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Zambia vs. Malawi

Introduction

ZambiaMalawi
Background
Multiple waves of Bantu-speaking groups moved into and through what is now Zambia over the past thousand years. In the 1880s, the British began securing mineral and other economic concessions from various local leaders and the territory that is now Zambia eventually came under the control of the former British South Africa Company and was incorporated as the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia in 1911. Administrative control was taken over by the UK in 1924. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration.

The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
From the late 15th to the 18th centuries, a prosperous Kingdom of Maravi - from which the name Malawi derives - extended its reach into what are now areas of Zambia and Mozambique. British missionary and trading activity increased in the area around Lake Malawi in the second half of the 19th century. In 1889, a British Central African Protectorate was established, which was renamed Nyasaland in 1907, and which became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA, the country held multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. Bakili MULUZI became the first freely elected president of Malawi when he won the presidency in 1994; he won re-election in 1999. President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term, struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party in 2005. MUTHARIKA was reelected to a second term in 2009. He oversaw some economic improvement in his first term, but was accused of economic mismanagement and poor governance in his second term. He died abruptly in 2012 and was succeeded by vice president, Joyce BANDA, who had earlier started her own party, the People's Party. MUTHARIKA's brother, Peter MUTHARIKA, defeated BANDA in the 2014 election. Peter MUTHARIKA was reelected in a disputed 2019 election that resulted in countrywide protests. Population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, corruption, and the scourge of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.

Geography

ZambiaMalawi
Location
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southern Africa, east of Zambia, west and north of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates
15 00 S, 30 00 E
13 30 S, 34 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 118,484 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,404 sq km
Area - comparative
almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries
total: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 2,857 km
border countries (3): Mozambique 1498 km, Tanzania 512 km, Zambia 847 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climate
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 1,138 m
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 779 m
lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
Natural resources
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use
agricultural land: 31.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 4.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 66.3% (2011 est.)
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 59.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 38.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 34% (2011 est.)
other: 6.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
1,560 sq km (2012)
740 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
flooding; droughts; earthquakes
Environment - current issues
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; loss of biodiversity; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations; negative effects of climate change (extreme high temperatures, changing precipatation pattens)
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature; it contains more fish species than any other lake on earth
Population distribution
one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira as shown in this population distribution map
population density is highest south of Lake Nyasa as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

ZambiaMalawi
Population
17,426,623 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

21,196,629 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.74% (male 4,005,134/female 3,964,969)
15-24 years: 20.03% (male 1,744,843/female 1,746,561)
25-54 years: 28.96% (male 2,539,697/female 2,506,724)
55-64 years: 3.01% (male 242,993/female 280,804)
65 years and over: 2.27% (male 173,582/female 221,316) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 45.87% (male 4,843,107/female 4,878,983)
15-24 years: 20.51% (male 2,151,417/female 2,195,939)
25-54 years: 27.96% (male 2,944,936/female 2,982,195)
55-64 years: 2.98% (male 303,803/female 328,092)
65 years and over: 2.68% (male 249,219/female 318,938) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 16.9 years
male: 16.7 years
female: 17 years (2020 est.)
total: 16.8 years
male: 16.7 years
female: 16.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.89% (2020 est.)
3.3% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
40.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
40.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
11.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 99.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 39.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 45.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 53.6 years
male: 51.9 years
female: 55.3 years (2020 est.)
total population: 63.2 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 65.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.49 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.31 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
12.1% (2019 est.)
9.5% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian
Ethnic groups
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Chewa 34.3%, Lomwe 18.8%, Yao 13.2%, Ngoni 10.4%, Tumbuka 9.2%, Sena 3.8%, Mang'anja 3.2%, Tonga 1.8%, Nyanja 1.8%, Nkhonde 1%, other 2.2%, foreign .3% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.2 million (2019 est.)
1.1 million (2019 est.)
Religions
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Protestant 33.5% (includes Church of Central Africa Presbyterian 14.2%, Seventh Day Adventist/Baptist 9.4%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Anglican 2.3%), Roman Catholic 17.2%, other Christian 26.6%, Muslim 13.8%, traditionalist 1.1%, other 5.6%, none 2.1% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
17,000 (2019 est.)
13,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)

note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family; Chewa and Nyanja are mutually intelligible dialects

English (official), Chewa (common), Lambya, Lomwe, Ngoni, Nkhonde, Nyakyusa, Nyanja, Sena, Tonga, Tumbuka, Yao
note: Chewa and Nyanja are mutually intelligible dialects; Nkhonde and Nyakyusa are mutually intelligible dialects
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.7%
male: 90.6%
female: 83.1% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.1%
male: 69.8%
female: 55.2% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
Education expenditures
NA
4% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 44.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 17.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.5% of population
rural: 50.9% of population
total: 67.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.5% of population
rural: 49.1% of population
total: 32.5% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 87.3% of population
total: 88.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.1% of population
rural: 12.7% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 24.8% of population
total: 44.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 75.2% of population
total: 55.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 58.2% of population
rural: 35.9% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 41.8% of population
rural: 64.1% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
2.774 million LUSAKA (capital) (2020)
1.122 million LILONGWE (capital), 932,000 Blantyre-Limbe (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
213 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
349 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
11.8% (2018/19)
11.8% (2018)
Health expenditures
4.5% (2017)
9.6% (2017)
Physicians density
0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.1% (2016)
5.8% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.2 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

18.9 years (2015/16 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.

Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other Sub-Saharan countries.

Malawi has made great improvements in maternal and child health, but has made less progress in reducing its high fertility rate. In both rural and urban areas, very high proportions of mothers are receiving prenatal care and skilled birth assistance, and most children are being vaccinated. Malawi’s fertility rate, however, has only declined slowly, decreasing from more than 7 children per woman in the 1980s to about 5.5 today. Nonetheless, Malawians prefer smaller families than in the past, and women are increasingly using contraceptives to prevent or space pregnancies. Rapid population growth and high population density is putting pressure on Malawi’s land, water, and forest resources. Reduced plot sizes and increasing vulnerability to climate change, further threaten the sustainability of Malawi’s agriculturally based economy and will worsen food shortages. About 80% of the population is employed in agriculture.

Historically, Malawians migrated abroad in search of work, primarily to South Africa and present-day Zimbabwe, but international migration became uncommon after the 1970s, and most migration in recent years has been internal. During the colonial period, Malawians regularly migrated to southern Africa as contract farm laborers, miners, and domestic servants. In the decade and a half after independence in 1964, the Malawian Government sought to transform its economy from one dependent on small-scale farms to one based on estate agriculture. The resulting demand for wage labor induced more than 300,000 Malawians to return home between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. In recent times, internal migration has generally been local, motivated more by marriage than economic reasons.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
49.5% (2018)
59.2% (2015/16)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 85.7
youth dependency ratio: 81.7
elderly dependency ratio: 4
potential support ratio: 25.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.9
youth dependency ratio: 79.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.6 (2020 est.)

Government

ZambiaMalawi
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
local long form: Dziko la Malawi
local short form: Malawi
former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
etymology: named for the East African Maravi Kingdom of the 16th century; the word "maravi" means "fire flames"
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named after a village called Lusaka, located at Manda Hill, near where Zambia's National Assembly building currently stands; the village was named after a headman (chief) Lusakasa
name: Lilongwe
geographic coordinates: 13 58 S, 33 47 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named after the Lilongwe River that flows through the city
Administrative divisions
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
28 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Neno, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Independence
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
6 July 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Independence Day, 6 July (1964); note - also called Republic Day since 6 July 1966
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, 2016
history: previous 1953 (preindependence), 1966; latest drafted January to May 1994, approved 16 May 1994, entered into force 18 May 1995
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments affecting constitutional articles, including the sovereignty and territory of the state, fundamental constitutional principles, human rights, voting rights, and the judiciary, requires majority approval in a referendum and majority approval by the Assembly; passage of other amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2017
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Lazarus CHAKWERA (since 28 June 2020); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 3 February 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lazarus CHAKWERA (since 28 June 2020); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 3 February 2020)
cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 June 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
election results: Lazarus CHAKWERA elected president; Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 59.3%, Peter Mutharika (DPP) 39.9%, other 0.7%
    
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly (165 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, and up to 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 89, UPND 54, MMD 5, FDD 1, NDC 1, independent 14; composition - men 135, women 30, percent of women 18.2%
description: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 21 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024)
election results: percent of vote by party - n/a; seats by party - DPP 62, MCP 55, UDF 10, PP 5, other 5, independent 55, vacant 1; composition - men 161, women 32, percent of women 16.6%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission, which is headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest courts: Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; other judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, which regulates judicial officers; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate courts; Industrial Relations Court; district and city traditional or local courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Felix MUTATI]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [Chishimba KAMBWILI]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Lazarus CHAKWERA]
Peoples Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Atupele MULUZI]
United Transformation Movement or UTM [Saulos CHILIMA]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Lazarous KAPAMBWE (since 8 April 2020)
chancery: 2200 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Ambassador Edward Yakobe SAWERENGERA (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires David J. YOUNG (since 2 March 2020)
telephone: [260] (0) 211-357-000

 

embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
FAX: [260]  211-357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert SCOTT (since 6 August 2019)
telephone: +(265) 1-773-166, 1-773-342 and 1-773-367 (Dial "0" before the "1" within Malawi); EMER: +(265) (0) 999-591-024 or +(265) (0) 888-734-826
embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road, Lilongwe 3
mailing address: P.O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
FAX: 265 (0) 1770471
Flag description
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band; black represents the native peoples, red the blood shed in their struggle for freedom, and green the color of nature; the rising sun represents the hope of freedom for the continent of Africa
National anthem
name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

name: "Mulungu dalitsa Malawi" (Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi)
lyrics/music: Michael-Fredrick Paul SAUKA

note: adopted 1964

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
lion; national colors: black, red, green
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent only: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

ZambiaMalawi
Economy - overview

Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer. GDP growth picked up in 2017 as mineral prices rose.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies, and growing government debt. Zambia raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015. Concurrently, it issued over $4 billion in domestic debt and agreed to Chinese-financed infrastructure projects, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to more than 60% of GDP. The government has considered refinancing $3 billion worth of Eurobonds and significant Chinese loans to cut debt servicing costs.

Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The country’s economic performance has historically been constrained by policy inconsistency, macroeconomic instability, poor infrastructure, rampant corruption, high population growth, and poor health and education outcomes that limit labor productivity. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for about one-third of GDP and 80% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports, although Malawi is looking to diversify away from tobacco to other cash crops.

The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. Donors halted direct budget support from 2013 to 2016 because of concerns about corruption and fiscal carelessness, but the World Bank resumed budget support in May 2017. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program but recent increases in domestic borrowing mean that debt servicing in 2016 exceeded the levels prior to HIPC debt relief.

Heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, with corn being the staple crop, Malawi’s economy was hit hard by the El Nino-driven drought in 2015 and 2016, and now faces threat from the fall armyworm. The drought also slowed economic activity, led to two consecutive years of declining economic growth, and contributed to high inflation rates. Depressed food prices over 2017 led to a significant drop in inflation (from an average of 21.7% in 2016 to 12.3% in 2017), with a similar drop in interest rates.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$68.93 billion (2017 est.)
$66.66 billion (2016 est.)
$64.25 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$22.42 billion (2017 est.)
$21.56 billion (2016 est.)
$21.08 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
3.4% (2017 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$4,000 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$4,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$1,200 (2017 est.)
$1,200 (2016 est.)
$1,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 7.5% (2017 est.)
industry: 35.3% (2017 est.)
services: 57% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 15.4% (2017 est.)
services: 56% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
54.4% (2015 est.)
50.7% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
6.6% (2017 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
12.2% (2017 est.)
21.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
6.898 million (2017 est.)
7 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 54.8%
industry: 9.9%
services: 35.3% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 76.9%
industry: 4.1%
services: 19% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
20.4% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
46.1 (2010)
39 (2004)
Budget
revenues: 4.473 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 6.357 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.356 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.567 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate
4.7% (2017 est.)
1.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
tobacco, sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sorghum, pulses, cotton, groundnuts, macadamia nuts, coffee; cattle, goats
Exports
$8.216 billion (2017 est.)
$6.514 billion (2016 est.)
$1.42 billion (2017 est.)
$1.361 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
tobacco (55%), dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, soy (2015 est.)
Exports - partners
Switzerland 44.8%, China 16.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.2%, Singapore 6%, South Africa 5.9% (2017)
Zimbabwe 13.1%, Mozambique 11.8%, Belgium 10.7%, South Africa 6.3%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.7%, Germany 4.3%, US 4.2% (2017)
Imports
$7.852 billion (2017 est.)
$6.539 billion (2016 est.)
$2.312 billion (2017 est.)
$2.277 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
food, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Imports - partners
South Africa 28.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.8%, China 12.9%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)
South Africa 20.7%, China 14.2%, India 11.6%, UAE 7%, Netherlands 4.4% (2017)
Debt - external
$11.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.102 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
9.2 (2017 est.)
10.3 (2016 est.)
10.3 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
Malawian kwachas (MWK) per US dollar -
731.69 (2017 est.)
720.1 (2016 est.)
713.85 (2015 est.)
499.6 (2014 est.)
424.9 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt
63.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
59.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
60.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.082 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$780.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$585.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.006 billion (2017 est.)
-$934 million (2016 est.)
-$591 million (2017 est.)
-$744 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$25.71 billion (2017 est.)
$6.24 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

NA

$142.5 million (2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

NA

NA

Market value of publicly traded shares
$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$18.97 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.643 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$101.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Central bank discount rate
9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
16% (31 December 2017 est.)
24% (31 December 2016 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
38.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
44.11% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$5.401 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.161 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.049 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$632.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$534 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$632.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$534 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
17.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
21.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-7.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.4% (2017 est.)
total: 40.5%
male: 33.1%
female: 47.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 21% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 27.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 84.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 15.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 27.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -43.8% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ZambiaMalawi
Electricity - production
11.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
11.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1.321 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
2.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
12,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
2.573 million kW (2016 est.)
375,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
13,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
23,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
6,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
371 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
10,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)
4,769 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
3.777 million Mt (2017 est.)
1.082 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 11 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 37% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 76% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 6% (2019)
population without electricity: 16 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 13% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 55% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 5% (2019)

Telecommunications

ZambiaMalawi
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 91,422
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 14,357
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 16,322,168
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96.41 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,799,352
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47.78 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.zm
.mw
Internet users
total: 2,351,646
percent of population: 14.3% (July 2018 est.)
total: 2,734,305
percent of population: 13.78% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: service is among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; regulatory promotes competition and is a partner to private sector service providers, offering mobile voice and Internet at some of the lowest prices in the region; investment made in data centers, education centers and computer assembly training plants; operators invest in 3G and LTE-based services; Chinese company Huawei is helping to upgrade state-owned mobile infrastructure for 5G services; 3 cellular telephone providers currently in operation, plus several data only ISPs; 1,010 towers project to soon be completed (2020)
domestic: fiber optic connections are available between most larger towns and cities with microwave radio relays serving more rural areas; 3G and LTE with FttX in limited urban areas and private Ku or Ka band VSAT terminals in remote locations; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 96 per 100 (2019)
international: country code - 260; multiple providers operate overland fiber optic routes via Zimbabwe/South Africa, Botswana/Namibia and Tanzania provide access to the major undersea cables
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: rudimentary; 2 fixed-line and 3 mobile-cellular operators govern the market; some mobile services to rural areas; in a resolution to discourage crime the regulatory has imposed SIM card registration since 2018; 50 licensed ISPs; DSL services are available; LTE services are available; mobile penetration low in comparison to the region average; potential for growth; national fiber backbone nearing completion; prospect of gaining access to international submarine fiber optic cables from neighboring countries (2020)
domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership less than 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership 48 per 100 households (2019)
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 43,365
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 11,358
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media

according to the Independent Broadcast Authority, there are 137 radio stations and 47 television stations in Zambia; out of the 137 radio stations, 133 are private (categorized as either commercial or community radio stations), while 4 are public-owned; state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 2 television channels and 3 radio stations; ZNBC owns 75% shares in GoTV, 40% in MultiChoice, and 40% in TopStar Communications Company, all of which operate in-country

(2019)
radio is the main broadcast medium; privately owned Zodiak radio has the widest national broadcasting reach, followed by state-run radio; numerous private and community radio stations broadcast in cities and towns around the country; the largest TV network is government-owned, but at least 4 private TV networks broadcast in urban areas; relays of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)

Transportation

ZambiaMalawi
Railways
total: 3,126 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA)

total: 767 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 767 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 67,671 km (2018)
paved: 14,888 km (2018)
unpaved: 52,783 km (2018)
total: 15,452 km (2015)
paved: 4,074 km (2015)
unpaved: 11,378 km (2015)
Waterways
2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers) (2010)
700 km (on Lake Nyasa [Lake Malawi] and Shire River) (2010)
Ports and terminals
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
lake port(s): Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba (Lake Nyasa)
Airports
total: 88 (2013)
total: 32 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 8 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 7 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 80 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2013)
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 25 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,904 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 75.08 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 9
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 10,545 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 10,000 mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
9J (2016)
7Q (2016)

Military

ZambiaMalawi
Military branches
Zambia Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization); the Zambia Police includes a paramilitary battalion (2019)
Malawi Defense Force (MDF): Army (includes Air Wing, Marine Unit); note - a 2017 amendment to Malawi’s Defense Force Act established a separate Army, Air Force, and Maritime Force within the MDF, but these services have yet to develop independent budgets, chains of command, and training institutions (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 12-year enlistment period (7 years active, 5 in the Reserves) (2019)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; high school equivalent required for enlisted recruits and college equivalent for officer recruits; initial engagement is 7 years for enlisted personnel and 10 years for officers (2014)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.3% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.8% of GDP (2015)
0.9% of GDP (2019)
0.9% of GDP (2018)
0.8% of GDP (2017)
0.6% of GDP (2016)
0.6% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

ZambiaMalawi
Disputes - international

in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 55,523 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 18,815 (Angola), 7,997 (Burundi), 5,982 (Rwanda) (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 29,416 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 10,838 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers), 6,696 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook