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United States vs. Canada

Introduction

United StatesCanada
Background

Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada repatriated its constitution from the UK in 1982, severing a final colonial tie. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Geography

United StatesCanada
Location
North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates
38 00 N, 97 00 W
60 00 N, 95 00 W
Map references
North America
North America
Area
total: 9,833,517 sq km
land: 9,147,593 sq km
water: 685,924 sq km

note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories

total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union
slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries
total: 12,048 km
border countries (2): Canada 8893 km (including 2477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3155 km

note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km

total: 8,893 km
border countries (1): US 8893 km (includes 2477 km with Alaska)

note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country

Coastline
19,924 km
202,080 km

note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world

Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 760 m
lowest point: Death Valley (lowest point in North America) -86 m
highest point: Denali 6,190 m (Mount McKinley) (highest point in North America)
note: the peak of Mauna Kea (4,207 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level
mean elevation: 487 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resources
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land, note, the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total
bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use
agricultural land: 44.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 16.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 27.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)
other: 22.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 6.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 4.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 34.1% (2011 est.)
other: 59.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
264,000 sq km (2012)
8,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell, Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in Hawaii: Haleakala, Kilauea, Loihi; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment - current issues
air pollution; large emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; deforestation; mining; desertification; species conservation; invasive species (the Hawaiian Islands are particularly vulnerable)
metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note

note 1: world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent

note 2: the western coast of the United States and southern coast of Alaska lie along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: the Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands that divide the Bering Sea (north) from the main Pacific Ocean (south); they extend about 1,800 km westward from the Alaskan Peninsula; the archipelago consists of 14 larger islands, 55 smaller islands, and hundreds of islets; there are 41 active volcanoes on the islands, which together form a large northern section of the Ring of Fire

note 4: Mammoth Cave, in west-central Kentucky, is the world's longest known cave system with more than 650 km (405 miles) of surveyed passageways, which is nearly twice as long as the second-longest cave system, the Sac Actun underwater cave in Mexico - the world's longest underwater cave system (see "Geography - note" under Mexico);

note 5: Kazumura Cave on the island of Hawaii is the world's longest and deepest lava tube cave; it has been surveyed at 66 km (41 mi) long and 1,102 m (3,614 ft) deep

note 6: Bracken Cave outside of San Antonio, Texas is the world's largest bat cave; it is the summer home to the largest colony of bats in the world; an estimated 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats roost in the cave from March to October making it the world's largest known concentration of mammals

note 1: second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border

note 2: Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined

Population distribution
large urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu
vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Demographics

United StatesCanada
Population
329,256,465 (July 2018 est.)
35,881,659 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 18.62% (male 31,329,121 /female 29,984,705)
15-24 years: 13.12% (male 22,119,340 /female 21,082,599)
25-54 years: 39.29% (male 64,858,646 /female 64,496,889)
55-64 years: 12.94% (male 20,578,432 /female 22,040,267)
65 years and over: 16.03% (male 23,489,515 /female 29,276,951) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 15.43% (male 2,839,236 /female 2,698,592)
15-24 years: 11.62% (male 2,145,626 /female 2,023,369)
25-54 years: 39.62% (male 7,215,261 /female 7,002,546)
55-64 years: 14.24% (male 2,538,820 /female 2,570,709)
65 years and over: 19.08% (male 3,055,560 /female 3,791,940) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 38.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 37 years
female: 39.5 years
total: 42.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 41.1 years
female: 43.7 years
Population growth rate
0.8% (2018 est.)
0.72% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
12.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
10.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female NA
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 80.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 77.8 years
female: 82.3 years
total population: 82 years (2018 est.)
male: 79.4 years
female: 84.8 years
Total fertility rate
1.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.6 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
NA
Nationality
noun: American(s)
adjective: American
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups
white 72.4%, black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.9%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%, other 6.2%, two or more races 2.9% (2010 est.)

note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 16.3% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2010

Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, other 51.6% (2016 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
NA
Religions
Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)
Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
NA
Languages
English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.)

note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2016)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2016)
Education expenditures
5% of GDP (2014)
5.3% of GDP (2011)
Urbanization
urban population: 82.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 81.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
18.805 million New York-Newark, 12.448 million Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, 8.862 million Chicago, 6.245 million Houston, 6.201 million Dallas-Fort Worth, 5.264 million WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) (2019)
6.139 million Toronto, 4.196 million Montreal, 2.556 million Vancouver, 1.513 million Calgary, 1.43 million Edmonton, 1.378 million OTTAWA (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
10 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
16.8% (2015)
10.5% (2016)
Physicians density
2.59 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
2.61 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2013)
2.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
36.2% (2016)
29.4% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
26.4 years (2015 est.)
28.1 years (2012 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 51.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 29 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 47.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 23.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2015 est.)

Government

United StatesCanada
Country name
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA
etymology: the name America is derived from that of Amerigo VESPUCCI (1454-1512) - Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer - using the Latin form of his name, Americus, feminized to America
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
etymology: the country name likely derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement
Government type
constitutional federal republic
federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm; federal and state authorities and responsibilities regulated in constitution
Capital
name: Washington, DC
geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W
time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

note: the 50 United States cover six time zones

etymology: named after George Washington (1732-1799), the first president of the United States

name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: the city lies on the south bank of the Ottawa River, from which it derives its name; the river name comes from the Algonquin word "adawe" meaning "to trade" and refers to the indigenous peoples who used the river as a trade highway

note:
Canada has six time zones

Administrative divisions
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*
Independence
4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)
National holiday
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Constitution
history: previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine of the 13 states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789
amendments: proposed as a "joint resolution" by Congress, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by at least two thirds of the state legislatures; passage requires ratification by three fourths of the state legislatures or passage in state-held constitutional conventions as specified by Congress; the US president has no role in the constitutional amendment process; amended many times, last in 1992 (2018)
history: consists of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982
amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by the provincial legislative assemblies; there are 5 methods for passage though most require approval by both houses of Parliament, approval of at least two thirds of the provincial legislative assemblies and assent and formalization as a proclamation by the governor general in council; the most restrictive method is reserved for amendments affecting fundamental sections of the constitution, such as the office of the monarch or the governor general, and the constitutional amendment procedures, which require unanimous approval by both houses and by all the provincial assemblies, and assent of the governor general in council; amended 11 times, last in 2011 (Fair Representation Act, 2011) (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
election results: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Julie PAYETTE (since 2 October 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial; Julie PAYETTE, a former space shuttle astronaut, is Canada's fourth female governor general but the first to have flown in space

Legislative branch
description: bicameral Congress consists of:
Senate (100 seats; 2 members directly elected in each of the 50 state constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia and Louisiana which require an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years)
House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia which requires an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 2-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 53, Democratic Party 45, independent 2; composition - men 75, women 25, percent of women 25%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 234, Republican Party 200, 1 seat still undecided; composition - men 328, women 106, percent of women 24.4%; note - total US Congress percent of women 24.5%
note: in addition to the regular members of the House of Representatives there are 6 non-voting delegates elected from the District of Columbia and the US territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands; these are single seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term (except for the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico who serves a 4-year term); the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegates last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75)
House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)
elections: Senate - appointed; latest appointments in December 2018
House of Commons - last held on 21 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)
election results:
Senate - composition as of December 2018 - men 51, women 54, percent of women 51.4%

House of Commons - percent of vote by party - CPC 34.4%, Liberal Party 33.1%, NDP 15.9%, Bloc Quebecois 7.7%, Greens 6.5%, other 2.4%; seats by party - Liberal Party 157, CPC 121, NDP 24, Bloc Quebecois 32, Greens 4; composition - men 240, women 98, percent of women 29%; note - total Parliament percent of women 34.3%
Judicial branch
highest courts: US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: president nominates and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices serve for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories

note: the US court system consists of the federal court system and the state court systems; although each court system is responsible for hearing certain types of cases, neither is completely independent of the other, and the systems often interact

highest courts: Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; Courts Martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; note -  in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court, as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements
Political parties and leaders
Democratic Party [Tom PEREZ]
Green Party [collective leadership]
Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK]
Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]
Bloc Quebecois [Mario BEAULIEU]
Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Andrew SCHEER]
Green Party [Jo-Ann ROBERTS]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH]
People's Party of Canada [Maxime BERNIER]
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag description
13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship, red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory

note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol
National anthem
name: The Star-Spangled Banner
lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH

note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song"; only the first verse is sung

name: O Canada
lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

International law organization participation
withdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
bald eagle; national colors: red, white, blue
maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: minimum of 3 of last 5 years resident in Canada

Economy

United StatesCanada
Economy - overview

The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $59,500. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at purchasing power parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades.

In the US, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, businesses face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.

Long-term problems for the US include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

The onrush of technology has been a driving factor in the gradual development of a "two-tier" labor market in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. But the globalization of trade, and especially the rise of low-wage producers such as China, has put additional downward pressure on wages and upward pressure on the return to capital. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income.

Imported oil accounts for more than 50% of US consumption and oil has a major impact on the overall health of the economy. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. Because the US economy is energy-intensive, falling oil prices since 2013 have alleviated many of the problems the earlier increases had created.

The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the US into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009, Congress passed and former President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012, the Federal Government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries.

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through FY 2018, the direct costs of the wars will have totaled more than $1.9 trillion, according to US Government figures.

In March 2010, former President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million Americans by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on healthcare - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010.

In July 2010, the former president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight.

The Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans in December 2012 to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short-term rates near zero until unemployment dropped below 6.5% or inflation rose above 2.5%. The Fed ended its purchases during the summer of 2014, after the unemployment rate dropped to 6.2%, inflation stood at 1.7%, and public debt fell below 74% of GDP. In December 2015, the Fed raised its target for the benchmark federal funds rate by 0.25%, the first increase since the recession began. With continued low growth, the Fed opted to raise rates several times since then, and in December 2017, the target rate stood at 1.5%.

In December 2017, Congress passed and President Donald TRUMP signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which, among its various provisions, reduces the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%; lowers the individual tax rate for those with the highest incomes from 39.6% to 37%, and by lesser percentages for those at lower income levels; changes many deductions and credits used to calculate taxable income; and eliminates in 2019 the penalty imposed on taxpayers who do not obtain the minimum amount of health insurance required under the ACA. The new taxes took effect on 1 January 2018; the tax cut for corporations are permanent, but those for individuals are scheduled to expire after 2025. The Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) under the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the new law will reduce tax revenues and increase the federal deficit by about $1.45 trillion over the 2018-2027 period. This amount would decline if economic growth were to exceed the JCT’s estimate.

Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada has a large oil and natural gas sector with the majority of crude oil production derived from oil sands in the western provinces, especially Alberta. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia and is the world’s seventh-largest oil producer.

TThe 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) dramatically increased trade and economic integration between the US and Canada. Canada and the US enjoy the world’s most comprehensive bilateral trade and investment relationship, with goods and services trade totaling more than $680 billion in 2017, and two-way investment stocks of more than $800 billion. Over three-fourths of Canada’s merchandise exports are destined for the US each year. Canada is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US, including oil, natural gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium imports.

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital stock, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. The global economic crisis of 2007-08 moved the Canadian economy into sharp recession by late 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada’s economy posted strong growth in 2017 at 3%, but most analysts are projecting Canada’s economic growth will drop back closer to 2% in 2018.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$19.49 trillion (2017 est.)
$19.06 trillion (2016 est.)
$18.77 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$1.774 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.721 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.697 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
2.2% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$59,800 (2017 est.)
$58,900 (2016 est.)
$58,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$48,400 (2017 est.)
$47,500 (2016 est.)
$47,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 19.1% (2017 est.)
services: 80% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)
services: 70.2% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
15.1% (2010 est.)
9.4% (2008 est.)

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2.1% (2017 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force
160.4 million (2017 est.)

note: includes unemployed

19.52 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 0.7% (2009)
industry: 20.3% (2009)
services: 37.3% (2009)
industry and services: 24.2% (2009)
manufacturing: 17.6% (2009)
farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% (2009)
manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3% (2009)
managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3% (2009)
sales and office: 24.2% (2009)
other services: 17.6% (2009)

note: figures exclude the unemployed

agriculture: 2%
industry: 13%
services: 6%
industry and services: 76%
manufacturing: 3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
6.3% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
45 (2007)
40.8 (1997)
32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)
Budget
revenues: 3.315 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.981 trillion (2017 est.)

note: revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion

revenues: 649.6 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 665.7 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas
Industrial production growth rate
2.3% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products
Exports
$1.553 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.456 trillion (2016 est.)
$423.5 billion (2017 est.)
$393.5 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2008 est.)
motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners
Canada 18.3%, Mexico 15.7%, China 8.4%, Japan 4.4% (2017)
US 76.4%, China 4.3% (2017)
Imports
$2.361 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.208 trillion (2016 est.)
$442.1 billion (2017 est.)
$413.4 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2008 est.)
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners
China 21.6%, Mexico 13.4%, Canada 12.8%, Japan 5.8%, Germany 5% (2017)
US 51.5%, China 12.6%, Mexico 6.3% (2017)
Debt - external
$17.91 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$17.85 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
$1.608 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.55 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rates
British pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.885 (2017 est.), 0.903 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
1.308 (2017 est.)
1.3256 (2016 est.)
1.3256 (2015 est.)
1.2788 (2014 est.)
1.0298 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 October - 30 September
1 April - 31 March
Public debt
78.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intragovernment debt were added, "gross debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP

89.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
91.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$123.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$117.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$86.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$82.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$449.1 billion (2017 est.)
-$432.9 billion (2016 est.)
-$48.75 billion (2017 est.)
-$49.32 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$19.49 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.653 trillion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$4.08 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.614 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.039 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.004 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$5.711 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.352 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.371 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.277 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$25.07 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.33 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$24.03 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.593 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.095 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.114 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate
0.5% (31 December 2010)
0.5% (31 December 2009)
1% (31 December 2010)
0.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
4.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.51% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
2.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$21.59 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.24 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.219 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.802 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$3.512 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.251 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$748.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$637.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$3.512 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.251 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$748.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$637.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
17% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP

39.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 8.6%
male: 9.5%
female: 7.7% (2018 est.)
total: 11.1%
male: 12.5%
female: 9.6% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 68.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 17.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 12.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -15% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 57.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
18.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
20% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

United StatesCanada
Electricity - production
4.095 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
649.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
3.902 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
522.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
9.695 billion kWh (2016 est.)
73.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
72.72 billion kWh (2016 est.)
2.682 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
10.962 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
4.264 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
7.969 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
806,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
1.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
2.818 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
NA bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
170.5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
2.056 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
772.8 billion cu m (2017 est.)
159.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
767.6 billion cu m (2017 est.)
124.4 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
89.7 billion cu m (2017 est.)
83.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
86.15 billion cu m (2017 est.)
26.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
1.087 billion kW (2016 est.)
143.5 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
70% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
23% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
56% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
20.3 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
2.009 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
19.96 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
2.445 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
5.218 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
1.115 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
2.175 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
405,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
5.242 billion Mt (2017 est.)
640.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

United StatesCanada
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 119.902 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 14,700,854
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 395.881 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 31,458,600
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 88 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system; mobile subscriber penetration rate of about 127%; 5G technologies and commercial services into 2019 and 2020; developing technologies based on 5G for non-commercial customers as well; FttP rather than FttN efforts (2018)
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country; fixed-line 27 per 100 and mobile-cellular 121 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions)
general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology; consumer demand for mobile data services have promted telecos to invest and advance LTE infrastructure, and further investment in 5G; government policy has aided the extension of broadband to rural and regional areas, with the result that services are almost universally accessible (2018)
domestic: comparatively low mobile penetration provides further room for growth; domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations; 41 per 100 fixed-line; 88 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 1; Nunavut Undersea Fibre Optic Network System, Greenland Connect, Persona, GTT Atlantic, and Express, KetchCan 1 Submarine Fiber Cable system, St Pierre and Miquelon Cable submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)
Internet country code
.us
.ca
Internet users
total: 246,809,221
percent of population: 76.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 31,770,034
percent of population: 89.8% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
4 major terrestrial TV networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with many affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 900 member stations; satellite radio available; in total, over 15,000 radio stations operating (2018)
2 public TV broadcasting networks, 1 in English and 1 in French, each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 1,119 licensed radio stations (2016)

Transportation

United StatesCanada
Railways
total: 293,564 km (2014)
standard gauge: 293,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 77,932 km (2014)
standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 6,586,610 km (2012)
paved: 4,304,715 km (includes 76,334 km of expressways) (2012)
unpaved: 2,281,895 km (2012)
total: 1,042,300 km (2011)
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways) (2011)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)
Waterways
41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce; Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, is shared with Canada) (2012)
636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)
Pipelines
1,984,321 km natural gas, 240,711 km petroleum products (2013)
110000 km gas and liquid petroleum (2017)
Ports and terminals
oil terminal(s): LOOP terminal, Haymark terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Charleston (2,177,000), Hampton Roads (2,841,000), Houston (2,459,000), Long Beach (7,544,000), Los Angeles (9,343,000), New York/New Jersey (6,710,000), Oakland (2,420,000), Savannah (4,046,000), Seattle/Tacoma (3,665,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kenai (AK)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Everett (MA), Freeport (TX), Golden Pass (TX), Hackberry (LA), Lake Charles (LA), Neptune (offshore), Northeast Gateway (offshore), Pascagoula (MS), Sabine Pass (TX)
cargo ports: Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Hampton Roads, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines (LA), Tampa, Texas City
cruise departure ports (passengers): Miami (2,032,000), Port Everglades (1,277,000), Port Canaveral (1,189,000), Seattle (430,000), Long Beach (415,000) (2009)
major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver
oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Montreal (1,537,669), Vancouver (3,252,225) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John
river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),
Fraser River Port (Fraser) Hamilton (Lake Ontario)
Merchant marine
total: 3,692
by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 61, general cargo 115, oil tanker 71, other 3440 (2018)
total: 657
by type: bulk carrier 17, container ship 1, general cargo 91, oil tanker 17, other 531 (2018)
Airports
total: 13,513 (2013)
total: 1,467 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 5,054 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 189 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 235 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,478 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2,249 (2013)
under 914 m: 903 (2013)
total: 523 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 147 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 257 (2017)
under 914 m: 79 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 8,459 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 140 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1,552 (2013)
under 914 m: 6,760 (2013)
total: 944 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 385 (2013)
under 914 m: 484 (2013)
Heliports
5,287 (2013)
26 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 92 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6,817 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 798.23 million (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 37.219 billion mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 51 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 80,228,301 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,074,830,881 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
N (2016)
C (2016)

Military

United StatesCanada
Military branches
United States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard (administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy), National Guard (Army National Guard and Air National Guard) (2019)
Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command, Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 34 (Army), 39 (Air Force), 39 (Navy), 28 (Marines), 31 (Coast Guard); 8-year service obligation, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard); all military occupations and positions open to women (2019)
17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
3.16% of GDP (2018)
3.11% of GDP (2017)
3.21% of GDP (2016)
3.27% of GDP (2015)
3.48% of GDP (2014)
1.25% of GDP (2018)
1.29% of GDP (2017)
1.16% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
1% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

United StatesCanada
Disputes - international

the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Illicit drugs
world's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): the US admitted 30,000 refugees during FY2019 including: 12,958 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 4,932 (Burma), 4,451 (Ukraine), 1,757 (Eritrea), 1,198 (Afghanistan)

note: 72,722 Venezuelans have claimed asylum since 2014 because of the economic and political crisis (2018)

refugees (country of origin): 7,356 (Colombia), 7,192 (China), 7,141 (Haiti), 5,483 (Nigeria), 5,607 (Pakistan) (2018); 9,978 (Venezuela) (2019)
stateless persons: 3,790 (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook