Zambia vs. Angola


BackgroundThe territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010 and was elected to a five year term as president in 2012.


LocationSouthern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates15 00 S, 30 00 E
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,043.15 km
border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
1,600 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrainmostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,138 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
mean elevation: 1,112 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 31.7%
arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.5%
arable land 8.3%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 91.23%
forest: 46.5%
other: 6% (2014 est.)
Irrigated land1,560 sq km (2012)
860 sq km (2014)
Natural hazardsperiodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issuesair pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population distributionone of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly Luanda


Population15.972 million
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
29,310,273 (July 2017 est.)
note: Angola's national statistical agency projects the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million
Age structure0-14 years: 46.03% (male 3,693,255/female 3,657,890)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,595,628/female 1,598,065)
25-54 years: 28.72% (male 2,310,961/female 2,276,018)
55-64 years: 2.93% (male 217,954/female 250,134)
65 years and over: 2.33% (male 162,605/female 209,490) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 48.12% (male 7,005,891/female 7,097,392)
15-24 years: 18.25% (male 2,593,355/female 2,756,367)
25-54 years: 28.03% (male 3,921,046/female 4,293,307)
55-64 years: 3.26% (male 438,268/female 517,690)
65 years and over: 2.34% (male 290,247/female 396,710) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.8 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.93% (2017 est.)
3.52% (2017 est.)
Birth rate41.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
44.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate12.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 61.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 55.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 67.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 61.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 52.7 years
male: 51.1 years
female: 54.4 years (2017 est.)
total population: 60.2 years
male: 58.2 years
female: 62.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate5.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
6.16 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate12.4% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groupsBemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1.2 million (2016 est.)
280,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths21,000 (2016 est.)
11,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesBembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures1.1% of GDP (2008)
3.5% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 41.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 45.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.6% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight14.8% (2013)
19% (2016)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.1% (2016)
8.2% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,000,850
percentage: 41%
note: data represent children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
total number: 832,895
percentage: 24% (2001 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.2 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015/16 est.)
Demographic profileZambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
More than a decade after the end of Angola’s 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country’s rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, more than 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population – about 45% are under the age of 15 – is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola’s high maternal mortality rate.
Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate49% (2013/14)
13.7% (2015/16)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 91.9
youth dependency ratio: 87.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 97.6
youth dependency ratio: 93
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)


Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
"conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title ""ngola"" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence24 October 1964 (from the UK)
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 24 October (1964)
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one-half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, last in 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by the National Assembly
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 61.1%, UNITA 26.7%, CASA-CE 9.5%, PRS 1.4%, FNLA .9%, other 0.5%; seats by party - MPLA 150, UNITA 51, CASA-CE 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts 3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]
Political pressure groups and leadersCongress of Trade Unions or ZCTU; Federation of Free Trade Unions in Zambia
other: other labor and trade unions
Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda - Armed Forces of Cabinda or FLEC-FAC [Emmanuel NZITA]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese national soccer team in 2010
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ngosa SIMBYAKULA (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
Flag descriptiongreen field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a 5-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty; black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National anthem"name: ""Lumbanyeni Zambia"" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song ""God Bless Africa,"" is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
"name: ""Angola Avante"" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
note: adopted 1975
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


Economy - overviewZambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.

Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plan refinanced $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.

Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2016, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit to over 8% in 2017 and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again in 2015-16.

Falling oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy. Government spending in the run-up to the 2017 elections is likely to strain Luanda’s budget.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$68.9 billion (2017 est.)
$66.27 billion (2016 est.)
$64.08 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$192 billion (2017 est.)
$189.2 billion (2016 est.)
$190.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4% (2017 est.)
3.4% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2017 est.)
-0.7% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,000 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$4,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$6,800 (2017 est.)
$6,900 (2016 est.)
$7,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 5.4%
industry: 35.6%
services: 59% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 61.4%
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line60.5% (2010 est.)
40.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.8% (2017 est.)
17.9% (2016 est.)
30.9% (2017 est.)
32.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force6.898 million (2017 est.)
12.51 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate15% (2008 est.)
50% (2000 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $4.895 billion
expenditures: $7.05 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $35.59 billion
expenditures: $44.64 billion (2017 est.)
Industriescopper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate5.1% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Exports$8.106 billion (2017 est.)
$6.514 billion (2016 est.)
$33.82 billion (2017 est.)
$31.03 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescopper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 39.4%, China 18%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.7%, South Africa 6.4%, UAE 6%, Singapore 5.6% (2016)
China 53.7%, India 7.6%, US 5.6%, South Africa 5.3%, France 4.4% (2016)
Imports$7.336 billion (2017 est.)
$6.539 billion (2016 est.)
$23 billion (2017 est.)
$19.25 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 31.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.3%, Kuwait 8.1%, China 7.6%, Mauritius 4.4%, UAE 4.2%, India 4% (2016)
Portugal 15.9%, US 12.5%, China 12.2%, South Africa 6.8%, Belgium 6.3%, Brazil 5.5%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Debt - external$10.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$27.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesZambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
9.2 (2017 est.)
10.3 (2016 est.)
10.3 (2015 est.)
8.6 (2014 est.)
6.2 (2013 est.)
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172.6 (2017 est.)
163.656 (2016 est.)
163.656 (2015 est.)
120.061 (2014 est.)
98.303 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt62.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
87.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
77.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.426 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$918 million (2017 est.)
-$934 million (2016 est.)
-$5.922 billion (2017 est.)
-$4.904 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$25.58 billion (2016 est.)
$124 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$15.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$23.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate9.1% (31 December 2012)
19% (31 December 2011)
9% (31 December 2014)
25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate15.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
20% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.71% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.207 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.816 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.904 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.145 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$48.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues19.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-7.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 27.8%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 45.3%
imports of goods and services: -49.2% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 75.6%
government consumption: 15.4%
investment in fixed capital: 9.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 28.4%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
3.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.4% of GDP (2015 est.)


Electricity - production13.28 billion kWh (2015 est.)
9.438 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption11.62 billion kWh (2015 est.)
8.338 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports785 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.77 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports11,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.7 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
8.273 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
308.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
773 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2014 est.)
1.094 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
500 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.37 million kW (2015 est.)
1.704 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
45.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants97.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
54% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production14,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
46,680 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
142,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports937.4 bbl/day (2014 est.)
23,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports7,917 bbl/day (2014 est.)
118,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
33 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 10,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 45%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 30%
electrification - urban areas: 46%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 101,407
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 304,493
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12,017,034
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2016 est.)
total: 13,001,124
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2015)
general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to five; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 64 telephones per 100 persons in 2016
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2016)
Internet country code.zm
Internet userstotal: 3,956,252
percent of population: 25.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 2,622,403
percent of population: 13.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2009)


Railwaystotal: 3,126 km
narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
total: 2,852 km
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Waterways2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers) (2010)
1,300 km (2011)
Pipelinesoil 771 km (2013)
gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
Merchant marinetotal: 1
by type: other 1 (2017)
total: 55
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 9, other 32 (2017)
Airports88 (2013)
176 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 80
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,796
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 79,092,826 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 10
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,244,491
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 46.043 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix9J (2016)
D2 (2016)


Military branchesZambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligationnational registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.53% of GDP (2016)
1.75% of GDP (2015)
1.63% of GDP (2014)
1.36% of GDP (2013)
1.36% of GDP (2012)
2.95% of GDP (2016)
3.52% of GDP (2015)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
4.88% of GDP (2013)
3.59% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalin 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Illicit drugstransshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 33,000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 48,000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook