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Zimbabwe vs. Botswana

Introduction

ZimbabweBotswana
Background"The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the former British South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 1997 and intensified after 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection.
In 2005, the capital city of Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. MUGABE in 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential poll, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in June 2008, considerable violence against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of violence and intimidation resulted in international condemnation of the process. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing ""government of national unity,"" in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues. MUGABE was reelected president in 2013 in balloting that was severely flawed and internationally condemned. As a prerequisite to holding the election, Zimbabwe enacted a new constitution by referendum, although many provisions in the new constitution have yet to be codified in law. In November 2017, Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa took over following a military intervention aimed at preventing Mugabe elevating his wife to succeed him. Mnangagwa was inaugurated president days later, promising to hold presidential elections in 2018.
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Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Ian KHAMA was reelected for a second term in 2014. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography

ZimbabweBotswana
LocationSouthern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates20 00 S, 30 00 E
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 390,757 sq km
land: 386,847 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km
total: 581,730 sq km
land: 566,730 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Indiana; slightly larger than Montana
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 3,229 km
border countries (4): Botswana 834 km, Mozambique 1,402 km, South Africa 230 km, Zambia 763 km
total: 4,347.15 km
border countries (4): Namibia 1,544 km, South Africa 1,969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrainmostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 961 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
mean elevation: 1,013 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resourcescoal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land useagricultural land: 42.5%
arable land 10.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 31.3%
forest: 39.5%
other: 18% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 45.8%
arable land 0.6%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 45.2%
forest: 19.8%
other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,740 sq km (2012)
20 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Population distributionAside from major urban agglomerations in Harare and Bulawayo, population distribution is fairly even, with slightly greater overall numbers in the eastern half
the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west

Demographics

ZimbabweBotswana
Population13,805,084
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
2,214,858
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 38.9% (male 2,658,563/female 2,711,017)
15-24 years: 20.47% (male 1,383,337/female 1,442,738)
25-54 years: 31.9% (male 2,207,012/female 2,196,996)
55-64 years: 4.27% (male 233,771/female 355,738)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 251,968/female 363,944) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 31.95% (male 357,003/female 350,657)
15-24 years: 18.91% (male 207,209/female 211,629)
25-54 years: 38.45% (male 401,082/female 450,437)
55-64 years: 5.46% (male 51,195/female 69,835)
65 years and over: 5.23% (male 50,206/female 65,605) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 20 years
male: 19.6 years
female: 20.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 24.5 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.56% (2017 est.)
1.55% (2017 est.)
Birth rate34.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-8.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 29.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 60.4 years
male: 58.3 years
female: 62.5 years (2017 est.)
total population: 63.3 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 65.5 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate3.98 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.56 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate13.5% (2016 est.)
21.9% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groupsAfrican 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1.3 million (2016 est.)
360,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 74.8% (includes Apostolic 37.5%, Pentecostal 21.8%, other 15.5%), Roman Catholic 7.3%, other Christian 5.3%, traditional 1.5%, Muslim 0.5%, other 0.1%, none 10.5% (2015 est.)
Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths30,000 (2016 est.)
3,900 (2016 est.)
LanguagesShona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)
Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.5%
male: 88.5%
female: 84.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2013)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2013)
Education expenditures8.4% of GDP (2014)
9.6% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 58% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 76.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 49.3% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 36.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 50.7% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.5% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 63.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.5% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationHARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)
GABORONE (capital) 247,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11.2% (2014)
11.2% (2007)
Health expenditures6.4% of GDP (2014)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate15.5% (2016)
18.9% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth20 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015 est.)
19 years (2007 est.)
Demographic profileZimbabwe’s progress in reproductive, maternal, and child health has stagnated in recent years. According to a 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, contraceptive use, the number of births attended by skilled practitioners, and child mortality have either stalled or somewhat deteriorated since the mid-2000s. Zimbabwe’s total fertility rate has remained fairly stable at about 4 children per woman for the last two decades, although an uptick in the urban birth rate in recent years has caused a slight rise in the country’s overall fertility rate. Zimbabwe’s HIV prevalence rate dropped from approximately 29% to 15% since 1997 but remains among the world’s highest and continues to suppress the country’s life expectancy rate. The proliferation of HIV/AIDS information and prevention programs and personal experience with those suffering or dying from the disease have helped to change sexual behavior and reduce the epidemic.
Historically, the vast majority of Zimbabwe’s migration has been internal – a rural-urban flow. In terms of international migration, over the last 40 years Zimbabwe has gradually shifted from being a destination country to one of emigration and, to a lesser degree, one of transit (for East African illegal migrants traveling to South Africa). As a British colony, Zimbabwe attracted significant numbers of permanent immigrants from the UK and other European countries, as well as temporary economic migrants from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Although Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since the beginning of the 20th century to work as miners, the first major exodus from the country occurred in the years before and after independence in 1980. The outward migration was politically and racially influenced; a large share of the white population of European origin chose to leave rather than live under a new black-majority government.
In the 1990s and 2000s, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation sparked a second, more diverse wave of emigration. This massive out migration – primarily to other southern African countries, the UK, and the US – has created a variety of challenges, including brain drain, illegal migration, and human smuggling and trafficking. Several factors have pushed highly skilled workers to go abroad, including unemployment, lower wages, a lack of resources, and few opportunities for career growth.
Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.
Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.
Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.
Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.
Contraceptive prevalence rate66.8% (2015)
52.8%
note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 79.5
youth dependency ratio: 74.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.1
youth dependency ratio: 49.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)

Government

ZimbabweBotswana
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
etymology: takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa
"conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
etymology: the name Botswana means ""Land of the Tswana"" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
Independence18 April 1980 (from the UK)
30 September 1966 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 18 April (1980)
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013, effective 22 May 2013
amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the House of Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of Parliament and assent by the president of the republic; amendments to constitutional chapters on fundamental human rights and freedoms and on agricultural lands also require approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017 (2017)
history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017)
head of government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly
elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticized by election monitors and international bodies; both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns
chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); President KHAMA is anticipated to hand over the presidency to MASSI in April 2018, in keeping with Botswanan political tradition; note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); President KHAMA is anticipated to hand over the preidency to MASISI in April 2018, in keeping with Botswanan political tradition
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37, MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 62.4%, MDC-T 30.3%, MDC-N 4.7%, other 0.7%, independent 1.9%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 196, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 2
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (65 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 6 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
elections: last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judge appointment NA; judges serve nonrenewable 15-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; Administrative Court; regional magistrate courts; customary law courts; special courts
highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
Political parties and leadersFreedom Front [Cosmas MPONDA]
Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE]
Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]
National People's Party or NPP [Joyce MUJURU] formerly Zimbabwe People First or ZimPF)
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Tendai BITI]
Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA]
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]
Zimbabwe People First or ZimFirst [Maxwell SHUMBA]
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Ndaba GAOLATHE]
Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (coalition includes BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF)
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ammon MUTEMBWA (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
consulate(s) general: Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS, Jr. (since 25 February 2016)
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P.O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618
chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 318-0232
Flag descriptionseven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
National anthem"name: ""Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"" [Northern Ndebele language] ""Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe"" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
note: adopted 1994
"
"name: ""Fatshe leno la rona"" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
note: adopted 1966
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white
zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

ZimbabweBotswana
Economy - overviewZimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in the period 2010-13, before falling below 3% in the period 2014-17, due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.

Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Adoption of a multi-currency basket in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - reduced inflation below 10% per year. In January 2015, as part of the government’s effort to boost trade and attract foreign investment, the RBZ announced that the Chinese renmimbi, Indian rupee, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen would be accepted as legal tender in Zimbabwe, though transactions were predominantly carried out in US dollars and South African rand until 2016, when the rand’s devaluation and instability led to near-exclusive use of the US dollar. The government in November 2016 began releasing bond notes, a parallel currency legal only in Zimbabwe which the government claims will have a one-to-one exchange ratio with the US dollar, to ease cash shortages. Bond notes began trading at a discount of up to 10% in the black market by the end of 2016.

Zimbabwe’s government entered a second Staff Monitored Program with the IMF in 2014 and undertook other measures to reengage with international financial institutions. Zimbabwe repaid roughly $108 million in arrears to the IMF in October 2016, but financial observers note that Zimbabwe is unlikely to gain new financing because the government has not disclosed how it plans to repay more than $1.7 billion in arrears to the World Bank and African Development Bank. International financial institutions want Zimbabwe to implement significant fiscal and structural reforms before granting new loans. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be hindered by the lack of land tenure and titling, the inability to repatriate dividends to investors overseas, and the lack of clarity regarding the government’s Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act.
Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the second largest earner of foreign exchange; many Batswana also engage in subsistence farming and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,000 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.

Botswana's economy closely follows global economic trends because of its heavy reliance on a single luxury export. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.

Botswana’s economy recovered from the 2008 global recession in 2010, but has only grown modestly since then, primarily due to the downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains. Diamond exports increased again in 2017 to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth of about 4.5% in 2017 and increasing foreign reserves to about 45% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$33.87 billion (2017 est.)
$32.94 billion (2016 est.)
$32.73 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$39.55 billion (2017 est.)
$37.86 billion (2016 est.)
$36.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.8% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
-1.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,300 (2017 est.)
$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$18,100 (2017 est.)
$17,600 (2016 est.)
$17,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 12.5%
industry: 26.9%
services: 60.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 29.2%
services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line72.3% (2012 est.)
30.3% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.5% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force7.907 million (2017 est.)
1.177 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 66%
industry: 10%
services: 24% (1996)
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate95% (2009 est.)
80% (2005 est.)
note: data include both unemployment and underemployment; true unemployment is unknown and, under current economic conditions, unknowable
20% (2013 est.)
17.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index50.1 (2006)
50.1 (1995)
60.5 (2009)
63 (1993)
Budgetrevenues: $3.6 billion
expenditures: $4.8 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $5.609 billion
expenditures: $6.072 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesmining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate2.1% (2017 est.)
3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Exports$3.763 billion (2017 est.)
$3.366 billion (2016 est.)
$7.58 billion (2017 est.)
$7.226 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesplatinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
Exports - partnersSouth Africa 79.5%, Mozambique 9.5%, UAE 4.1% (2016)
Belgium 18.9%, India 15.1%, South Africa 13.6%, Namibia 11.6%, UAE 9.7%, Israel 6.1%, Singapore 5.6%, Canada 5% (2016)
Imports$5.605 billion (2017 est.)
$5.351 billion (2016 est.)
$5.998 billion (2017 est.)
$5.906 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 46.6%, Zambia 24% (2016)
South Africa 64.5%, Namibia 10.5%, Canada 5.6% (2016)
Debt - external$10.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.461 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesZimbabwean dollars (ZWD) per US dollar -
1 (2017 est.)
1 (2016 est.)
NA (2013)
234.25 (2010)
note: the dollar was adopted as a legal currency in 2009; since then the Zimbabwean dollar has experienced hyperinflation and is essentially worthless
pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
10.19 (2017 est.)
10.9022 (2016 est.)
10.9022 (2015 est.)
10.1263 (2014 est.)
8.9761 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 April - 31 March
Public debt75.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
69.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$374 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$407.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.476 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$617 million (2017 est.)
-$662 million (2016 est.)
$746 million (2017 est.)
$1.824 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$17.11 billion (2016 est.)
$16.73 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$4.073 billion (13 April 2015 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$10.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate7.17% (31 December 2010)
975% (31 December 2007)
5.5% (31 December 2016)
6% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate18% (31 December 2017 est.)
15% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
7.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.398 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.859 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.597 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.395 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.274 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: Zimbabwe's central bank no longer publishes data on monetary aggregates, except for bank deposits, which amounted to $2.1 billion in November 2010; the Zimbabwe dollar stopped circulating in early 2009; since then, the US dollar and South African rand have been the most frequently used currencies; there are no reliable estimates of the amount of foreign currency circulating in Zimbabwe
$1.574 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.505 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$3.753 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.949 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.893 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.5%
male: 11.7%
female: 21.1% (2014 est.)
total: 36%
male: 29.6%
female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 84%
government consumption: 20.5%
investment in fixed capital: 13.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 26.4%
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 46.8%
government consumption: 17.7%
investment in fixed capital: 30.7%
investment in inventories: -10%
exports of goods and services: 54.1%
imports of goods and services: -39.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving15.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
4.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
40.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ZimbabweBotswana
Electricity - production9.384 billion kWh (2015 est.)
2.789 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption7.63 billion kWh (2015 est.)
3.722 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports1.239 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports1.139 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.468 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.129 million kW (2015 est.)
134,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels58% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
98.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants37.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption29,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports26,390 bbl/day (2014 est.)
21,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy11 million Mt (2013 est.)
4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 8,500,000
electrification - total population: 40%
electrification - urban areas: 80%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 700,000
electrification - total population: 66%
electrification - urban areas: 75%
electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)

