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Uruguay vs. Argentina

Demographics

UruguayArgentina
Population
3,369,299 (July 2018 est.)
44,694,198 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 19.91% (male 341,402 /female 329,474)
15-24 years: 15.56% (male 265,486 /female 258,611)
25-54 years: 39.48% (male 658,871 /female 671,172)
55-64 years: 10.68% (male 169,385 /female 190,392)
65 years and over: 14.38% (male 194,269 /female 290,237) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 24.44% (male 5,629,345 /female 5,293,680)
15-24 years: 15.2% (male 3,476,344 /female 3,317,151)
25-54 years: 39.46% (male 8,808,591 /female 8,826,379)
55-64 years: 9.12% (male 1,977,421 /female 2,096,665)
65 years and over: 11.79% (male 2,216,487 /female 3,052,135) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 35.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 33.3 years
female: 36.9 years
total: 31.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 30.7 years
female: 33.1 years
Population growth rate
0.27% (2018 est.)
0.89% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
13 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
16.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 74.4 years
female: 80.8 years
total population: 77.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 74.4 years
female: 80.8 years
Total fertility rate
1.79 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.25 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.6% (2018 est.)
0.4% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groups
white 87.7%, black 4.6%, indigenous 2.4%, other 0.3%, none or unspecified 5% (2011 est.)

note: data represent primary ethnic identity

European (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
14,000 (2018 est.)
140,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<200 (2018 est.)
1,700 (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official)
Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 98.2%
female: 99% (2017 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99.1% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
total: 18 years
male: 16 years
female: 19 years (2016)
Education expenditures
4.4% of GDP (2011)
5.6% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 95.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 92% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.9% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.1% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 96.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 92.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 7.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 96.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.745 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2019)
15.057 million BUENOS AIRES (capital), 1.560 million Cordoba, 1.510 million Rosario, 1.153 million Mendoza, 971,000 San Miguel de Tucuman, 874,000 La Plata (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
39 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
9.2% (2015)
7.5% (2016)
Physicians density
5.05 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
3.96 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
27.9% (2016)
28.3% (2016)
Demographic profile

Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.

In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.

Argentina's population continues to grow but at a slower rate because of its steadily declining birth rate. Argentina's fertility decline began earlier than in the rest of Latin America, occurring most rapidly between the early 20th century and the 1950s, and then becoming more gradual. Life expectancy has been improving, most notably among the young and the poor. While the population under age 15 is shrinking, the youth cohort - ages 15-24 - is the largest in Argentina's history and will continue to bolster the working-age population. If this large working-age population is well-educated and gainfully employed, Argentina is likely to experience an economic boost and possibly higher per capita savings and investment. Although literacy and primary school enrollment are nearly universal, grade repetition is problematic and secondary school completion is low. Both of these issues vary widely by region and socioeconomic group.

Argentina has been primarily a country of immigration for most of its history, welcoming European immigrants (often providing needed low-skilled labor) after its independence in the 19th century and attracting especially large numbers from Spain and Italy. More than 7 million European immigrants are estimated to have arrived in Argentina between 1880 and 1930, when it adopted a more restrictive immigration policy. European immigration also began to wane in the 1930s because of the global depression. The inflow rebounded temporarily following WWII and resumed its decline in the 1950s when Argentina's military dictators tightened immigration rules and European economies rebounded. Regional migration increased, however, supplying low-skilled workers escaping economic and political instability in their home countries. As of 2015, immigrants made up almost 5% of Argentina's population, the largest share in South America. Migration from neighboring countries accounted for approximately 80% of Argentina's immigrant population in 2015.

The first waves of highly skilled Argentine emigrant workers headed mainly to the United States and Spain in the 1960s and 1970s, driven by economic decline and repressive military dictatorships. The 2008 European economic crisis drove the return migration of some Argentinean and other Latin American nationals, as well as the immigration of Europeans to South America, where Argentina was a key recipient. In 2015, Argentina received the highest number of legal migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean. The majority of its migrant inflow came from Paraguay and Bolivia.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
79.6% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 15-44

81.3% (2013)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 55.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 33.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 39.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook