Uzbekistan vs. Tajikistan


Background"Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of ""white gold"" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country has reduced its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
"The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called ""basmachi"") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. In September 2015, government security forces rebuffed attacks led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power during the civil war, used the attacks to ban the main opposition political party in Tajikistan. In May 2016, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself designated ""Leader of the Nation"" with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, eligible to run for president in 2020. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade emanating from neighboring Afghanistan.


LocationCentral Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 64 00 E
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
total: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
Area - comparativeabout four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundariestotal: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
total: 4,130 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
Coastline0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (doubly landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatemostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrainmostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
mean elevation: 3,186 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land useagricultural land: 62.6%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
forest: 7.7%
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 34.7%
arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%
forest: 2.9%
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land42,150 sq km (2012)
7,420 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts
earthquakes; floods
Environment - current issuesshrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notealong with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west


Population29,748,859 (July 2017 est.)
8,468,555 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.88% (male 3,640,914/female 3,464,304)
15-24 years: 18.52% (male 2,804,516/female 2,706,399)
25-54 years: 44.49% (male 6,583,745/female 6,651,261)
55-64 years: 7.85% (male 1,105,034/female 1,231,714)
65 years and over: 5.25% (male 667,109/female 893,863) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 32.33% (male 1,393,804/female 1,343,825)
15-24 years: 18.61% (male 799,736/female 776,417)
25-54 years: 40.12% (male 1,683,228/female 1,714,507)
55-64 years: 5.62% (male 219,043/female 257,066)
65 years and over: 3.32% (male 116,511/female 164,418) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.6 years
male: 28 years
female: 29.2 years (2017 est.)
total: 24.5 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 25.1 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.93% (2017 est.)
1.62% (2017 est.)
Birth rate16.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
23.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74 years
male: 71 years
female: 77.3 years (2017 est.)
total population: 68.1 years
male: 64.9 years
female: 71.4 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.76 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.3% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groupsUzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Tajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
14,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
<1000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesUzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2016)
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Education expendituresNA
5.2% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 36.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 27% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.72% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 95% of population
urban: 6.2% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
DUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures5.8% of GDP (2014)
6.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate16.6% (2016)
14.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.4 years (2014 est.)
22.9 years (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.7
youth dependency ratio: 41.4
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.5
youth dependency ratio: 57.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.5 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""uz"" (self) and ""bek"" (master) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) to give the meaning ""Land of the Free""
"conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Tajikistan literally means ""Land of the Tajik [people]""
Government typepresidential republic; highly authoritarian
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 September (1991)
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one-third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval by the president or approval by at least at least two-thirds of the Assembly of Representatives membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; note – constitutional articles including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (unlimited terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed, and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Revival Democratic Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leadersEcological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOYEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [SaidjafFar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Ovezmammed MAMMEDOV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
Political pressure groups and leadersno significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
Group 24 [Suhrob ZAFAR] (banned)
New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV (jailed since 2013)] (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV - jailed in 2015] (banned)
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI - in exile] (banned)
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Javlon VAHOBOV (since 1 December 2017)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 27 January 2015)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kevin COVERT (since 31 August 2017)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
"three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number ""seven"" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
National anthem"name: ""O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
"name: ""Surudi milli"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application


Economy - overviewUzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In early 2016, Russia’s Gazprom announced it planned to increase purchases of Uzbek gas.

Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV, rhetorical emphasis on such initiatives and ostensible government efforts to seek input from the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.

In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity, and the government has lately raised the issue of currency reform in a number of official decrees and proclamations. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of foreign currency shortage.
Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2014 were equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project is a sensitive issue for downstream neighbors and faces large financing shortfalls. In 2016, Tajikistan officially contracted with Italian firm Salini Impregilo to construct the dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent its reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$221.7 billion (2017 est.)
$209.2 billion (2016 est.)
$194.1 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$27.67 billion (2017 est.)
$26.48 billion (2016 est.)
$24.77 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2017 est.)
7.8% (2016 est.)
8% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$7,000 (2017 est.)
$6,700 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$3,100 (2017 est.)
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 18.5%
industry: 34.4%
services: 47% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 28.6%
industry: 25.5%
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line14% (2016 est.)
31.5% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)13% (2017 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
8.9% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force18.12 million (2017 est.)
2.295 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate4.9% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)
32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
Budgetrevenues: $20.11 billion
expenditures: $19.92 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $2.214 billion
expenditures: $2.316 billion (2017 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate4.5% (2017 est.)
1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports$11.38 billion (2017 est.)
$11.2 billion (2016 est.)
$794.7 million (2017 est.)
$691.1 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesenergy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 35.1%, China 19.7%, Russia 9.3%, Turkey 8.7%, Kazakhstan 7.2%, Bangladesh 5.4%, Afghanistan 4.9% (2016)
Turkey 27.8%, Russia 15.6%, China 14.7%, Switzerland 9.8%, Iran 6.5%, Algeria 6.5%, Italy 5.8% (2016)
Imports$11.44 billion (2017 est.)
$10.91 billion (2016 est.)
$2.725 billion (2017 est.)
$2.604 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 22.2%, Russia 18%, South Korea 10.5%, Kazakhstan 10%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.2% (2016)
Russia 31.2%, China 13.9%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Uzbekistan 5.2%, Iran 5.1% (2016)
Debt - external$16.86 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesUzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
3,906.1 (2017 est.)
2,966.6 (2016 est.)
2,966.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.764 (2017 est.)
7.8358 (2016 est.)
7.8358 (2015 est.)
6.1631 (2014 est.)
4.9348 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt15.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$642.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$632 million (2017 est.)
$498 million (2016 est.)
-$458 million (2017 est.)
-$265 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$67.51 billion (2016 est.)
$7.234 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$16.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)
Central bank discount rate9% (2016)
9% (2015)
16% (20 March 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
30% (31 December 2017 est.)
25.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$9.506 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$6.456 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.555 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$936 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.108 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$15.47 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$17.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.065 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues29.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
30.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)0.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
-1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.4%
government consumption: 16.9%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 20%
imports of goods and services: -20.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 103.2%
government consumption: 16.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.3%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 13.4%
imports of goods and services: -48.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving31.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2015 est.)


Electricity - production59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
16.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
12.94 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
NA kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
63 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production52,910 bbl/day (2016 est.)
180 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports380 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
78.6 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves594 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
12 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production55.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
20 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption10.44 billion cu m (2015 est.)
189 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
212 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity12.93 million kW (2015 est.)
5.5 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels86.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
93% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production63,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)
445.8 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption61,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports4,102 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
21,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy109 million Mt (2013 est.)
3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3,412,921
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 468,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 23,265,389
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 79 (July 2016 est.)
total: 9.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by three private and two state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 23 million as of mid-2016
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2016)
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies (2016)
Internet country code.uz
Internet userstotal: 13,791,083
percent of population: 46.8% (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,705,345
percent of population: 20.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)


Railwaystotal: 4,304 km
broad gauge: 4,304 km 1.520-m gauge (1,354 km electrified) (2016)
total: 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
total: 27,767 km (2000)
Waterways1,100 km (2012)
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 13,700 km; oil 944 km (2016)
gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
Airports53 (2013)
24 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 29
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,486,673
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 114,334,520 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 802,470
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 105,376 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixUK (2016)
EY (2016)


Military branchesArmed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard (2017)
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalprolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Illicit drugstransit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Tajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 86,524 (2016)
stateless persons: 17,002 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook