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Uruguay vs. Brazil

Demographics

UruguayBrazil
Population
3,369,299 (July 2018 est.)
208,846,892 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 19.91% (male 341,402 /female 329,474)
15-24 years: 15.56% (male 265,486 /female 258,611)
25-54 years: 39.48% (male 658,871 /female 671,172)
55-64 years: 10.68% (male 169,385 /female 190,392)
65 years and over: 14.38% (male 194,269 /female 290,237) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 21.89% (male 23,310,437 /female 22,414,551)
15-24 years: 16.29% (male 17,254,084 /female 16,758,140)
25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,449,158 /female 46,151,759)
55-64 years: 9.35% (male 9,229,665 /female 10,296,824)
65 years and over: 8.61% (male 7,666,845 /female 10,315,429) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 35.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 33.3 years
female: 36.9 years
total: 32.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 31.5 years
female: 33.3 years
Population growth rate
0.27% (2018 est.)
0.71% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
13 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
13.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 74.4 years
female: 80.8 years
total population: 74.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 70.7 years
female: 78 years
Total fertility rate
1.79 children born/woman (2018 est.)
1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.6% (2018 est.)
0.5% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groups
white 87.7%, black 4.6%, indigenous 2.4%, other 0.3%, none or unspecified 5% (2011 est.)

note: data represent primary ethnic identity

white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
14,000 (2018 est.)
900,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<200 (2018 est.)
15,000 (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official)
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)

note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 98.2%
female: 99% (2017 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92%
male: 91.7%
female: 92.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expenditures
4.4% of GDP (2011)
6.2% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 95.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 86.8% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.9% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.1% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 96.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 92.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 7.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 88% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 51.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 82.8% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 12% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.745 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2019)
21.847 million Sao Paulo, 13.374 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.028 million Belo Horizonte, 4.559 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.115 million Porto Alegre, 4.078 million Recife (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
9.2% (2015)
11.8% (2016)
Physicians density
5.05 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
2.15 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density
2.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
27.9% (2016)
22.1% (2016)
Demographic profile

Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.

In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums).

Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
79.6% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 15-44

80.2% (2013)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 55.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 33.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 43.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 32.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 11.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook