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Zambia vs. Angola

Introduction

ZambiaAngola
Background
Multiple waves of Bantu-speaking groups moved into and through what is now Zambia over the past thousand years. In the 1880s, the British began securing mineral and other economic concessions from various local leaders and the territory that is now Zambia eventually came under the control of the former British South Africa Company and was incorporated as the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia in 1911. Administrative control was taken over by the UK in 1924. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration.

The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
From the late 14th to the mid 19th century a Kingdom of Kongo stretched across central Africa from present-day northern Angola into the current Congo republics. It traded heavily with the Portuguese who, beginning in the 16th century, established coastal colonies and trading posts and introduced Christianity. By the 19th century, Portuguese settlement had spread to the interior; in 1914, Portugal abolished the last vestiges of the Kongo Kingdom and Angola became a Portuguese colony.

Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS stepped down from the presidency in 2017, having led the country since 1979. He pushed through a new constitution in 2010. Joao LOURENCO was elected president in August 2017 and became president of the MPLA in September 2018.

Geography

ZambiaAngola
Location
Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates
15 00 S, 30 00 E
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative
almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1427 km, Zambia 1065 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
1,600 km
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 1,138 m
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 1,112 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m
Natural resources
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use
agricultural land: 31.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 4.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 66.3% (2011 est.)
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.5% (2016 est.)
arable land: 3.9% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 43.3% (2016 est.)
forest: 46.3% (2016 est.)
other: 6.2% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land
1,560 sq km (2012)
860 sq km (2014)
Natural hazards
periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; loss of biodiversity; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population distribution
one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira as shown in this population distribution map
most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly the capital of Luanda as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

ZambiaAngola
Population
17,426,623 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

32,522,339 (July 2020 est.)

note: Angola's national statistical agency projects the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.74% (male 4,005,134/female 3,964,969)
15-24 years: 20.03% (male 1,744,843/female 1,746,561)
25-54 years: 28.96% (male 2,539,697/female 2,506,724)
55-64 years: 3.01% (male 242,993/female 280,804)
65 years and over: 2.27% (male 173,582/female 221,316) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 47.83% (male 7,758,636/female 7,797,869)
15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,950,999/female 3,109,741)
25-54 years: 27.8% (male 4,301,618/female 4,740,463)
55-64 years: 3.43% (male 523,517/female 591,249)
65 years and over: 2.3% (male 312,197/female 436,050) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 16.9 years
male: 16.7 years
female: 17 years (2020 est.)
total: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.89% (2020 est.)
3.43% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
40.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
42.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
11.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 99.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 62.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 67.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 56.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 53.6 years
male: 51.9 years
female: 55.3 years (2020 est.)
total population: 61.3 years
male: 59.3 years
female: 63.4 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.49 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.96 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
12.1% (2019 est.)
1.8% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.2 million (2019 est.)
340,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
17,000 (2019 est.)
13,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)

note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family; Chewa and Nyanja are mutually intelligible dialects

Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6% (2014 est.)

note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.7%
male: 90.6%
female: 83.1% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
Education expenditures
NA
3.4% of GDP (2010)
Urbanization
urban population: 44.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 66.8% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.5% of population
rural: 50.9% of population
total: 67.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.5% of population
rural: 49.1% of population
total: 32.5% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 81.7% of population
rural: 36.6% of population
total: 65.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.3% of population
rural: 63.4% of population
total: 34.2% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 24.8% of population
total: 44.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 75.2% of population
total: 55.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 29.2% of population
total: 70.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 70.8% of population (2 est.)
total: 29.9% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
2.774 million LUSAKA (capital) (2020)
8.330 million LUANDA (capital), 828,000 Lubango, 778,000 Cabinda (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
213 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
241 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
11.8% (2018/19)
19% (2016)
Health expenditures
4.5% (2017)
2.8% (2017)
Physicians density
0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.1% (2016)
8.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.2 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

19.4 years (2015/16 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.

Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other Sub-Saharan countries.

More than a decade after the end of Angola's 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country's rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, about 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population - about 45% are under the age of 15 - is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more than 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola's high maternal mortality rate.

Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
49.5% (2018)
13.7% (2015/16)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 85.7
youth dependency ratio: 81.7
elderly dependency ratio: 4
potential support ratio: 25.3 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 94.5
youth dependency ratio: 90.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.3
potential support ratio: 23.5 (2020 est.)

Government

ZambiaAngola
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named after a village called Lusaka, located at Manda Hill, near where Zambia's National Assembly building currently stands; the village was named after a headman (chief) Lusakasa
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time
etymology: originally named "Sao Paulo da Assuncao de Loanda" (Saint Paul of the Assumption of Loanda), which over time was shortened and corrupted to just Luanda
Administrative divisions
10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza-Norte, Cuanza-Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda-Norte, Lunda-Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence
24 October 1964 (from the UK)
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, 2016
history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by the winning party following the 23 August 2017 general election
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly (165 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, and up to 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 89, UPND 54, MMD 5, FDD 1, NDC 1, independent 14; composition - men 135, women 30, percent of women 18.2%
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 61.1%, UNITA 26.7%, CASA-CE 9.5%, PRS 1.4%, FNLA 0.9%, other 0.5%; seats by party - MPLA 150, UNITA 51, CASA-CE 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1; composition - men 136, women 84, percent of women 38.2%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission, which is headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Felix MUTATI]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [Chishimba KAMBWILI]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Andre Mendes de CARVALHO]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Joao LOURENCO]; note - Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS stepped down 8 Sept 2018 ruling party in power since 1975
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Lazarous KAPAMBWE (since 8 April 2020)
chancery: 2200 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Ambassador Joaquim do Espirito SANTO (since 16 September 2019)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires David J. YOUNG (since 2 March 2020)
telephone: [260] (0) 211-357-000

 

embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
FAX: [260]  211-357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador Nina Maria FITE (since 14 February 2018)
telephone: [244] 946440977
embassy: 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
Flag description
green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty and black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National anthem
name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent only: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

ZambiaAngola
Economy - overview

Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer. GDP growth picked up in 2017 as mineral prices rose.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies, and growing government debt. Zambia raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015. Concurrently, it issued over $4 billion in domestic debt and agreed to Chinese-financed infrastructure projects, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to more than 60% of GDP. The government has considered refinancing $3 billion worth of Eurobonds and significant Chinese loans to cut debt servicing costs.

Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports; Angola is an OPEC member and subject to its direction regarding oil production levels. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war (1975-2002). However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued billions in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Lower prices for oil and diamonds also resulted in GDP falling 0.7% in 2016. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009 but reinstituted it in April 2016 and maintains an overvalued exchange rate. In late 2016, Angola lost the last of its correspondent relationships with foreign banks, further exacerbating hard currency problems. Since 2013 the central bank has consistently spent down reserves to defend the kwanza, gradually allowing a 40% depreciation since late 2014. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again to above 30% from 2015-2017.

Continued low oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects, although several major international oil companies remain in Angola. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$68.93 billion (2017 est.)
$66.66 billion (2016 est.)
$64.25 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$193.6 billion (2017 est.)
$198.6 billion (2016 est.)
$203.9 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
3.4% (2017 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
-2.5% (2017 est.)
-2.6% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$4,000 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$4,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$6,800 (2017 est.)
$7,200 (2016 est.)
$7,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 7.5% (2017 est.)
industry: 35.3% (2017 est.)
services: 57% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.2% (2011 est.)
industry: 61.4% (2011 est.)
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line
54.4% (2015 est.)
36.6% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
6.6% (2017 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
29.8% (2017 est.)
30.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
6.898 million (2017 est.)
12.51 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 54.8%
industry: 9.9%
services: 35.3% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 85%
industry: 15% (2015 est.)
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate
15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
57.5 (2013)
50.8 (2004)
42.7 (2008 est.)
Budget
revenues: 4.473 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 6.357 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 37.02 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 45.44 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate
4.7% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Exports
$8.216 billion (2017 est.)
$6.514 billion (2016 est.)
$33.07 billion (2017 est.)
$31.03 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners
Switzerland 44.8%, China 16.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.2%, Singapore 6%, South Africa 5.9% (2017)
China 61.2%, India 13%, US 4.2% (2017)
Imports
$7.852 billion (2017 est.)
$6.539 billion (2016 est.)
$19.5 billion (2017 est.)
$13.04 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners
South Africa 28.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.8%, China 12.9%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)
Portugal 17.8%, China 13.5%, US 7.4%, South Africa 6.2%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4% (2017)
Debt - external
$11.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
9.2 (2017 est.)
10.3 (2016 est.)
10.3 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172.6 (2017 est.)
163.656 (2016 est.)
163.656 (2015 est.)
120.061 (2014 est.)
98.303 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
63.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
65% of GDP (2017 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$2.082 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.006 billion (2017 est.)
-$934 million (2016 est.)
-$1.254 billion (2017 est.)
-$4.834 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$25.71 billion (2017 est.)
$126.5 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

NA

$11.21 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

NA

$28 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate
9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
9% (31 December 2014)
25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
12.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.82% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.78% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$5.401 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
17.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
29.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-7.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.4% (2017 est.)
total: 39.4%
male: 39%
female: 39.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 21% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 27.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 80.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 10.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -1.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 25.4% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

ZambiaAngola
Electricity - production
11.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
10.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
11.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.036 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
2.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
1.593 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
12,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.782 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
9.523 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
308.1 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
3.115 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
821.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
3.993 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
2.573 million kW (2016 est.)
2.613 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
34% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
13,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
53,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
23,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
130,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
371 bbl/day (2015 est.)
30,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
10,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)
111,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
3.777 million Mt (2017 est.)
20.95 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 11 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 37% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 76% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 6% (2019)
population without electricity: 18 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 43% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 61% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 6% (2019)

Telecommunications

ZambiaAngola
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 91,422
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 122,566
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 16,322,168
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96.41 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 14,645,106
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46.6 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.zm
.ao
Internet users
total: 2,351,646
percent of population: 14.3% (July 2018 est.)
total: 4,353,033
percent of population: 14.34% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: service is among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; regulatory promotes competition and is a partner to private sector service providers, offering mobile voice and Internet at some of the lowest prices in the region; investment made in data centers, education centers and computer assembly training plants; operators invest in 3G and LTE-based services; Chinese company Huawei is helping to upgrade state-owned mobile infrastructure for 5G services; 3 cellular telephone providers currently in operation, plus several data only ISPs; 1,010 towers project to soon be completed (2020)
domestic: fiber optic connections are available between most larger towns and cities with microwave radio relays serving more rural areas; 3G and LTE with FttX in limited urban areas and private Ku or Ka band VSAT terminals in remote locations; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 96 per 100 (2019)
international: country code - 260; multiple providers operate overland fiber optic routes via Zimbabwe/South Africa, Botswana/Namibia and Tanzania provide access to the major undersea cables
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: progress in opening up the telecom sector to new competitors, while still retaining a 45% govt. portion of the share; slow progress in LTE network development, with only about 12% of the country covered by network infrastructure; regulator offers 4th service license to be issued for competition, cracks down on informal SIM card sales, and auctions 800MHz spectrum; M-commerce services launch pending (2020)
domestic: only about one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 47 telephones per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 244; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, WACS, ACE and SACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to other countries in west Africa, Brazil, Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29, Angosat-2 satellite expected by 2021 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 43,365
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 109,561
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media

according to the Independent Broadcast Authority, there are 137 radio stations and 47 television stations in Zambia; out of the 137 radio stations, 133 are private (categorized as either commercial or community radio stations), while 4 are public-owned; state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 2 television channels and 3 radio stations; ZNBC owns 75% shares in GoTV, 40% in MultiChoice, and 40% in TopStar Communications Company, all of which operate in-country

(2019)
state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally

Transportation

ZambiaAngola
Railways
total: 3,126 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA)

total: 2,852 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
123 km 0.600-m gauge
Roadways
total: 67,671 km (2018)
paved: 14,888 km (2018)
unpaved: 52,783 km (2018)
total: 26,000 km (2018)
paved: 13,600 km (2018)
unpaved: 12,400 km (2018)
Waterways
2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers) (2010)
1,300 km (2011)
Pipelines
771 km oil (2013)
352 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1065 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water (2013)
Ports and terminals
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
Merchant marine
total: 1
by type: other 1 (2017)
total: 55
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 8, other 33 (2019)
Airports
total: 88 (2013)
total: 102 (2020)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 8 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 32 (2020)
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 6
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 80 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2013)
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 70 (2020)
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 22
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,904 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 75.08 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,516,628 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 78.16 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
9J (2016)
D2 (2016)

Military

ZambiaAngola
Military branches
Zambia Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization); the Zambia Police includes a paramilitary battalion (2019)
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army); Rapid Reaction Police (paramilitary) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 12-year enlistment period (7 years active, 5 in the Reserves) (2019)
20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.3% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.8% of GDP (2015)
1.6% of GDP (2019)
1.8% of GDP (2018)
2.4% of GDP (2017)
3% of GDP (2016)
3.5% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

ZambiaAngola
Disputes - international

in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Illicit drugs
transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 55,523 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 18,815 (Angola), 7,997 (Burundi), 5,982 (Rwanda) (2020)
refugees (country of origin): 23,395 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook