Home

Zambia vs. Botswana

Introduction

ZambiaBotswana
BackgroundThe territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Ian KHAMA was reelected for a second term in 2014. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography

ZambiaBotswana
LocationSouthern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates15 00 S, 30 00 E
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 581,730 sq km
land: 566,730 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 4,347.15 km
border countries (4): Namibia 1,544 km, South Africa 1,969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrainmostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 1,013 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land useagricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 45.8%
arable land 0.6%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 45.2%
forest: 19.8%
other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,560 sq km (2012)
20 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issuesair pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Population distributionone of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west

Demographics

ZambiaBotswana
Population15.972 million
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
2,214,858
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 46.03% (male 3,693,255/female 3,657,890)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,595,628/female 1,598,065)
25-54 years: 28.72% (male 2,310,961/female 2,276,018)
55-64 years: 2.93% (male 217,954/female 250,134)
65 years and over: 2.33% (male 162,605/female 209,490) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 31.95% (male 357,003/female 350,657)
15-24 years: 18.91% (male 207,209/female 211,629)
25-54 years: 38.45% (male 401,082/female 450,437)
55-64 years: 5.46% (male 51,195/female 69,835)
65 years and over: 5.23% (male 50,206/female 65,605) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.8 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 24.5 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.93% (2017 est.)
1.55% (2017 est.)
Birth rate41.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate12.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 61.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 55.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 29.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 52.7 years
male: 51.1 years
female: 54.4 years (2017 est.)
total population: 63.3 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 65.5 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate5.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.56 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate12.4% (2016 est.)
21.9% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groupsBemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1.2 million (2016 est.)
360,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths21,000 (2016 est.)
3,900 (2016 est.)
LanguagesBembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
Education expenditures1.1% of GDP (2008)
9.6% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 41.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 58% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.5% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 63.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.5% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
GABORONE (capital) 247,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight14.8% (2013)
11.2% (2007)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.1% (2016)
18.9% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,000,850
percentage: 41%
note: data represent children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
total number: 45,036
percentage: 9%
note: data represent children ages 7-17 (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
19 years (2007 est.)
Demographic profileZambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.
Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.
Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.
Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.
Contraceptive prevalence rate49% (2013/14)
52.8%
note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 91.9
youth dependency ratio: 87.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.1
youth dependency ratio: 49.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)

Government

ZambiaBotswana
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
"conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
etymology: the name Botswana means ""Land of the Tswana"" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
"
Government typepresidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
Independence24 October 1964 (from the UK)
30 September 1966 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 24 October (1964)
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one-half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, last in 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); President KHAMA is anticipated to hand over the presidency to MASSI in April 2018, in keeping with Botswanan political tradition; note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); President KHAMA is anticipated to hand over the preidency to MASISI in April 2018, in keeping with Botswanan political tradition
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (65 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 6 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
elections: last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts 3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Ndaba GAOLATHE]
Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (coalition includes BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF)
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ngosa SIMBYAKULA (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
consulate(s) general: Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 318-0232
Flag descriptiongreen field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
National anthem"name: ""Lumbanyeni Zambia"" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song ""God Bless Africa,"" is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"
"name: ""Fatshe leno la rona"" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
note: adopted 1966
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

ZambiaBotswana
Economy - overviewZambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plan refinanced $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.

Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2016, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit to over 8% in 2017 and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the second largest earner of foreign exchange; many Batswana also engage in subsistence farming and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,000 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.

Botswana's economy closely follows global economic trends because of its heavy reliance on a single luxury export. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.

Botswana’s economy recovered from the 2008 global recession in 2010, but has only grown modestly since then, primarily due to the downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains. Diamond exports increased again in 2017 to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth of about 4.5% in 2017 and increasing foreign reserves to about 45% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$68.9 billion (2017 est.)
$66.27 billion (2016 est.)
$64.08 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$39.55 billion (2017 est.)
$37.86 billion (2016 est.)
$36.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4% (2017 est.)
3.4% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
-1.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,000 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$4,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$18,100 (2017 est.)
$17,600 (2016 est.)
$17,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 5.4%
industry: 35.6%
services: 59% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 29.2%
services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line60.5% (2010 est.)
30.3% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.8% (2017 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force6.898 million (2017 est.)
1.177 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
20% (2013 est.)
17.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
60.5 (2009)
63 (1993)
Budgetrevenues: $4.895 billion
expenditures: $7.05 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $5.609 billion
expenditures: $6.072 billion (2017 est.)
Industriescopper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate5.1% (2017 est.)
3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Exports$8.106 billion (2017 est.)
$6.514 billion (2016 est.)
$7.58 billion (2017 est.)
$7.226 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 39.4%, China 18%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.7%, South Africa 6.4%, UAE 6%, Singapore 5.6% (2016)
Belgium 18.9%, India 15.1%, South Africa 13.6%, Namibia 11.6%, UAE 9.7%, Israel 6.1%, Singapore 5.6%, Canada 5% (2016)
Imports$7.336 billion (2017 est.)
$6.539 billion (2016 est.)
$5.998 billion (2017 est.)
$5.906 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 31.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.3%, Kuwait 8.1%, China 7.6%, Mauritius 4.4%, UAE 4.2%, India 4% (2016)
South Africa 64.5%, Namibia 10.5%, Canada 5.6% (2016)
Debt - external$10.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.461 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesZambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
9.2 (2017 est.)
10.3 (2016 est.)
10.3 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
10.19 (2017 est.)
10.9022 (2016 est.)
10.9022 (2015 est.)
10.1263 (2014 est.)
8.9761 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 April - 31 March
Public debt62.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.426 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.476 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$918 million (2017 est.)
-$934 million (2016 est.)
$746 million (2017 est.)
$1.824 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$25.58 billion (2016 est.)
$16.73 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
5.5% (31 December 2016)
6% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
7.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.207 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.859 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.597 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.816 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.574 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.505 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.904 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.145 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.893 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues19.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
total: 36%
male: 29.6%
female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 27.8%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 45.3%
imports of goods and services: -49.2% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 46.8%
government consumption: 17.7%
investment in fixed capital: 30.7%
investment in inventories: -10%
exports of goods and services: 54.1%
imports of goods and services: -39.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
40.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ZambiaBotswana
Electricity - production13.28 billion kWh (2015 est.)
2.789 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption11.62 billion kWh (2015 est.)
3.722 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports785 million kWh (2015 est.)
1.468 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports11,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.37 million kW (2015 est.)
134,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
98.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants97.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production14,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports937.4 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports7,917 bbl/day (2014 est.)
21,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
population without electricity: 700,000
electrification - total population: 66%
electrification - urban areas: 75%
electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)

Telecommunications

ZambiaBotswana
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 101,407
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 142,122
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12,017,034
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2016 est.)
total: 3,288,986
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2015)
general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.zm
.bw
Internet userstotal: 3,956,252
percent of population: 25.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 869,610
percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)

Transportation

ZambiaBotswana
Railwaystotal: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
total: 17,916 km
note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)
Airports88 (2013)
74 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,796
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 79,092,826 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix9J (2016)
A2 (2016)

Military

ZambiaBotswana
Military branchesZambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)
Military service age and obligationnational registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.53% of GDP (2016)
1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
3.37% of GDP (2016)
2.66% of GDP (2015)
2.13% of GDP (2014)
2.06% of GDP (2013)
2.23% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

ZambiaBotswana
Disputes - internationalin 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
none

Source: CIA Factbook