Telecommunications

ZimbabweBotswana
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 305,720
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 142,122
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12,878,926
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2016 est.)
total: 3,288,986
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: competition has driven rapid expansion of telecommunications, particularly cellular voice and mobile broadband, in recent years; continued economic instability and infrastructure limitations, such as reliable power, hinder progress
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, fiber-optic cable, VSAT terminals, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is most readily available in Harare and major towns; two government owned and two private cellular providers; 3G and VoIP services are widely available with 4G/LTE service being deployed
international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 5 international digital gateway exchanges; fiber-optic connections to neighboring states provide access to international networks via undersea cable (2017)
general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.zw
.bw
Internet userstotal: 3,363,256
percent of population: 23.1% (July 2016 est.)
total: 869,610
percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited; analog TV only, no digital service (2017)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)

Transportation

ZimbabweBotswana
Railwaystotal: 3,427 km
narrow gauge: 3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2014)
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 97,267 km
paved: 18,481 km
unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)
total: 17,916 km
note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)
Airports196 (2013)
74 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 179
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 104
under 914 m: 72 (2013)
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 370,164
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 962,642 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixZ (2016)
A2 (2016)

Military

ZimbabweBotswana
Military branchesZimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) (2012)
Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-24 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women are eligible to serve (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.2% of GDP (2016)
2.34% of GDP (2015)
2.32% of GDP (2014)
2.34% of GDP (2013)
2.26% of GDP (2012)
3.37% of GDP (2016)
2.66% of GDP (2015)
2.13% of GDP (2014)
2.06% of GDP (2013)
2.23% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

ZimbabweBotswana
Disputes - internationalNamibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
none
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Zimbabwe is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Zimbabwean women and girls from towns bordering South Africa, Mozambique, and Zambia are subjected to forced labor, including domestic servitude, and prostitution catering to long-distance truck drivers; Zimbabwean men, women, and children experience forced labor in agriculture and domestic servitude in rural areas; family members may recruit children and other relatives from rural areas with promises of work or education in cities and towns where they end up in domestic servitude and sex trafficking; Zimbabwean women and men are lured into exploitative labor situations in South Africa and other neighboring countries
tier rating: Tier 3 - Zimbabwe does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government passed an anti-trafficking law in 2014 defining trafficking in persons as a crime of transportation and failing to capture the key element of the international definition of human trafficking – the purpose of exploitation – which prevents the law from being comprehensive or consistent with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol that Zimbabwe acceded to in 2013; the government did not report on anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts during 2014, and corruption in law enforcement and the judiciary remain a concern; authorities made minimal efforts to identify and protect trafficking victims, relying on NGOs to identify and assist victims; Zimbabwe’s 2014 anti-trafficking law required the opening of 10 centers for trafficking victims, but none were established during the year; five existing shelters for vulnerable children and orphans may have accommodated child victims; in January 2015, an inter-ministerial anti-trafficking committee was established, but it is unclear if the committee ever met or initiated any activities (2015)
current situation: Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their parents, may be denied education and basic necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative of forced labor; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labor on farms and at cattle posts in the country’s rural west
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Botswana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; an anti-trafficking act was passed at the beginning of 2014, but authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any offenders or government officials complicit in trafficking or operationalize victim identification and referral procedures based on the new law; the government sponsored a radio campaign to familiarize the public with the issue of human trafficking (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook