Income share held by highest 20% - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For mor

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Rank Country Value Year
1 South Africa 68.90 2011
2 Namibia 66.40 2009
3 Botswana 65.00 2009
4 Zambia 61.30 2015
5 Central African Republic 60.80 2008
6 Lesotho 58.20 2010
7 Rwanda 57.10 2013
8 Guinea-Bissau 56.70 2010
8 Swaziland 56.70 2009
10 Kenya 54.10 2005
11 Congo 53.70 2011
12 Cabo Verde 53.30 2007
13 Seychelles 53.00 2013
14 The Gambia 52.80 2003
15 Malawi 52.40 2010
16 Benin 52.10 2015
17 Cameroon 51.60 2014
18 Mozambique 51.40 2008
19 Comoros 50.10 2013
20 Djibouti 50.00 2013
21 Zimbabwe 49.70 2011
22 Madagascar 49.40 2012
23 Nigeria 49.00 2009
24 Chad 48.80 2011
25 Gabon 48.70 2005
26 Togo 48.60 2015
27 Angola 48.50 2008
28 Dem. Rep. Congo 48.40 2012
29 Uganda 48.30 2012
30 Ghana 48.20 2012
31 Côte d'Ivoire 48.00 2015
31 Morocco 48.00 2006
33 Senegal 46.90 2011
34 Burundi 46.70 2013
35 Tanzania 45.80 2011
36 Burkina Faso 44.30 2014
37 Mauritius 43.90 2012
38 Tunisia 42.90 2010
39 Sierra Leone 42.40 2011
39 Sudan 42.40 2009
41 Niger 42.20 2014
42 Ethiopia 41.70 2010
43 Egypt 41.50 2015
43 Guinea 41.50 2012
45 Liberia 41.30 2014
45 Mali 41.30 2009
47 Mauritania 40.00 2014
48 São Tomé and Principe 39.50 2010
49 Algeria 37.20 2011

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Development Relevance: The World Bank Group’s goal of promoting shared prosperity has been defined as fostering income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the welfare distribution in every country. Income distribution data and the Gini coefficient measure inequality in income or consumption and important indicators for measuring shared prosperity.

Limitations and Exceptions: Despite progress in the last decade, the challenges of measuring poverty remain. The timeliness, frequency, quality, and comparability of household surveys need to increase substantially, particularly in the poorest countries. The availability and quality of poverty monitoring data remains low in small states, countries with fragile situations, and low-income countries and even some middle-income countries. The low frequency and lack of comparability of the data available in some countries create uncertainty over the magnitude of poverty reduction. Besides the frequency and timeliness of survey data, other data quality issues arise in measuring household living standards. The surveys ask detailed questions on sources of income and how it was spent, which must be carefully recorded by trained personnel. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption comes closer to the notion of living standards. And income can vary over time even if living standards do not. But consumption data are not always available: the latest estimates reported here use consumption data for about two-thirds of countries. However, even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of differences in timing or in the quality and training of enumerators. Comparisons of countries at different levels of development also pose a potential problem because of differences in the relative importance of the consumption of nonmarket goods. The local market value of all consumption in kind (including own production, particularly important in underdeveloped rural economies) should be included in total consumption expenditure but may not be. Most survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from own production, but valuation methods vary.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Inequality in the distribution of income is reflected in the share of income or consumption accruing to a portion of the population ranked by income or consumption levels. The portions ranked lowest by personal income receive the smallest shares of total income. Data on the distribution of income or consumption come from nationally representative household surveys. Where the original data from the household survey were available, they have been used to directly calculate the income or consumption shares by quintile. Otherwise, shares have been estimated from the best available grouped data. The distribution data have been adjusted for household size, providing a more consistent measure of per capita income or consumption. No adjustment has been made for spatial differences in cost of living within countries, because the data needed for such calculations are generally unavailable. For further details on the estimation method for low- and middle-income economies, see Ravallion and Chen (1996). Survey year is the year in which the underlying household survey data were collected or, when the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the year in which most of the data were collected. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.

Unit of Measure: %

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand six hundred household surveys across 164 countries in six regions and 25 other high income countries (indu