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Zambia vs. Namibia

Introduction

ZambiaNamibia
Background
Multiple waves of Bantu-speaking groups moved into and through what is now Zambia over the past thousand years. In the 1880s, the British began securing mineral and other economic concessions from various local leaders and the territory that is now Zambia eventually came under the control of the former British South Africa Company and was incorporated as the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia in 1911. Administrative control was taken over by the UK in 1924. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration.

The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
Various ethnic groups occupied south western Africa prior to Germany establishing a colony over most of the territory in 1884. South Africa occupied the colony, then known as German South West Africa, in 1915 during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory.  In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia gained independence in 1990 and has been governed by SWAPO since, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. President Hage GEINGOB was elected in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections. In 2019 elections, GEINGOB was reelected but by a substantially reduced majority and SWAPO narrowly lost its super majority in parliament. Namibia gained independence in 1990.

Geography

ZambiaNamibia
Location
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Geographic coordinates
15 00 S, 30 00 E
22 00 S, 17 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km
Area - comparative
almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
almost seven times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries
total: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 4,220 km
border countries (4): Angola 1427 km, Botswana 1544 km, South Africa 1005 km, Zambia 244 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
1,572 km
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 1,138 m
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 1,141 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m
Natural resources
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish, note, suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Land use
agricultural land: 31.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 4.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 66.3% (2011 est.)
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 46.2% (2011 est.)
forest: 8.8% (2011 est.)
other: 44% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
1,560 sq km (2012)
80 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
prolonged periods of drought
Environment - current issues
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; loss of biodiversity; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
depletion and degradation of water and aquatic resources; desertification; land degradation; loss of biodiversity and biotic resources; wildlife poaching
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
the Namib Desert, after which the country is named, is considered to be the oldest desert in the world; Namibia is the first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip; Namib-Naukluft National Park (49,768 sq km), is the largest game park in Africa and one of the largest in the world
Population distribution
one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira as shown in this population distribution map
population density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

ZambiaNamibia
Population
17,426,623 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

2,630,073 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.74% (male 4,005,134/female 3,964,969)
15-24 years: 20.03% (male 1,744,843/female 1,746,561)
25-54 years: 28.96% (male 2,539,697/female 2,506,724)
55-64 years: 3.01% (male 242,993/female 280,804)
65 years and over: 2.27% (male 173,582/female 221,316) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 35.68% (male 473,937/female 464,453)
15-24 years: 20.27% (male 267,106/female 265,882)
25-54 years: 35.47% (male 449,132/female 483,811)
55-64 years: 4.68% (male 54,589/female 68,619)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 43,596/female 58,948) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 16.9 years
male: 16.7 years
female: 17 years (2020 est.)
total: 21.8 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 22.6 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.89% (2020 est.)
1.86% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
40.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
25.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
11.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 99.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 31.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 33.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 53.6 years
male: 51.9 years
female: 55.3 years (2020 est.)
total population: 65.3 years
male: 63.3 years
female: 67.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.49 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.07 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
12.1% (2019 est.)
12.7% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
Ethnic groups
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Ovambo 50%, Kavangos 9%, Herero 7%, Damara 7%, mixed European and African ancestry 6.5%, European 6%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana .5%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.2 million (2019 est.)
210,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
HIV/AIDS - deaths
17,000 (2019 est.)
3,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)

note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family; Chewa and Nyanja are mutually intelligible dialects

Oshiwambo languages 49.7%, Nama/Damara 11%, Kavango languages 10.4%, Afrikaans 9.4% (also a common language), Herero languages 9.2%, Zambezi languages 4.9%, English (official) 2.3%, other African languages 1.5%, other European languages .7%, other 1% (2016 est.)

note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 European languages

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.7%
male: 90.6%
female: 83.1% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.5%
male: 91.6%
female: 91.4% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Education expenditures
NA
3.1% of GDP (2014)
Urbanization
urban population: 44.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 52% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.5% of population
rural: 50.9% of population
total: 67.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.5% of population
rural: 49.1% of population
total: 32.5% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 80.8% of population
total: 89.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 19.2% of population
total: 10.3% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 24.8% of population
total: 44.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 75.2% of population
total: 55.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 72.9% of population
rural: 22% of population
total: 46.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 27.1% of population
rural: 78% of population
total: 53.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
2.774 million LUSAKA (capital) (2020)
431,000 WINDHOEK (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
213 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
195 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
11.8% (2018/19)
13.2% (2013)
Health expenditures
4.5% (2017)
8.6% (2017)
Physicians density
0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.59 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
2.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.1% (2016)
17.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.2 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

21.5 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.

Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other Sub-Saharan countries.

Planning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades – from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 – due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.

The majority of Namibians are rural dwellers (about 55%) and live in the better-watered north and northeast parts of the country. Migration, historically male-dominated, generally flows from northern communal areas – non-agricultural lands where blacks were sequestered under the apartheid system – to agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers in the center and south. After independence from South Africa, restrictions on internal movement eased, and rural-urban migration increased, bolstering urban growth.

Some Namibians – usually persons who are better-educated, more affluent, and from urban areas – continue to legally migrate to South Africa temporarily to visit family and friends and, much less frequently, to pursue tertiary education or better economic opportunities. Namibians concentrated along the country’s other borders make unauthorized visits to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, or Botswana, to visit family and to trade agricultural goods. Few Namibians express interest in permanently settling in other countries; they prefer the safety of their homeland, have a strong national identity, and enjoy a well-supplied retail sector. Although Namibia is receptive to foreign investment and cross-border trade, intolerance toward non-citizens is widespread.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
49.5% (2018)
56.1% (2013)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 85.7
youth dependency ratio: 81.7
elderly dependency ratio: 4
potential support ratio: 25.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 67.9
youth dependency ratio: 61.8
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.6 (2020 est.)

Government

ZambiaNamibia
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Suedwestafrika), South-West Africa
etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name "namib" means "vast place" in the Nama/Damara language
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named after a village called Lusaka, located at Manda Hill, near where Zambia's National Assembly building currently stands; the village was named after a headman (chief) Lusakasa
name: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
etymology: may derive from the Afrikaans word "wind-hoek" meaning "windy corner"
Administrative divisions
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language
Independence
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, 2016
history: adopted 9 February 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990
amendments: initiated by the Cabinet; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the National Assembly membership and of the National Council of Parliament and assent of the president of the republic; if the National Council fails to pass an amendment, the president can call for a referendum; passage by referendum requires two-thirds majority of votes cast; amendments that detract from or repeal constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended, and the requisite majorities needed by Parliament to amend the constitution cannot be changed; amended 1998, 2010, 2014
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Vice President Nangola MBUMBA (since 8 February 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Vice President Nangola MBUMBA (since 8 February 2018); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024)
election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 56.3%, Panduleni ITULA (Independent) 29.4%, McHenry VENAANI (PDM) 5.3%, Bernadus SWARTBOOI (LPM) 2.7%, Apius AUCHAB (UDF) 2.7%, Esther MUINJANGUE (NUDO) 1.5%, other 2%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly (165 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, and up to 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 89, UPND 54, MMD 5, FDD 1, NDC 1, independent 14; composition - men 135, women 30, percent of women 18.2%
description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Council (42 seats); members indirectly elected 3 each by the 14 regional councils to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly
National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed list, proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president)
elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 27 November 2015 (next to be held on 27 November 2020)
National Assembly - last held on 27 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 40, NUDO 1, DPM 1; composition - men 32, women 10, percent of women 23.8%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 65.5%, PDM 16.6%, LPM 4.7%, NUDO 1.9%, APP 1.8%, UDF 1.8%, RP 1.8%, NEFF 1.7%, RDP 1.1%, CDV .7%, SWANU .6%, other 1.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 63, PDM 16, LPM 4, NUDO 2, APP 2, UDF 2, RP 2, NEFF 2, RDP 1, CDV 1, SWANU 1; composition - NA
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission, which is headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65, but terms can be extended by the president until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Electoral Court, Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Felix MUTATI]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [Chishimba KAMBWILI]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
All People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI]
Christian Democratic Voice or CDV [Gothard KANDUME]
Landless People's Movement or LPM [Bernadus SWARTBOOI]
National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Estes MUINJANGUE]
Namibian Economic Freedom Fighters or NEFF [Epafras MUKWIILONGO]
Popular Democratic Movement or PDM (formerly DTA) [McHenry VENAANI]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mike KAVEKOTORA]
Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Tangeni IIYAMBO]
South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Apius AUCHAB]
United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]
Workers' Revolutionary Party or WRP (formerly CPN) [MPs Salmon FLEERMUYS and Benson KAAPALA]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP (associate observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Lazarous KAPAMBWE (since 8 April 2020)
chancery: 2200 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Charge d'Affaires Jerome Mutamba MUTAMBA (since 3 August 2020)
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires David J. YOUNG (since 2 March 2020)
telephone: [260] (0) 211-357-000

 

embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
FAX: [260]  211-357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa A. JOHNSON (since 3 February 2018)
telephone: [264] (061) 295-8500
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
FAX: [264] (061) 295-8603
Flag description
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
a wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a golden-yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green; red signifies the heroism of the people and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all; white stands for peace, unity, tranquility, and harmony; blue represents the Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain; the golden-yellow sun denotes power and existence; green symbolizes vegetation and agricultural resources
National anthem
name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

name: Namibia, Land of the Brave
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB

note: adopted 1991

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent only: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

ZambiaNamibia
Economy - overview

Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer. GDP growth picked up in 2017 as mineral prices rose.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies, and growing government debt. Zambia raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015. Concurrently, it issued over $4 billion in domestic debt and agreed to Chinese-financed infrastructure projects, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to more than 60% of GDP. The government has considered refinancing $3 billion worth of Eurobonds and significant Chinese loans to cut debt servicing costs.

Namibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for about 12.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.

Namibia is one of the world’s largest producers of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine began producing uranium ore in 2017, and is expected to reach full production in August 2018 and produce 15 million pounds of uranium a year. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.

Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years, food shortages are problematic in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, obscures one of the world's most unequal income distributions; the current government has prioritized exploring wealth redistribution schemes while trying to maintain a pro-business environment. GDP growth in 2017 slowed to about 1%, however, due to contractions in both the construction and mining sectors, as well as an ongoing drought. Growth is expected to recover modestly in 2018.

A five-year Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU); volatility in the size of Namibia's annual SACU allotment and global mineral prices complicates budget planning.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$68.93 billion (2017 est.)
$66.66 billion (2016 est.)
$64.25 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$26.6 billion (2017 est.)
$26.81 billion (2016 est.)
$26.62 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
3.4% (2017 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
-1.56% (2019 est.)
1.13% (2018 est.)
-1.02% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$4,000 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$4,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$11,200 (2017 est.)
$11,500 (2016 est.)
$11,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 7.5% (2017 est.)
industry: 35.3% (2017 est.)
services: 57% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 6.7% (2016 est.)
industry: 26.3% (2016 est.)
services: 67% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
54.4% (2015 est.)
28.7% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
6.6% (2017 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
6.898 million (2017 est.)
956,800 (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 54.8%
industry: 9.9%
services: 35.3% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 31%
industry: 14%
services: 54% (2013 est.)

note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture

Unemployment rate
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
34% (2016 est.)
28.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
59.7 (2010)
70.7 (2003)
Budget
revenues: 4.473 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 6.357 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 4.268 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 5 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Industrial production growth rate
4.7% (2017 est.)
-0.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
Exports
$8.216 billion (2017 est.)
$6.514 billion (2016 est.)
$3.995 billion (2017 est.)
$4.003 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks
Exports - partners
Switzerland 44.8%, China 16.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.2%, Singapore 6%, South Africa 5.9% (2017)
South Africa 27.1%, Botswana 14.9%, Switzerland 12%, Zambia 5.7%, China 4.6%, Italy 4.4% (2017)
Imports
$7.852 billion (2017 est.)
$6.539 billion (2016 est.)
$5.384 billion (2017 est.)
$5.625 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners
South Africa 28.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.8%, China 12.9%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)
South Africa 61.4% (2017)
Debt - external
$11.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.969 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.904 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
9.2 (2017 est.)
10.3 (2016 est.)
10.3 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
Namibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar -
13.67 (2017 est.)
14.7096 (2016 est.)
14.7096 (2015 est.)
12.7589 (2014 est.)
10.8526 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
1 April - 31 March
Public debt
63.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.082 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.432 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.834 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.006 billion (2017 est.)
-$934 million (2016 est.)
-$216 million (2019 est.)
-$465 million (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$25.71 billion (2017 est.)
$13.24 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

NA

NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

NA

NA

Market value of publicly traded shares
$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.305 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.152 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.176 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate
9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
7% (12 April 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
10.04% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.84% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$5.401 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.582 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.038 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.425 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.911 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.425 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.911 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
17.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
32.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-7.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-5.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.4% (2017 est.)
total: 38%
male: 37.5%
female: 38.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 21% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 27.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 24.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 16% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 36.7% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -47.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
9.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ZambiaNamibia
Electricity - production
11.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1.403 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
11.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3.891 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
88 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
2.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3.073 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
12,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
62.29 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
2.573 million kW (2016 est.)
535,500 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
28% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
13,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
23,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
27,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
371 bbl/day (2015 est.)
80 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
10,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)
26,270 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
3.777 million Mt (2017 est.)
3.958 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 11 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 37% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 76% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 6% (2019)
population without electricity: 1 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 57% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 78% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 36% (2019)

Telecommunications

ZambiaNamibia
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 91,422
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 144,575
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5.6 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 16,322,168
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96.41 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,921,697
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113.17 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.zm
.na
Internet users
total: 2,351,646
percent of population: 14.3% (July 2018 est.)
total: 1,291,944
percent of population: 51% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: service is among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; regulatory promotes competition and is a partner to private sector service providers, offering mobile voice and Internet at some of the lowest prices in the region; investment made in data centers, education centers and computer assembly training plants; operators invest in 3G and LTE-based services; Chinese company Huawei is helping to upgrade state-owned mobile infrastructure for 5G services; 3 cellular telephone providers currently in operation, plus several data only ISPs; 1,010 towers project to soon be completed (2020)
domestic: fiber optic connections are available between most larger towns and cities with microwave radio relays serving more rural areas; 3G and LTE with FttX in limited urban areas and private Ku or Ka band VSAT terminals in remote locations; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 96 per 100 (2019)
international: country code - 260; multiple providers operate overland fiber optic routes via Zimbabwe/South Africa, Botswana/Namibia and Tanzania provide access to the major undersea cables
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: fixed-line still a govt. monopoly; penetration rates rise above regional average with the rise of competition in the mobile market; 3G and LTE-A services; Internet and broadband sector fairly competitive; infrastructure investment through 2021; working on implementing 5G (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership is 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 113 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 264; landing points for the ACE and WACS fiber-optic submarine cable linking southern and western African countries to Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 43,365
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 61,968
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media

according to the Independent Broadcast Authority, there are 137 radio stations and 47 television stations in Zambia; out of the 137 radio stations, 133 are private (categorized as either commercial or community radio stations), while 4 are public-owned; state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 2 television channels and 3 radio stations; ZNBC owns 75% shares in GoTV, 40% in MultiChoice, and 40% in TopStar Communications Company, all of which operate in-country

(2019)
1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available

Transportation

ZambiaNamibia
Railways
total: 3,126 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA)

total: 2,628 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 2,628 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 67,671 km (2018)
paved: 14,888 km (2018)
unpaved: 52,783 km (2018)
total: 48,875 km (2018)
paved: 7,893 km (2018)
unpaved: 40,982 km (2018)
Ports and terminals
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
major seaport(s): Luderitz, Walvis Bay
Merchant marine
total: 1
by type: other 1 (2017)
total: 12
by type: general cargo 1, other 11 (2019)
Airports
total: 88 (2013)
total: 112 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 8 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 19 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 80 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2013)
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 93 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 52 (2013)
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,904 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 75.08 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 602,893 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 26.29 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
9J (2016)
V5 (2016)

Military

ZambiaNamibia
Military branches
Zambia Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization); the Zambia Police includes a paramilitary battalion (2019)
Namibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force; Namibian Police Force: Special Field Force (paramilitary unit responsible for protecting borders and government installations) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 12-year enlistment period (7 years active, 5 in the Reserves) (2019)
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.3% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.8% of GDP (2015)
3% of GDP (2019)
3.4% of GDP (2018)
3.6% of GDP (2017)
3.9% of GDP (2016)
4.5% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

ZambiaNamibia
Disputes - international

in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 55,523 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 18,815 (Angola), 7,997 (Burundi), 5,982 (Rwanda) (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 6,595 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook