work (often called the "hidden unemployed" or "discouraged workers") is a criterion that will affect the unemployment count of both women and men. However, women tend to be excluded from the count for various reasons. Women suffer more from discrimination and from structural, social, and cultural barriers that impede them from seeking work. Also, women are often responsible for the care of children and the elderly and for household affairs. They may not be available for work during the short reference period, as they need to make arrangements before starting work. Further, women are considered to be employed when they are working part-time or in temporary jobs, despite the instability of these jobs or their active search for more secure employment.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The standard definition of unemployed persons is those individuals without work, seeking work in a recent past period, and currently available for work, including people who have lost their jobs or who have voluntarily left work. Persons who did not look for work but have an arrangements for a future job are also counted as unemployed. Some unemployment is unavoidable. At any time some workers are temporarily unemployed between jobs as employers look for the right workers and workers search for better jobs. It is the labour force or the economically active portion of the population that serves as the base for this indicator, not the total population.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.