Political pressure groups and leaders

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Afghanistanreligious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
AlbaniaConfederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kol NIKOLLAJ]
Omonia [Leonidha PAPA]
Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
AlgeriaAlgerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
AngolaAngolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda - Armed Forces of Cabinda or FLEC-FAC [Emmanuel NZITA]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese national soccer team in 2010
Antigua and BarbudaAntigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
ArgentinaArgentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs or CILFA
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Blue and White CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro- or anti-government); students
ArmeniaAylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]
Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Arubaenvironmental groups
Australiabusiness groups, environmental groups, social groups, trade unions
AustriaAustrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Agriculture Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: 3 composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
AzerbaijanD18 [Ruslan IZZETLI]]
Ireli Public Union or Ireli PU [MirHasan SEYIDOV]
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
N!DA Civic Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Ulvi HASANLI] (youth movement)
Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in prison since 2013)]
Bahamas, TheFriends of the Environment [Wynsome FERGUSON]
other: trade unions
BangladeshAin o Salish Kendro (Centre for Law and Mediation) or ASK (legal aid and civil rights)
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity or BCWS
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC [Sir Fasel Hasan ABED]
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry or FBCCI [Md. Shafiul Islam (Mohiuddin)]
Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs or MoWCA [Meher Afroze CHUMKI] (advocacy group to end gender-based violence)
Odikhar [Dr. C.R. ABRAR (human rights group)
other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; NGOs focused on poverty alleviation, and international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
BarbadosBarbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Mary REDMAN]
Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Pedro SHEPHERD]
Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Linda BROOKS]
Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]
Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU) [Cedric MURRELL]
National Union of Public Workers or NUPW [Akanni MCDOWALL]
Belarus"Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH] (unregistered)
Belarusian Association of Journalists [Andrei BASTUNETS]
Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions or BRDP [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]
Belarusian Helsinki Committee or BHC [Aleh HULAK]
Belarusian Language Society [Aleh TRUSAU, Alena ANISIM]
Congress of Democratic Forces [Mikalay STATKEVICH]
For Freedom Movement [Yuras HUBAREVICH]
Malady Front (Young Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH] (unregistered)
Perspektiva [Anatoliy SHUMCHENKO] (small business association)
""Tell the Truth"" Movement [Tatsyana KARATKEVICH] (unregistered)
Vyasna (Spring) human rights center [Ales BELYATSKIY] (unregistered)
Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]
BelgiumBelgian General Federation of Labor or ABVV or FGTB [Rudy DE LEEUW, Marc GOBLET]
Confederation of Christian Trade Unions or ACV or CSC [Marc LEEMANS, Marie-Helene SKA]
Federation of Enterprises in Belgium or VBO or FEB [Pieter TIMMERMANS, Bernard GILLIOT]
other: numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; trade unions; various organizations representing the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as BEPax and groups representing immigrants
BelizeNational Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUCB [Floyd NEAL]
Benineconomic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups
BermudaAssociation of Bermuda Insurers and Reinsurers or ABIR [Bradley KADING]
Association of Bermuda International Companies or ABIC [Patrick TANNOCK]
Bermuda Employers' Council [Keith JENSEN]
Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Chris FURBERT]
Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Kevin GRANT, Edward G. BALL, Jr.]
Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
BhutanDruk National Congress or DNC [Gedun CHOEPHEL] (group in exile)
United Front for Democracy or UFD (group in exile)
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD [Jatuporn PROMPAN, chairman]
other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepali-Bhutanese organizations (exiled)
BoliviaBolivian Workers Central or COB
Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB
Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE-El Alto
Landless Movement or MST
National Confederation of Native Rural Indigenous Women of Bolivia or Bartolina Sisa
National Coordination for Change or CONALCAM
National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Jacinto HERRARA]
other: Cocalero unions
Interculturales union or CSCIB
various federations of neighborhood councils or FEJUVEs (including the national organization)
Bosnia and Herzegovinawar veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
BrazilLandless Workers' Movement or MST [Joao Pedro STEDILE]
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
British Virgin IslandsFamily Support Network or FSN
Office of Gender Affairs or ODA (formerly Woman's Desk)
other: environmentalists
BulgariaConfederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB [Plamen DIMITROV]
Podkrepa Labor Confederation [Dimitar MANOLOV]
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Burkina FasoBalai Citoyen [Guy Herve KAM]
Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Bassolma BAZIE]
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
Burkinabe Society for Constitutional Law or SBDC [Abdoulaye SOMA]
Center for Democratic Governance or CGD [Thomas OUEDRAOGO]
Coalition for African Renaissance or CAR [Herve OUATTARA]
National Independent Union of Burkinabe Magistrates or SAMAB [Augustin LOADA]
National Union for Health Workers or SYNTSHA
National Union for Primary Education Teachers or SYNATEB
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
BurmaThai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exiled trade union and labor advocates)
United Nationalities Federal Council or UNFC [NAI HONG SAR]
inside Burma: Kachin Independence Organization or KIO [Gen. LANYAW ZAWNG HRA]
Karen National Union or KNU [Gen. SAW MUTU SAY POE]
Karenni National People's Party or KNPP [KHUN ABEL TWEED]
United Wa State Army or UWSA [BAO YOU-XIANG]
88 Generation Students Group [collective leadership] (pro-democracy movement)
several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
note: many restrictions on freedom of expression have been relaxed by the government; a limited number of political groups, other than parties, are approved by the government
BurundiForum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC (civil society umbrella organization) [Vital NSHIMIRIMANA]
CambodiaPartnership for Transparency Fund or PTF [John CLARK] (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel [Koul PANHA]
other: human rights organizations; labor unions; youth groups
CameroonNetwork of Human Rights Defenders in Central Africa or REDHAC [Maximilliene Ngo MBE]
Tribunal 53 Articles [Patrice NGANANG]
Canadaother: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; First Nations organizations; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
Cape Verdeother: environmentalists; political pressure groups
Cayman IslandsCoalition for Cayman or C4C
People's National Alliance or PNA
National Trust
other: environmentalists
ChileRoman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei
United Labor Central or CUT (includes trade unionists from the country's 5 largest labor confederations)
other: university student federations at all major universities
Chinano substantial political opposition groups exist
Christmas Islandnone
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsThe Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre
ColombiaCentral Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
ComorosFederation Comorienne des Consommateurs or FCC [Mohamed Said Abdallah MCHANGAMA]
Mouvement des Entreprises comorienne or MODEC [Faharate HOUSSEIN]
Union des Chambres de Commerce et de l'Industrie et de l'Agriculture or UCCIA [Ahmed Ali BAZI]
Confederation des Travailleurs Comoriens or CTC [Salim SOULAIMANA]
other: environmentalists
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAllied Democratic Forces or ADF (anti-Ugandan Government rebel groups]
Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces Arm?es de la R?publique D?mocratique du Congo) or FARDC
Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda or FDLR (Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's genocide in 1994)
Le Rassemblement (established in 2016 as a coalition of members from several political parties)
Congo, Republic of theCongolese Trade Union Confereration or CSC
General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
Congolese Socialist Youth Union or UJSC
Cook IslandsPolitical Reform Conference (lobby for political system changes)
other: various political change lobbyist groups
Costa RicaAuthentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate)
National Chamber of Coffee Growers
Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate)
Confederation of Workers Rerum Novarum or CTRN (National Libertion Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (National Libertion Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO
Costa Rican Solidarity Movement
Costa Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP
National Association for Economic Development or ANFE
National Association of Educators or ANDE
National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP
Cote d'IvoireFederation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Fulgene ASSI]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
Croatiahuman rights groups
CubaCuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation (CCDHRN)
Ladies in White (Damas de Blanco)
Patriotic Union of Cuba or UNPACU
other: political dissidents and bloggers
CyprusConfederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK [Andreas MATSAS] (pro-West)
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO [Pambis KYRITSIS] (communist-controlled)
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Federation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen [Arslan BICAKLI]
Czech RepublicCzech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA]
DenmarkConfederation of Danish Employers or DA [Jacob HOLBRAAD]
Confederation of Danish Industries or DI [Karsten DYBVAD]
Confederation of Danish Labor Unions or LO [Lizette RISGAARD]
DaneAge Association [Bjarne HASTRUP]
Danish Shipowners' Association [Anne STEFFENSEN]
Danish Bankers Association [Ulrik NODGAARD]
Danish Society for Nature Conservation or DN [Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]
other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
DominicaDominica Trade Union [Harold SEALY]
Dominca Public Service Union [Mervin ANTHONY]
Dominican RepublicCitizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania)
Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice or FINJUS
East TimorNA
EcuadorConfederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN]
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
Egyptlabor unions
student unions
teacher unions
El Salvadorlabor organizations:
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES
Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport, and other activities or FESINCONTRANS
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS
National Trade Union Federation of Salvadoran Workers or FENASTRAS
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS
Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES
Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS
Union of Judiciary Workers or SITTOJ
Union of Workers of the Ministry of the Treasury or SITRAMI
Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL

business organizations:
American Chamber of Commerce in El Salvador
National Association of Private Enterprise or ANEP
Salvadoran Chamber of Commerce or SACOC
Salvadoran Chamber of the Construction Industry or CASALCO
Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Equatorial GuineaASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
Coalicion CEIBA (group formed by diverse, exiled political parties)
C.O.R.E.D. [Raimundo Ela NSANG] (based in Paris)
EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
EritreaDemocratic Movement for the Liberation of Eritrean Kunama or DMLEK
Eritrean Democratic Alliance or EDA
Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development or EIPJD (includes the Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), Eritrean Islamic Salvation, and the Eritrean Islamic Foundation)
Eritrean National Congress for Democratic Change or ENCDC
Eritrean National Salvation Front or ENSF
Eritrean People's Democratic Party or EPDP
Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization or RSADO
EthiopiaGinbot 7 Movement
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)Falkland Islands Association (supports freedom of the people from external causes)
Faroe Islandsconservationists
FijiGroup Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (suports restoration of a democratic government)
Viti Landowners Association
FranceFrench Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC (Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres) [Francois HOMMERIL] (independent white-collar union with 140,000 members)
French Democratic Confederation of Labor or CFDT (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) [Laurent BERGER] (left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members)
French Confederation of Christian Workers or CFTC (Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens) [Philippe LOUIS] (independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Confederation generale du travail) [Philippe MARTINEZ] (historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members)
General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO (Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere) [Jean-Claude MAILLY] (independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members)
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF [Pierre GATTAZ] (employers' union with claimed 750,000 companies as members)

French Guiana:
conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups

Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement

Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP

GabonGabones Trade Union Confederation or GOSYGA [Martin ALLINI] (affiliated with the International Union Confederation)
National Convention of Trade Unions in the education sector or CONASYSED (banned by the governemnt in early 2017)
Gambia, TheThe Association of Non-Governmental Organizations or TANGO
Female Lawyers Association of Gambia or FLAG
Gambia Committee on Traditional Practices or GAMCOTRAP
Gambia Press Union or GPU
West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA
Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia
other: special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
Georgiaother: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Germanybusiness associations and employers' organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Ghanapublic policy think tanks: Institute for Democratic Governance (IDEG); IMANI Center for Policy and Education; Ghana Center for Democratic Development; Institute for Economic Affairs
professional and trade groups: Ghana Bar Association; Ghana Trades Union Congress; American Chamber of Commerce; British Chamber of Commerce; and a host of religious organizations
other: wide range of international and domestic human rights and policy advocacy groups, environmental groups, business organizations, traditional leaders and youth groups
GibraltarChamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association
GreeceSupreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Theodore FESSAS]
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
Greenlandconservationists; environmentalists; independence activists
GrenadaCommittee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG
New Jewel Movement Support Group
The British Grenada Friendship Society
The New Jewel 19 Committee
GuamGuam Commission on Decolonization
Guam Federation of Teachers' Union
Guam Waterworks Authority Workers
We Are Guahan
GuatemalaAlliance Against Impunity or AI (includes Center for Legal Action on Human Rights or CALDH, Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala or FAMDEGUA)
Civic and Political Convergence of Women
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC
Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF
Foundation for the Development of Guatemala or FUNDESA
Guatemala Visible
Mutual Support Group or GAM
Movimiento PRO-Justicia
National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
GuernseyStop Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety or STEPS
GuineaNational Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
Guinea-BissauChamber of Commerce of Agriculture, Industry, and Services [Braima CAMARA]
GuyanaAmerindian People's Association
Guyana Bar Association
Guyana Citizens Initiative
Guyana Human Rights Association
Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU
Guyana Trans United
Private Sector Commission
Society Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination or SASOD
Trades Union Congress
HaitiHaitian Self-Employed Workers Union or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Private Sector Economic Forum or PSEF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers or OGITH [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee or KOREGA
Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church
Holy See (Vatican City)none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
HondurasBeverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
Committee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
General Workers Confederation or CGT
Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
National Union of Campesinos or UNC
Popular Bloc or BP
United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA
Hong KongChinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China)
Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong
Civic Act-up (pro-democracy)
Federation of Hong Kong Industries
Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Albert HO] (pro-China)
Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council or HKTUC (pro-democracy)
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce or HKGCC
Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union or HKPTU [FUNG Wai-wah]
Hungary"Civil Osszefogas Forum (""Civil Unity Forum,"" nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies; increasingly inactive in Orban’s second consecutive term from 2014)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)
MostMi (""Now Us"") [Bori TAKACS](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)
other: Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
IndiaAll Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh or RSS [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
Indonesia"Commission for the ""Disappeared"" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
Iranpolitical groups that support the Islamic Republic: Ansar-e Hizballah
Democracy Party (Hezb-e Mardom Salari)
Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran)
Followers of the Guardianship of the Jurisprudent (Rahrovan)
Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader (Peyrovan)
Islamic Iran Freedom Party (Hezb-e Azadegi)
Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh)
Islamic Labor Party (Hezb-e Kar)
Militant Clerics Society or MCS (Ruhaniyun)
Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e Etedal va Tose-eh)
Nation of Iran Unity Party (Hezb-e Etehad)
National Trust Party (Hezb-e Etemad-e Meli)
Qom Theological Lecturers Association
Reform Front Coordination Council (Shora-ye Hamahangi Eslahat)
Society of Devotees (Isargaran)
Society of Modern Thinking Muslim Women of Iran (Jamiat-e Zanan-e Noandish)
Steadfastness Front (Paydari)
Tehran Militant Clergy Association or MCA (Ruhaniyat)
Voice of Iranians (Neda)
Wayfarers of the Islamic Revolution (Rahpuyan);
armed political groups repressed by the government: Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan or KDPI
Harekat-e Ansar-e Iran (splinter faction of Jundallah)
Jaysh l-Adl (formerly known as Jundallah)
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization or MEK (MKO)
People's Fedayeen
People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan or PJAK
IraqSunni militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
IrelandContinuity IRA (terrorist group)
Families Acting for Innocent Relatives or FAIR [Brian MCCONNELL] (seek compensation for victims of violence)
Iona Institute [David QUINN] (a conservative Catholic think tank)
Irish Anti-War Movement [Richard BOYD BARRETT] (campaigns against wars around the world)
Keep Ireland Open (environmental group)
Oglaigh na hEireann (terrorist group)
Midland Railway Action Group or MRAG [Willie ALLEN] (transportation promoters)
New Irish Republican Army (terrorist group combining elements of the former Real IRA and Republican Action Against Drugs)
Peace and Neutrality Alliance or PANA [Roger COLE] (campaigns to protect Irish neutrality)
Rail Users Ireland (formerly the Platform 11 - transportation promoters)
32 Country Sovereignty Movement or 32CSM (supports unifying Northern Ireland with the rest of the island under Irish government sovereignty)
Isle of ManAlliance for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog)
IsraelBreaking the Silence or BtS [Yehuda SHAUL] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
B'Tselem [Hagai EL-AD] (monitors human rights abuses)
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER] (supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip)
YESHA Council [Avi ROEHD] (promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise)
Italymanufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
other: Roman Catholic Church
JamaicaNew Beginnings Movement or NBM
Japanother: business groups; trade unions
JerseyInstitute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)
Jersey Hospitality Association or JHa [Fiona KERLEY] (trade association)
Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights)
La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)
Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights)
Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)
Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)
Jordan15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID]
24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN]
1952 Constitution Movement
Anti-Normalization Committee [Saleh al-ARMOUTI]
Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT]
Group of 36
Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]
Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH]
Jordan Bar Association [Samir KHIRFAN]
Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin
Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID]
Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF]
National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT]
Popular Gathering for Reform
Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT]
Sons of Jordan
KazakhstanAdil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
Chairman of Bureau's Council [Roza AKYLBEKOVA]
Foundation for Support of Civil Initiatives [Nurul RAKHIMBEK]
International Legal Initiative [Aina SHORMANBAYEVA]
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights and Rule of Law or KIBHR [Rosa AKYLBEKOVA]
Legal Media Centre (sometimes known as the North Kazakhstan Legal Media Centre) [Diana OKREMOVA]
Public Foundation for Parliamentary Development [Zauresh BATTALOVA]
Republican Network of International Monitors or RNIM [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
Transparency International [Natalya KOVALEVA]
KenyaAfrican Center for Open Governance or AfriCOG [Gladwell OTIENO]
Anglican Church of Kenya [Archbishop Jackson Nasoore Ole SAPIT]
Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed KHALIFA]
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [George KEGORO]
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal John NJUE]
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Adan WACHU]
other: labor unions, other Christian churches
Korea, Northnone
Korea, SouthChristian Council of Korea
Citizen's Coalition for Economic Justice
Federation of Korean Trade Unions
Korea Women's Association United
Korea Women's Hotline
Korean Confederation of Trade Unions
Korean Veterans' Association
Lawyers for a Democratic Society
National Council of Churches in Korea
People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy
KosovoCiviKos Platform [Valdete IDRIZI]
Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom or CDHRF [Behxhet SHALA]
Group for Political and Legal Studies or GLPS [Fisnik KORENICA]
KLA War Veterans Organization [Muharrem XHEMAJLI]
Kosova Women's Network or KWN [Igballe ROGOVA]
Kosovar Civil Society Foundation or KCFS [Venera HAJRULLAHU]
Kosovo Democratic Institute or KDI [Ismet KRYEZIU]
Organization for Democracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! or COHU [Arton DEMHASAJ]
Serb National Council (SNV)
Speak Up or FOL [Petrit ZOGAJ] (think tank)
KuwaitIslamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups
KyrgyzstanAdilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Bir Duino [Tolekan ISMAILOVA] (formerly Citizens Against Corruption)
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA] (human rights)
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
LaosInternational Labor Organization
LatviaLatvian Employers' Confederation or LDDK [Vitalijs GAVRILOVS]
Farmers' Parliament or ZSA [Juris LAZDINS]
Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia or LBAS [Egils BALDZENS]
LebanonGrand Mufti of Lebanon [Sheikh Abdul Latif DERIAN]
Maronite Church [Patriarch Moran Mor Bechora Boutros al-RAHI]
note: most sects retain militias and a number of Sunni militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
LesothoMedia Institute of Southern Africa or MISA, Lesotho chapter [Tsebo MAT?ASA] (media freedom advocates)
LiberiaLiberian Federation of Labor Unions or LFLU [Aloysius KIE]
MCSS Teachers Association
National Health Workers Association of Liberia
National Teachers Association of Liberia or NTAL [Mary MULBAH]
other: demobilized former military officers
LuxembourgBusiness Federation Luxembourg or FEDIL [Nicolas BUCK]
Centrale Paysanne [Marc FISCH] (federation of agricultural producers)
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Tom OBERWEIS]
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN]
Chambre des Salaries or CSL [Jean-Claude REDING]
General Association of Officials (Confederation Generale de la Fonction Publique or CGFP) [Romain WOLFF] (trade union representing civil service)
Greenpeace [Raymond AENDEKERK]
Luxembourg Confederation of Christian Trade Unions or LCGB [Patrick DURY] (center-right trade union)
Luxembourg Association of Bankers and Insurance Employees or ALEBA [Roberto SCOLATI]
Luxembourg Bankers Association or ABBL [Yves MAAS]
Mouvement Ecologique [Blanche WEBER] (environmental protection)
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions or OGB-L [Andre ROELTGEN] (center-left trade union)
MacauBar-Bending Workers' Association [WONG Wai-Man]
Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun]
Macau New Chinese Youth Association (Associacao de Nova Juventude Chinesa de Macau) or ANJCM [LEONG Sin-man]
Macau Workers' Union [HO Heng-kuok]
New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
Workers' Self-Help Union [CHEONG Weng-fat]
MacedoniaConfederation of Free Trade Unions or KSS [Blagoja RALPOVSKI]
Federation of Trade Unions of Macedonia or SSM [Zivko MITREVSKI]
Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture or SONK [Jakim NEDELKOV]
Student Plenum
Eco Guerilla [Arianit XHAFERI]
MadagascarCommittee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR
Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN
National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
MalawiCouncil for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, development)
Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro-economic growth, development, government accountability)
Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace, unity)
MalaysiaBar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
ISMA (Muslim NGO)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Maldivesother: various unregistered political parties
MaliMalian Company for Textile Development or CMDT
Malian Defence Force
other: Islamic authorities
MaltaAlliance of Liberal Democrats Malta (Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika Malta) or ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, women's rights)
Alliance for Change (Alleanza Bidla) (Euro-skeptic)
Together for a Better Environment (Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar) or FAA
other: environmental groups
Marshall IslandsNA
MauritaniaAssociation of Women Heads of Household [Aminetou Mint ElMOCTAR]
General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED]
Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM and El Hor [Samory Ould BEYE] (civil society organization, anti-slavery)
Initiative for Resurgent Abolitionist Movement or IRA-Mauritania [Biram Dah ABEID] (US-based, anti-slavery group)
Mauritanian Human Rights Association or AMDH [Fatimata M'BAYE]
Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM]
National Forum for Democracy and Unity [Mohamed Jamil Ould MANSOUR]
SOS-Esclaves [Boubacar Ould MESSAOUD] (anti-slavery)
other: Arab nationalists; Ba'athists; Islamists; Nasserists
MauritiusLalit Political Party
Resistance and Alternative (Rezistans ek Alternativ)
Say No to Coal!
other: various labor unions
MexicoBusinessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church
Micronesia, Federated States ofNA
Mongoliahuman rights groups; women's rights groups; disability rights groups
MoroccoDemocratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir EL AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Mohamed KAFI CHERRAT]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO [Mohammed ben Abdesslam ABBADI]
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Miriem BENSALAH-CHAQROUN]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdessalam MAATI]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Miloudi EL MOUKHARIK]
MozambiqueMozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTA, president]
Youth Parliament (Parlamento Juvenil) [Salomao MUCHANGA]
NamibiaNational Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS
other: labor unions
NauruWoman Information and News Agency (women's issues)
NepalNational Federation of Indigenous Nationalities
Tharu Kalyankari Sabha (Tharus rights advocacy group)
NetherlandsChristian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Maurice LIMMEN]
Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Hans DE BOER]
Federation for Small and Medium-sized Businesses or MKB [Michael VAN STRAALEN]
Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Han BUSKER]
Social Economic Council or SER [Mariette HAMER]
Trade Union Professionals or VDP [Nic VAN HOLSTEIN]
New CaledoniaNA
New ZealandWomen's Electoral Lobby or WEL
other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
NicaraguaNational Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group - includes Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN)
Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN (independent labor union)
Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT (umbrella group of non-Sandinista labor unions - includes Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS)
Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
NigeriaAcademic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: media
Norfolk Islandnone
Northern Mariana IslandsNA
NorwayConfederation of Norwegian Enterprise or NHO [Tore ULSTEIN, Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or LO [Hans-Christian GABRIELSEN]
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
PakistanPakistan Ulema Council or PUC
other: military; landowners; industrialists; small merchants
PanamaChamber of Commerce
Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for Government of Panama to formally communicate with representatives of civil society)
National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO
National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP
National Union of Construction and Similar Workers or SUNTRACS
Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE
Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua New GuineaCentre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]
Community Coalition Against Corruption
National Council of Women
Transparency International Papau New Guinea or TIPNG (chapter of Transparency International)
ParaguayAhorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Marcial GOMEZ]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
PeruGeneral Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Geronimo LOPEZ]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso - imprisoned), Jorge and Victor QUISPE Palomino - indicted in US] (communist guerrilla group)
PhilippinesBlack and White Movement or BWM [Vicente ROMANO]
People Action (Kilosbayan)
Pitcairn Islandsnone
PolandAll Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ [Jan GUZ] (trade union)
Independent Self-Governing Trade Union or Solidarity [Piotr DUDA]
Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
PortugalArmed Forces Officers' Association or AOFA [Lt. Col. Antonio Costa MOTA]
General Workers Union or UGT [Carlos SILVA]
General Confederation of Portuguesse Workers or CGTP-IN [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
other: media; labor unions
Puerto RicoBoricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros)
Romaniavarious human rights and professional associations
RussiaCommittees of Soldiers' Mothers
Confederation of Labor of Russia or KTR
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Movement Against Illegal Migration
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of Russian Writers
other: business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups
RwandaIBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Saint Helenaprivate sector; unions
Saint Kitts and NevisNA
Saint LuciaNA
Saint MartinNA
Saint Pierre and MiquelonNA
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSt. Vincent & the Grenadines Teachers' Union [Oswald CHAMBERS]
other: several labor unions
SamoaSamoa Workers Congress or SWC [Gatoloa'i AFAMASAGA]
San MarinoNA
Sao Tome and PrincipeAssociation of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG
other: media
Saudi Arabiaother: gas companies; religious groups
SenegalCatholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
SerbiaIndependent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
Sierra Leonestudent unions; trade unions
SlovakiaAlliance of Companies Employing 500 or More Employees or Klub500
Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic or AZZZ
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
SloveniaRoman Catholic Church
other: various trade and public sector employee unions
Solomon IslandsIsatabu Freedom Movement or IFM
Malaita Eagle Force or MEF
note: these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
Somalianumerous political associations and clan and sub-clan factions exist in support of and against political leaders from clans, Federal Member State presidents, and others, including the former and current presidents
South AfricaCongress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Sdumo DLAMINI]
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE]
South African National Civic Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE]
note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the African National Congress
SpainAssociation for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
Roman Catholic Church
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO)
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
Sri LankaBuddhist clergy
Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
diaspora groups
other: labor unions; hardline nationalist Sinhalese groups, such as the National Movement Against Terrorism
SudanDarfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid al-NUR, various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI]
National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Yasir ARMAN]
SurinameAssociation of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Lesley ARTIST]
Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroons [Stiefen PETRUSI]
Women's Parliament Forum or WPF (Vrouwen Parlement Forum or VPF) [Iris GILLIAD]
SwazilandSwaziland United Democratic Front or SUDF
Trade Union Congress of Swaziland or TUCOSWA
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
SwedenConfederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Naringsliv) [Carola LEMNE]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO [Goran ARRIUS]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO [Eva NORDMARK]
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Karl-Petter THORWALDSSON]
other: environmental groups; media
Syrianote: as of December 2017,there were hundreds of political and armed opposition groups that organize protests, provide civilian services, and stage armed attacks
Taiwanenvironmental groups; independence movement; various business groups
note: public opinion polls consistently show most Taiwanese conclude the Republic of China -- Taiwan's official name for itself -- is a sovereign state and support maintaining Taiwan's status quo rather than seeking unification with or permanent separation from the China mainland; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose steps toward future unification with mainland China; most advocates of eventual unification predicate their goal on the democratic transformation of the mainland
TajikistanGroup 24 [Suhrob ZAFAR] (banned)
New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV (jailed since 2013)] (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV - jailed in 2015] (banned)
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI - in exile] (banned)
TanzaniaEconomic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
ThailandNew Democracy Movement
People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
TongaHuman Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA]
Public Service Association or PSA [Finau TUTONE]
Trinidad and TobagoJamaat al-Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
TunisiaTunisian Association of Women Democrats or ATFD
Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Jamel MSALLEM]
Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Noureddine TABOUBI]
Tunisian Women's Association for Research and Development or AFTURD
TurkeyConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Mehmet BOZGEYIK, Aysun GEZEN, cochairs]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Kani BEKO]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Abfuttahman KAAN]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations or TISK [Kudret ONEN]
Turkish Confederation of Labor Unions or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Erol BILECIK]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Turks and Caicos IslandsNA
UgandaNational Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Monica EMIRU]
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
UkraineCentre UA [Oleh RYBACHUK]
OPORA Civic Network [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
United Arab EmiratesNA
United KingdomCampaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Confederation of British Industry
National Farmers' Union
Trades Union Congress
United Statesenvironmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
UruguayB'nai B'rith
Catholic Church
Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturers' association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (ranchers' association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Women
other: students
Uzbekistanno significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
VenezuelaBolivarian and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling-party-oriented organized labor union)
Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative business group)
Consejos Comunales (pro-government local communal councils)
Federation of Chambers and Associations of Commerce and Production of Venezuela or FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group)
Union of Oil Workers of Venezuela or FUTPV
Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (opposition-oriented labor organization)
other: various civil society groups and human rights organizations
Vietnam8406 Bloc
Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV
People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN
Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
Virgin IslandsNA
Wallis and FutunaNA
Western SaharaPolisario Front
Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
ZambiaCongress of Trade Unions or ZCTU; Federation of Free Trade Unions in Zambia
other: other labor and trade unions
ZimbabweCrisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS]
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Peter MUTASA]
Zimbabwe Human Rights Association or ZimRights [Okay MACHISA]
Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum [Jestina MUKOKO]
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Roselyn HANZI]

Source: CIA Factbook