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United States vs. Canada

Introduction

United StatesCanada
BackgroundBritain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada repatriated its constitution from the UK in 1982, severing a final colonial tie. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Geography

United StatesCanada
LocationNorth America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates38 00 N, 97 00 W
60 00 N, 95 00 W
Map referencesNorth America
North America
Areatotal: 9,833,517 sq km
land: 9,147,593 sq km
water: 685,924 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories (2010)
total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparativeabout half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union
slightly larger than the US
Land boundariestotal: 12,048 km
border countries (2): Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,155 km
note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km
total: 8,893 km
border countries (1): US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country
Coastline19,924 km
202,080 km
note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatemostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrainvast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 760 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Death Valley -86 m (lowest point in North America)
highest point: Denali (Mount McKinley) 6,190 m (highest point in North America)
note: the peak of Mauna Kea (4,205 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level
mean elevation: 487 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resourcescoal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land
note: the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total
iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 44.5%
arable land 16.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 27.4%
forest: 33.3%
other: 22.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 6.8%
arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6%
forest: 34.1%
other: 59.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land264,000 sq km (2012)
8,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardstsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell; in Hawaii: Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant
Environment - current issueslarge emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - noteworld's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent
second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined
Population distributionlarge urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu
vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Demographics

United StatesCanada
Population326,625,791 (July 2017 est.)
35,623,680 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18.73% (male 31,255,995/female 29,919,938)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 22,213,952/female 21,137,826)
25-54 years: 39.45% (male 64,528,673/female 64,334,499)
55-64 years: 12.91% (male 20,357,880/female 21,821,976)
65 years and over: 15.63% (male 22,678,235/female 28,376,817) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 15.44% (male 2,819,279/female 2,680,024)
15-24 years: 11.85% (male 2,171,703/female 2,048,546)
25-54 years: 39.99% (male 7,227,145/female 7,020,156)
55-64 years: 14.1% (male 2,492,120/female 2,529,652)
65 years and over: 18.63% (male 2,958,721/female 3,676,334) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 38.1 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 39.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 42.2 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 43.5 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate0.81% (2017 est.)
0.73% (2017 est.)
Birth rate12.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
10.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: NA
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 80 years
male: 77.7 years
female: 82.2 years (2017 est.)
total population: 81.9 years
male: 79.3 years
female: 84.7 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.6 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: American(s)
adjective: American
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groupswhite 72.4%, black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.9%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%, other 6.2%, two or more races 2.9% (2010 estimate)
note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 16.3% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2010
Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsProtestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)
Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesEnglish 79%, Spanish 13%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific island 3.4%, other 1% (2015 est.)
note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska
English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2013)
5.3% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 82% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 82.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.16% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationNew York-Newark 18.593 million; Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana 12.31 million; Chicago 8.745 million; Miami 5.817 million; Dallas-Fort Worth 5.703 million; WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) 4.955 million (2015)
Toronto 5.993 million; Montreal 3.981 million; Vancouver 2.485 million; Calgary 1.337 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.326 million; Edmonton 1.272 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate14 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures17.1% of GDP (2014)
10.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.55 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
2.48 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
2.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate36.2% (2016)
29.4% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth26.4 years (2015 est.)
28.1 years (2012 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.2
youth dependency ratio: 29
elderly dependency ratio: 22.1
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2015 est.)

Government

United StatesCanada
Country nameconventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA
etymology: the name America is derived from that of Amerigo VESPUCCI (1454-1512) - Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer - using the Latin form of his name, Americus, feminized to America
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
etymology: the country name derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word ""kanata"" meaning village or settlement
"
Government typeconstitutional federal republic
federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capitalname: Washington, DC
geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W
time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: the 50 United States cover six time zones
name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: Canada has six time zones
Administrative divisions50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*
Independence4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)
National holidayIndependence Day, 4 July (1776)
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Constitutionprevious 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789; amended many times, last in 1992 (2016)
made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to the 1982 Constitution Act, last in 2011 (2016)
Legal systemcommon law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law except Louisiana, which is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts
common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 10 November 2020)
election results: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%
head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Julie PAYETTE (since 2 October 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general
note: Julie PAYETTE, a former space shuttle astronaut, is Canada's fourth female governor general but the first to have flown in space
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats; 2 members directly elected in each of the 50 state constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia and Louisiana which require an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia which requires an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 2-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 6 November 2018); House of Representatives - last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 6 November 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 24, Democratic Party 10; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 241, Democratic Party 194,
note: in addition to the regular members of the House of Representatives there are 6 non-voting delegates elected from the District of Columbia and the US territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands; these are single seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term (except for the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico who serves a 4-year term); the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegates last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 6 November 2018)
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)
elections: House of Commons - last held on 19 October 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 39.5%, CPC 31.9%, NDP 19.7%, Bloc Quebecois 4.7%, Greens 3.4%, other .8%; seats by party - Liberal Party 184, CPC 99, NDP 44, Bloc Quebecois 10, Greens 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: president nominates and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories
note: the US court system consists of the federal court system and the state court systems; although each court system is responsible for hearing certain types of cases, neither is completely independent of the other, and the systems often interact
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; Courts Martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court, as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Party [Tom PEREZ]
Green Party [collective leadership]
Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK]
Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]
Bloc Quebecois [Martine OUELLET]
Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Andrew SCHEER]
Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH]
Political pressure groups and leadersenvironmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; First Nations organizations; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag description13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; the blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship; red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory
note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol
National anthem"name: ""The Star-Spangled Banner""
lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH
note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of ""The Anacreontic Song""; only the first verse is sung
"
"name: ""O Canada""
lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE
note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, ""O Canada"" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, ""God Save the Queen"" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
"
International law organization participationwithdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)bald eagle; national colors: red, white, blue
maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

United StatesCanada
Economy - overview"The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $57,300. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at purchasing power parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades.

In the US, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, businesses face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.

Long-term problems for the US include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

The onrush of technology has been a driving factor in the gradual development of a ""two-tier"" labor market in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. But the globalization of trade, and especially the rise of low-wage producers such as China, has put additional downward pressure on wages and upward pressure on the return to capital. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income.

Imported oil accounts for nearly 55% of US consumption and oil has a major impact on the overall health of the economy. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. Because the US economy is energy-intensive, falling oil prices since 2013 have alleviated many of the problems the earlier increases had created.

The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the US into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009, Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012, the Federal Government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries.

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through 2014, the direct costs of the wars totaled more than $1.5 trillion, according to US Government figures.

In March 2010, President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million Americans by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on healthcare - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010.

In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are ""too big to fail,"" and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight.

In December 2012, the Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short-term rates near zero until unemployment dropped below 6.5% or inflation rose above 2.5%. In late 2013, the Fed announced that it would begin scaling back long-term bond purchases to $75 billion per month in January 2014 and further reduce them as conditions warranted; the Fed ended the purchases during the summer of 2014. In 2014, the unemployment rate dropped to 6.2%, and continued to fall to 5.5% by mid-2015, the lowest rate of joblessness since before the global recession began; inflation stood at 1.7%, and public debt as a share of GDP continued to decline, following several years of increases. In December 2015, the Fed raised its target for the benchmark federal funds rate by 0.25%, the first increase since the recession began. With US GDP growth below 2%, the Fed opted to raise rates three times since then, and in mid-June 2017, the range for the target rate stood at 1% to 1.25%.
"
Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada has a large oil and natural gas sector with the majority of crude oil production derived from oil sands in the western provinces, especially Alberta. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia and is the world’s sixth-largest oil producer.

The 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) dramatically increased trade and economic integration between the US and Canada. Canada and the US enjoy the world’s most comprehensive and highly balanced bilateral trade and investment relationship, with merchandise trade of $544 billion in 2016, services trade of over $80 billion, and two-way investment stocks of nearly $700 billion. Over three-fourths of Canada’s exports are destined for the US each year. Canada is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US, including oil, natural gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium imports.

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital stock, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. The global economic crisis of 2007-08 moved the Canadian economy into sharp recession by late 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Since the fall in world oil prices in 2014, Canada has achieved modest economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$19.36 trillion (2017 est.)
$18.95 trillion (2016 est.)
$18.67 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$1.764 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.712 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.687 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.2% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$59,500 (2017 est.)
$58,600 (2016 est.)
$58,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$48,100 (2017 est.)
$47,200 (2016 est.)
$47,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0.9%
industry: 18.9%
services: 80.2%
(2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 28.1%
services: 70.2% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line15.1% (2010 est.)
9.4%
note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.1% (2017 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force160.4 million
note: includes unemployed (2017 est.)
19.52 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationfarming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7%
manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3%
managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3%
sales and office: 24.2%
other services: 17.6%
note: figures exclude the unemployed
(2009)
agriculture: 2%
manufacturing: 13%
construction: 6%
services: 76%
other: 3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index45 (2007)
40.8 (1997)
32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $3.336 trillion
expenditures: $3.991 trillion
note: for the US, revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: $623.7 billion
expenditures: $657.3 billion (2017 est.)
Industrieshighly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas
Industrial production growth rate1.8% (2017 est.)
4.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products
Exports$1.576 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.456 trillion (2016 est.)
$433 billion (2017 est.)
$393.5 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesagricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2008 est.)
motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partnersCanada 18.3%, Mexico 15.9%, China 8%, Japan 4.4% (2016)
US 76.4%, China 4.1% (2016)
Imports$2.352 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.208 trillion (2016 est.)
$443.7 billion (2017 est.)
$413.4 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesagricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2008 est.)
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partnersChina 21.1%, Mexico 13.4%, Canada 12.7%, Japan 6%, Germany 5.2% (2016)
US 52.2%, China 12.1%, Mexico 6.2% (2016)
Debt - external$17.91 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$17.85 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
$1.608 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.55 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesBritish pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.906 (2017 est.), 0.9214 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
1.308 (2017 est.)
1.3256 (2016 est.)
1.3256 (2015 est.)
1.2788 (2014 est.)
1.0298 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 October - 30 September
1 April - 31 March
Public debt"77.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
76.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as ""Debt Held by the Public,"" which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intra-government debt were added, ""gross debt"" would increase by about one-third of GDP
"
98.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
99.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$117.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$117.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$85.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$82.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$462 billion (2017 est.)
-$451.7 billion (2016 est.)
-$55.57 billion (2017 est.)
-$50.53 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$19.36 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.64 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$4.084 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.614 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.045 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.004 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$5.644 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.352 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.366 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.277 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$25.07 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.33 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$24.03 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.593 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.095 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.114 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.5% (31 December 2010)
0.5% (31 December 2009)
1% (31 December 2010)
0.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.51% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
2.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$21.59 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.24 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.173 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.794 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$3.627 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.25 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$715.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$637.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$14 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.84 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.554 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.362 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.2% of GDP
note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP (2017 est.)
38% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.4%
male: 11.4%
female: 9.3% (2016 est.)
total: 13.1%
male: 14.8%
female: 11.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 69.1%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 12.2%
imports of goods and services: -15.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 58.1%
government consumption: 20.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.8%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.4%
imports of goods and services: -33.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving17.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

United StatesCanada
Electricity - production4.088 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
643.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.911 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
516.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports9.695 billion kWh (2016 est.)
73.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports80.66 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.303 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production8.853 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
3.679 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports7.85 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
892,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports590,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2.671 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves36.52 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
169.7 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.714 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.182 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production766.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
149.9 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption773.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
114.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports50.52 billion cu m (2015 est.)
78.25 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports76.96 billion cu m (2015 est.)
19.63 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.074 billion kW (2015 est.)
147.6 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels70.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
26.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants7.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
53.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels9.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
9.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources10.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
11.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production20.08 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.883 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption19.69 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
2.379 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports4.67 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
991,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports2.205 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
381,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy5.402 billion Mt (2013 est.)
564 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

United StatesCanada
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 121.53 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 14,987,520
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 416.684 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2016 est.)
total: 30.45 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country
international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2016)
general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: comparatively low mobile penetration provides further room for growth; domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2016)
Internet country code.us
.ca
Internet userstotal: 246,809,221
percent of population: 76.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 31,770,034
percent of population: 89.8% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media4 major terrestrial TV networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with many affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 600 member stations; satellite radio available; overall, nearly 15,000 radio stations operating (2008)
2 public TV broadcasting networks, 1 in English and 1 in French, each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 1,119 licensed radio stations (2016)

Transportation

United StatesCanada
Railwaystotal: 293,564.2 km
standard gauge: 293,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 77,932 km
standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 6,586,610 km
paved: 4,304,715 km (includes 76,334 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,281,895 km (2012)
total: 1,042,300 km
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)
Waterways41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce; Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, is shared with Canada) (2012)
636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)
Pipelinesnatural gas 1,984,321 km; petroleum products 240,711 km (2013)
gas and liquid petroleum 110,000 km (2017)
Ports and terminalscargo ports: Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Hampton Roads, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines (LA), Tampa, Texas City
container port(s) (TEUs): Hampton Roads (2,549,000), Houston (2,131,000), Long Beach (7,192,000), Los Angeles (8,160,000), New York/New Jersey (6,372,000), Oakland (2,278,000), Savannah (3,737,000), Seattle (3,531,000) (2015)
cruise departure ports (passengers): Miami (2,032,000), Port Everglades (1,277,000), Port Canaveral (1,189,000), Seattle (430,000), Long Beach (415,000) (2009)
oil terminal(s): LOOP terminal, Haymark terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Everett (MA), Freeport (TX), Golden Pass (TX), Hackberry (LA), Lake Charles (LA), Neptune (offshore), Northeast Gateway (offshore), Pascagoula (MS), Sabine Pass (TX)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kenai (AK)
major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver
river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence); Fraser River Port (Fraser); Hamilton (Lake Ontario)
oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),
container port(s): Montreal (1,446,000), Vancouver (3,054,000)(2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John
Airports13,513 (2013)
1,467 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5,054
over 3,047 m: 189
2,438 to 3,047 m: 235
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,478
914 to 1,523 m: 2,249
under 914 m: 903 (2013)
total: 523
over 3,047 m: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 147
914 to 1,523 m: 257
under 914 m: 79 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 8,459
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 140
914 to 1,523 m: 1,552
under 914 m: 6,760 (2013)
total: 944
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 385
under 914 m: 484 (2013)
Heliports5,287 (2013)
26 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 92
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6,817
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 798.23 million
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 37.219 billion mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 51
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 80,228,301
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,074,830,881 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixN (2016)
C (2016)

Military

United StatesCanada
Military branchesUnited States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard; note - Coast Guard administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy (2017)
Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); 8-year service obligation, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines); all military occupations and positions open to women (2016)
17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.29% of GDP (2016)
3.3% of GDP (2015)
3.51% of GDP (2014)
3.83% of GDP (2013)
4.24% of GDP (2012)
0.99% of GDP (2016)
0.99% of GDP (2015)
1% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
1.12% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

United StatesCanada
Disputes - internationalthe US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution
managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
Illicit drugsworld's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): the US admitted 84,994 refugees during FY2016 including: 16,370 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 12,587 (Syria); 12,347 (Burma); 9,880 (Iraq); 9,020 (Somalia); 5,817 (Bhutan); 3,750 (Iran)
note: more than 46,000 Venezuelans have claimed asylum since 2014 because of the economic and political crisis (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 8,228 (Colombia); 7,356 (China); 6,774 (Haiti) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook