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Zimbabwe vs. Mozambique

Demographics

ZimbabweMozambique
Population
14,030,368 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

27,233,789 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 38.62% (male 2,681,192 /female 2,736,876)
15-24 years: 20.42% (male 1,403,715 /female 1,461,168)
25-54 years: 32.22% (male 2,286,915 /female 2,234,158)
55-64 years: 4.24% (male 233,021 /female 361,759)
65 years and over: 4.5% (male 255,704 /female 375,860) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 44.52% (male 6,097,116 /female 6,028,416)
15-24 years: 21.6% (male 2,905,254 /female 2,977,732)
25-54 years: 27.62% (male 3,525,755 /female 3,995,264)
55-64 years: 3.37% (male 442,990 /female 475,900)
65 years and over: 2.88% (male 359,624 /female 425,738) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 20.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.4 years
total: 17.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 16.7 years
female: 17.8 years
Population growth rate
1.68% (2018 est.)
2.46% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
34 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
37.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-7.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.64 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 31.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.7 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 66 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 61.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 59 years
female: 63.2 years
total population: 54.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 53.3 years
female: 54.9 years
Total fertility rate
3.97 children born/woman (2018 est.)
5.02 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
12.7% (2018 est.)
12.6% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups
African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Euro-African 0.2%, Indian 0.08%, European 0.06%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.3 million (2018 est.)
2.2 million (2018 est.)
Religions
Protestant 74.8% (includes Apostolic 37.5%, Pentecostal 21.8%, other 15.5%), Roman Catholic 7.3%, other Christian 5.3%, traditional 1.5%, Muslim 0.5%, other 0.1%, none 10.5% (2015 est.)
Roman Catholic 27.2%, Muslim 18.9%, Zionist Christian 15.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.3%, Anglican 1.7%, other 4.8%, none 13.9%, unspecified 2.5% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
22,000 (2018 est.)
53,900 (2018 est.)
Languages
Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)
Emakhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Xichangana 8.6%, Cinyanja 8.1, Cisena 7.1%, Elomwe 7.1%, Echuwabo 4.7%, Cindau 3.8%, Xitswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.5%
male: 88.5%
female: 84.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 56%
male: 70.8%
female: 43.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2013)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2017)
Education expenditures
7.5% of GDP (2014)
6.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanization
urban population: 32.2% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 36.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 76.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 3% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 49.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 30.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 50.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 69.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 42.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 10.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 20.5% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 89.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.521 million HARARE (capital) (2019)
1.669 million Matola, 1.104 million MAPUTO (capital), 811,000 Nampula (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
458 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
289 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
8.5% (2015)
15.6% (2011)
Health expenditures
10.3% (2015)
5.4% (2015)
Physicians density
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
15.5% (2016)
7.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20 years (2015 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

18.9 years (2011 est.)
median age at first birth among women 25-29
Demographic profile

Zimbabwe’s progress in reproductive, maternal, and child health has stagnated in recent years. According to a 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, contraceptive use, the number of births attended by skilled practitioners, and child mortality have either stalled or somewhat deteriorated since the mid-2000s. Zimbabwe’s total fertility rate has remained fairly stable at about 4 children per woman for the last two decades, although an uptick in the urban birth rate in recent years has caused a slight rise in the country’s overall fertility rate. Zimbabwe’s HIV prevalence rate dropped from approximately 29% to 15% since 1997 but remains among the world’s highest and continues to suppress the country’s life expectancy rate. The proliferation of HIV/AIDS information and prevention programs and personal experience with those suffering or dying from the disease have helped to change sexual behavior and reduce the epidemic.

Historically, the vast majority of Zimbabwe’s migration has been internal – a rural-urban flow. In terms of international migration, over the last 40 years Zimbabwe has gradually shifted from being a destination country to one of emigration and, to a lesser degree, one of transit (for East African illegal migrants traveling to South Africa). As a British colony, Zimbabwe attracted significant numbers of permanent immigrants from the UK and other European countries, as well as temporary economic migrants from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Although Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since the beginning of the 20th century to work as miners, the first major exodus from the country occurred in the years before and after independence in 1980. The outward migration was politically and racially influenced; a large share of the white population of European origin chose to leave rather than live under a new black-majority government.

In the 1990s and 2000s, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation sparked a second, more diverse wave of emigration. This massive out migration – primarily to other southern African countries, the UK, and the US – has created a variety of challenges, including brain drain, illegal migration, and human smuggling and trafficking. Several factors have pushed highly skilled workers to go abroad, including unemployment, lower wages, a lack of resources, and few opportunities for career growth.

Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.

Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
66.8% (2015)
27.1% (2015)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 79.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 74.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 93.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook