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United Kingdom vs. United States

Introduction

United KingdomUnited States
Background

The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith in the 19th century, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two world wars and the Irish Republic's withdrawal from the union. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of NATO and the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1998.

The UK has been an active member of the EU since its accession in 1973, although it chose to remain outside the Economic and Monetary Union. However, motivated in part by frustration at a remote bureaucracy in Brussels and massive migration into the country, UK citizens on 23 June 2016 narrowly voted to leave the EU. The UK is scheduled to depart the EU on 31 January 2020, but negotiations on the future EU-UK economic and security relationship will continue throughout 2020 and potentially beyond.

Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

Geography

United KingdomUnited States
LocationWestern Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of FranceNorth America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Geographic coordinates54 00 N, 2 00 W38 00 N, 97 00 W
Map referencesEuropeNorth America
Areatotal: 243,610 sq km

land: 241,930 sq km

water: 1,680 sq km

note 1: the percentage area breakdown of the four UK countries is: England 53%, Scotland 32%, Wales 9%, and Northern Ireland 6%

note 2: includes Rockall and the Shetland Islands, which are part of Scotland
total: 9,833,517 sq km

land: 9,147,593 sq km

water: 685,924 sq km

note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories
Area - comparativetwice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregonabout half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union
Land boundariestotal: 499 km

border countries (1): Ireland 499 km
total: 12,002 km

border countries (5): Canada 8,891 km (including 2,475 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,111 km

note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km
Coastline12,429 km19,924 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: not specified
Climatetemperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcastmostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

note: many consider Denali, the highest peak in the US, to be the world’s coldest mountain because of its combination of high elevation and its subarctic location at 63 degrees north latitude; permanent snow and ice cover over 75 percent of the mountain, and enormous glaciers, up to 45 miles long and 3,700 feet thick, spider out from its base in every direction; it is home to some of the world’s coldest and most violent weather, where winds of over 150 miles per hour and temperatures of -93°F have been recorded.  
Terrainmostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeastvast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
Elevation extremeshighest point: Ben Nevis 1,345 m

lowest point: The Fens -4 m

mean elevation: 162 m
highest point: Denali 6,190 m (Mount McKinley) (highest point in North America)

lowest point: Death Valley (lowest point in North America) -86 m

mean elevation: 760 m

note: Denali is one of the most striking features on the entire planet; at 20,310 feet, it is the crowning peak of the Alaska Range and the highest mountain on North America; it towers three and one-half vertical miles above its base, making it a mile taller from base to summit than Mt. Everest; Denali's base sits at about 2,000 feet above sea level and rises over three and one-half miles to its 20,310 foot summit; Everest begins on a 14,000-foot high plain, then summits at 29,028 feet.
note:
 the peak of Mauna Kea (4,207 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level
Natural resourcescoal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable landcoal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land;

note 1: the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total

note 2: the US is reliant on foreign imports for 100% of its needs for the following strategic resources - Arsenic, Cesium, Fluorspar, Gallium, Graphite, Indium, Manganese, Niobium, Rare Earths, Rubidium, Scandium, Tantalum, Yttrium; see Appendix H: Strategic Materials for further details
Land useagricultural land: 71% (2018 est.)

arable land: 25.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 45.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.9% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 44.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)

other: 22.2% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land950 sq km (2012)264,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardswinter windstorms; floods

tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell, Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in Hawaii: Haleakala, Kilauea, Loihi; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - current issuesair pollution improved but remains a concern, particularly in the London region; soil pollution from pesticides and heavy metals; decline in marine and coastal habitats brought on by pressures from housing, tourism, and industryair pollution; large emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; deforestation; mining; desertification; species conservation; invasive species (the Hawaiian Islands are particularly vulnerable)
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping-London Protocol
Geography - notelies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel (the Channel Tunnel or Chunnel); because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

note 1: world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point (6,190 m) in North America and Death Valley the lowest point (-86 m) on the continent

note 2: the western coast of the United States and southern coast of Alaska lie along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: the Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands that divide the Bering Sea (north) from the main Pacific Ocean (south); they extend about 1,800 km westward from the Alaskan Peninsula; the archipelago consists of 14 larger islands, 55 smaller islands, and hundreds of islets; there are 41 active volcanoes on the islands, which together form a large northern section of the Ring of Fire

note 4: Mammoth Cave, in west-central Kentucky, is the world's longest known cave system with more than 650 km (405 miles) of surveyed passageways, which is nearly twice as long as the second-longest cave system, the Sac Actun underwater cave in Mexico - the world's longest underwater cave system (see "Geography - note" under Mexico);

note 5: Kazumura Cave on the island of Hawaii is the world's longest and deepest lava tube cave; it has been surveyed at 66 km (41 mi) long and 1,102 m (3,614 ft) deep

note 6: Bracken Cave outside of San Antonio, Texas is the world's largest bat cave; it is the summer home to the largest colony of bats in the world; an estimated 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats roost in the cave from March to October making it the world's largest known concentration of mammals

note 7: the US is reliant on foreign imports for 100% of its needs for the following strategic resources - Arsenic, Cesium, Fluorspar, Gallium, Graphite, Indium, Manganese, Niobium, Rare Earths, Rubidium, Scandium, Tantalum, Yttrium; see Appendix H: Strategic Materials for further details

note 8: three food crops are generally acknowledged to be native to areas of what is now the United States: cranberries, pecans, and sunflowers

Total renewable water resources147 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)3.069 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionthe core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scotish lowlands between Endinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfastlarge urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu

Demographics

United KingdomUnited States
Population67.081 million United Kingdom (June 2020 est.)

constituent countries by percentage of total population:
England 84.3%
Scotland 8.1%
Wales 4.7%
Northern Ireland 2.8%
334,998,398 (July 2021 est.)

note: the US Census Bureau's 2020 census results show the US population as 331,449,281 as of 1 April 2020
Age structure0-14 years: 17.63% (male 5,943,435/female 5,651,780)

15-24 years: 11.49% (male 3,860,435/female 3,692,398)

25-54 years: 39.67% (male 13,339,965/female 12,747,598)

55-64 years: 12.73% (male 4,139,378/female 4,234,701)

65 years and over: 18.48% (male 5,470,116/female 6,681,311) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 18.46% (male 31,374,555/female 30,034,371)

15-24 years: 12.91% (male 21,931,368/female 21,006,463)

25-54 years: 38.92% (male 64,893,670/female 64,564,565)

55-64 years: 12.86% (male 20,690,736/female 22,091,808)

65 years and over: 16.85% (male 25,014,147/female 31,037,419) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.6 years

male: 39.6 years

female: 41.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 38.5 years

male: 37.2 years

female: 39.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.48% (2021 est.)0.7% (2021 est.)
Birth rate11.77 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)12.33 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate9.41 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)8.35 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate2.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)3.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female NA

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 5.22 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.61 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.3 years

male: 79.02 years

female: 83.7 years (2021 est.)
total population: 80.43 years

male: 78.18 years

female: 82.65 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.86 children born/woman (2021 est.)1.84 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNANA
Nationalitynoun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)

adjective: British
noun: American(s)

adjective: American
Ethnic groupsWhite 87.2%, Black/African/Caribbean/black British 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)White 72.4%, Black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%, Amerindian and Alaska Native 0.9%, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0.2%, other 6.2%, two or more races 2.9% (2010 est.)

note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (White, Black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 16.3% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2010
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNANA
ReligionsChristian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNANA
LanguagesEnglish

note: the following are recognized regional languages: Scots (about 30% of the population of Scotland), Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 speakers in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 people in Cornwall) (2012 est.)
English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.)

note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 18 years (2018)
total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2018)
Education expenditures5.4% of GDP (2017)5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 84.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 82.9% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.96% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 97% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 3% of population

total: 1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population9.426 million LONDON (capital), 2.750 million Manchester, 2.626 million Birmingham, 1.902 million West Yorkshire, 1.681 million Glasgow, 936,000 Southampton/Portsmouth (2021)18.823 million New York-Newark, 12.459 million Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, 8.877 million Chicago, 6.491 million Houston, 6.397 million Dallas-Fort Worth, 5.378 million WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures10% (2018)16.9% (2018)
Physicians density2.81 physicians/1,000 population (2018)2.61 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.8% (2016)36.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth29 years (2018 est.)

note: data represent England and Wales only
27 years (2019 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate76.1% (2010/12)

note: percent of women aged 16-49
73.9% (2017/19)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 57.1

youth dependency ratio: 27.8

elderly dependency ratio: 29.3

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 53.9

youth dependency ratio: 28.3

elderly dependency ratio: 25.6

potential support ratio: 3.9 (2020 est.)

Government

United KingdomUnited States
Country nameconventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - the island of Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales

conventional short form: United Kingdom

abbreviation: UK

etymology: self-descriptive country name; the designation "Great Britain," in the sense of "Larger Britain," dates back to medieval times and was used to distinguish the island from "Little Britain," or Brittany in modern France; the name Ireland derives from the Gaelic "Eriu," the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land)
conventional long form: United States of America

conventional short form: United States

abbreviation: US or USA

etymology: the name America is derived from that of Amerigo VESPUCCI (1454-1512) - Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer - using the Latin form of his name, Americus, feminized to America
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realmconstitutional federal republic
Capitalname: London

geographic coordinates: 51 30 N, 0 05 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: the time statements apply to the United Kingdom proper, not to its crown dependencies or overseas territories

etymology: the name derives from the Roman settlement of Londinium, established on the current site of London around A.D. 43; the original meaning of the name is uncertain
name: Washington, DC

geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W

time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

note: the 50 United States cover six time zones

etymology: named after George Washington (1732-1799), the first president of the United States
Administrative divisions

England: 26 two-tier counties, 32 London boroughs and 1 City of London or Greater London, 36 metropolitan districts, 56 unitary authorities (including 4 single-tier counties*);

two-tier counties: Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire

London boroughs and City of London or Greater London: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, City of London, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminster

metropolitan districts: Barnsley, Birmingham, Bolton, Bradford, Bury, Calderdale, Coventry, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Kirklees, Knowlsey, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Oldham, Rochdale, Rotherham, Salford, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield, Solihull, South Tyneside, St. Helens, Stockport, Sunderland, Tameside, Trafford, Wakefield, Walsall, Wigan, Wirral, Wolverhampton

unitary authorities: Bath and North East Somerset; Bedford; Blackburn with Darwen; Blackpool; Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole; Bracknell Forest; Brighton and Hove; City of Bristol; Central Bedfordshire; Cheshire East; Cheshire West and Chester; Cornwall; Darlington; Derby; Dorset; Durham County*; East Riding of Yorkshire; Halton; Hartlepool; Herefordshire*; Isle of Wight*; Isles of Scilly; City of Kingston upon Hull; Leicester; Luton; Medway; Middlesbrough; Milton Keynes; North East Lincolnshire; North Lincolnshire; North Somerset; Northumberland*; Nottingham; Peterborough; Plymouth; Portsmouth; Reading; Redcar and Cleveland; Rutland; Shropshire; Slough; South Gloucestershire; Southampton; Southend-on-Sea; Stockton-on-Tees; Stoke-on-Trent; Swindon; Telford and Wrekin; Thurrock; Torbay; Warrington; West Berkshire; Wiltshire; Windsor and Maidenhead; Wokingham; York

Northern Ireland: 5 borough councils, 4 district councils, 2 city councils;

borough councils: Antrim and Newtownabbey; Ards and North Down; Armagh City, Banbridge, and Craigavon; Causeway Coast and Glens; Mid and East Antrim

district councils: Derry City and Strabane; Fermanagh and Omagh; Mid Ulster; Newry, Murne, and Down

city councils: Belfast; Lisburn and Castlereagh

Scotland: 32 council areas;

council areas: Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, The Scottish Borders, West Dunbartonshire, West Lothian

Wales: 22 unitary authorities;

unitary authorities: Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd, Isle of Anglesey, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire, Powys, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea, The Vale of Glamorgan, Torfaen, Wrexham

50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areasAnguilla; Bermuda; British Indian Ocean Territory; British Virgin Islands; Cayman Islands; Falkland Islands; Gibraltar; Montserrat; Pitcairn Islands; Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Turks and Caicos IslandsAmerican Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; it entered into a political relationship with all four political entities: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994)
Independenceno official date of independence: 927 (minor English kingdoms unite); 3 March 1284 (enactment of the Statute of Rhuddlan uniting England and Wales); 1536 (Act of Union formally incorporates England and Wales); 1 May 1707 (Acts of Union formally unite England, Scotland, and Wales as Great Britain); 1 January 1801 (Acts of Union formally unite Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland); 6 December 1921 (Anglo-Irish Treaty formalizes partition of Ireland; six counties remain part of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland); 12 April 1927 (Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act establishes current name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
National holidaythe UK does not celebrate one particular national holidayIndependence Day, 4 July (1776)
Constitutionhistory: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

amendments: proposed as a bill for an Act of Parliament by the government, by the House of Commons, or by the House of Lords; passage requires agreement by both houses and by the monarch (Royal Assent); many previous, last in 2020 -  The European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020, European Union (Future Relationship) Act 2020 (2021)
history: previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine of the 13 states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789

amendments: proposed as a "joint resolution" by Congress, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by at least two thirds of the state legislatures; passage requires ratification by three fourths of the state legislatures or passage in state-held constitutional conventions as specified by Congress; the US president has no role in the constitutional amendment process; amended many times, last in 1992
Legal systemcommon law system; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998common law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law, except Louisiana, where state law is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)

head of government: Prime Minister Boris JOHNSON (Conservative) (since 24 July 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister; election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held by 2 May 2024)

note: in addition to serving as the UK head of state, the British sovereign is the constitutional monarch for 15 additional Commonwealth countries (these 16 states are each referred to as a Commonwealth realm)
chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

election results: Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. elected president; electoral vote - Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (Democratic Party) 306, Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 232; percent of direct popular vote - Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. 51.3%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.9%, other 1.8%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of:
House of Lords (membership not fixed; as of December 2019, 796 lords were eligible to participate in the work of the House of Lords - 679 life peers, 91 hereditary peers, and 26 clergy; members are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister and non-party political members recommended by the House of Lords Appointments Commission); note - House of Lords total does not include ineligible members or members on leave of absence
House of Commons (650 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve 5-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)

elections:
House of Lords - no elections; note - in 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held in the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain; elections held only as vacancies in the hereditary peerage arise)
House of Commons - last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held by 2 May 2024)

election results:
House of Lords - composition - men 579, women 217, percent of women 27.3%
House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative 43.6%, Labor 32.1%, Lib Dems 11.6%, SNP 3.9%, Greens 2.7%, Brexit Party 2.0%, other 4.1%; seats by party - Conservative 365, Labor 202, SNP 48, Lib Dems 11, DUP 8, Sinn Fein 7, Plaid Cymru 4, other 9; composition - men 430, women 220, percent of women 34%; total Parliament percent of women 30.2%
description: bicameral Congress consists of:
Senate (100 seats; 2 members directly elected in each of the 50 state constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia and Louisiana which require an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years)
House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia which requires an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 2-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 8 November 2022)
House of Representatives - last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 8 November 2022)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 50, Democratic Party 50; composition - men 76, women 24, percent of women 24%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 221, Republican Party 211, 3 seats vacant; composition - men 312, women 120, percent of women 27.8%; note - total US Congress percent of women 27.1%

note: in addition to the regular members of the House of Representatives there are 6 non-voting delegates elected from the District of Columbia and the US territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands; these are single seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term (except for the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico who serves a 4-year term); the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegates last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 8 November 2022)
Judicial branchhighest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 12 justices, including the court president and deputy president); note - the Supreme Court was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and implemented in 2009, replacing the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the highest court in the United Kingdom

judge selection and term of office: judge candidates selected by an independent committee of several judicial commissions, followed by their recommendations to the prime minister, and appointed by the monarch; justices serve for life

subordinate courts: England and Wales: Court of Appeal (civil and criminal divisions); High Court; Crown Court; County Courts; Magistrates' Courts; Scotland: Court of Sessions; Sheriff Courts; High Court of Justiciary; tribunals; Northern Ireland: Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland; High Court; county courts; magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals
highest courts: US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: president nominates and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices serve for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories

note: the US court system consists of the federal court system and the state court systems; although each court system is responsible for hearing certain types of cases, neither is completely independent of the other, and the systems often interact
Political parties and leadersAlliance Party (Northern Ireland) [Naomi LONG] 
Brexit Party [Nigel FARAGE]
Conservative and Unionist Party [Boris JOHNSON]
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) (vacant)
Green Party of England and Wales or Greens [Sian BERRY and Jonathan BARTLEY]
Labor (Labour) Party [Sir Keir STARMER]
Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Ed Davey]
Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Adam PRICE]
Scottish National Party or SNP [Nicola STURGEON]
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Mary Lou MCDONALD]
Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Colum EASTWOOD]
Ulster Unionist Party or UUP (Northern Ireland) [Robin SWANN]
UK Independence Party or UKIP [Pat MOUNTAIN, interim leader]
Democratic Party [Tom PEREZ]
Green Party [collective leadership]
Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK]
Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, C, CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag descriptionblue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship, red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory

note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
National anthemname: God Save the Queen

lyrics/music: unknown

note: in use since 1745; by tradition, the song serves as both the national and royal anthem of the UK; it is known as either "God Save the Queen" or "God Save the King," depending on the gender of the reigning monarch; it also serves as the royal anthem of many Commonwealth nations
name: The Star-Spangled Banner

lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH

note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song"; only the first verse is sung
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionwithdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
National symbol(s)lion (Britain in general); lion, Tudor rose, oak (England); lion, unicorn, thistle (Scotland); dragon, daffodil, leek (Wales); shamrock, flax (Northern Ireland); national colors: red, white, blue (Britain in general); red, white (England); blue, white (Scotland); red, white, green (Wales)bald eagle; national colors: red, white, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the United Kingdom

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

United KingdomUnited States
Economy - overview

The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining; the UK has been a net importer of energy since 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, are key drivers of British GDP growth. Manufacturing, meanwhile, has declined in importance but still accounts for about 10% of economic output.

In 2008, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Falling home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded the UK’s economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the then CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated an austerity program, which has continued under the Conservative government. However, the deficit still remains one of the highest in the G7, standing at 3.6% of GDP as of 2017, and the UK has pledged to lower its corporation tax from 20% to 17% by 2020. The UK had a debt burden of 90.4% GDP at the end of 2017.

The UK economy has begun to slow since the referendum vote to leave the EU in June 2016. A sustained depreciation of the British pound has increased consumer and producer prices, weighing on consumer spending without spurring a meaningful increase in exports. The UK has an extensive trade relationship with other EU members through its single market membership, and economic observers have warned the exit will jeopardize its position as the central location for European financial services. The UK is slated to leave the EU at the end of January 2020.

The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $59,500. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at purchasing power parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades.

In the US, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, businesses face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.

Long-term problems for the US include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

The onrush of technology has been a driving factor in the gradual development of a "two-tier" labor market in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. But the globalization of trade, and especially the rise of low-wage producers such as China, has put additional downward pressure on wages and upward pressure on the return to capital. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income.

Imported oil accounts for more than 50% of US consumption and oil has a major impact on the overall health of the economy. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. Because the US economy is energy-intensive, falling oil prices since 2013 have alleviated many of the problems the earlier increases had created.

The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the US into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009, Congress passed and former President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012, the Federal Government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries.

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through FY 2018, the direct costs of the wars will have totaled more than $1.9 trillion, according to US Government figures.

In March 2010, former President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million Americans by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on healthcare - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010.

In July 2010, the former president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight.

The Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans in December 2012 to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short-term rates near zero until unemployment dropped below 6.5% or inflation rose above 2.5%. The Fed ended its purchases during the summer of 2014, after the unemployment rate dropped to 6.2%, inflation stood at 1.7%, and public debt fell below 74% of GDP. In December 2015, the Fed raised its target for the benchmark federal funds rate by 0.25%, the first increase since the recession began. With continued low growth, the Fed opted to raise rates several times since then, and in December 2017, the target rate stood at 1.5%.

In December 2017, Congress passed and former President Donald TRUMP signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which, among its various provisions, reduces the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%; lowers the individual tax rate for those with the highest incomes from 39.6% to 37%, and by lesser percentages for those at lower income levels; changes many deductions and credits used to calculate taxable income; and eliminates in 2019 the penalty imposed on taxpayers who do not obtain the minimum amount of health insurance required under the ACA. The new taxes took effect on 1 January 2018; the tax cut for corporations are permanent, but those for individuals are scheduled to expire after 2025. The Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) under the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the new law will reduce tax revenues and increase the federal deficit by about $1.45 trillion over the 2018-2027 period. This amount would decline if economic growth were to exceed the JCT’s estimate.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$3,118,396,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,073,442,000,000 (2018 est.)

$3,032,781,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$20,524,945,000,000 (2019 est.)

$20,090,748,000,000 (2018 est.)

$19,519,353,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.26% (2019 est.)

1.25% (2018 est.)

1.74% (2017 est.)
2.16% (2019 est.)

3% (2018 est.)

2.33% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$46,659 (2019 est.)

$46,245 (2018 est.)

$45,910 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$62,530 (2019 est.)

$61,498 (2018 est.)

$60,062 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.2% (2017 est.)

services: 79.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 19.1% (2017 est.)

services: 80% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line18.6% (2017 est.)15.1% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 31.1% (2012)
lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.7% (2019 est.)

2.4% (2018 est.)

2.6% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2019 est.)

2.4% (2018 est.)

2.1% (2017 est.)
Labor force35.412 million (2020 est.)146.128 million (2020 est.)

note: includes unemployed
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.3%

industry: 15.2%

services: 83.5% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 0.7% (2009)

industry: 20.3% (2009)

services: 37.3% (2009)

industry and services: 24.2% (2009)

manufacturing: 17.6% (2009)

farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% (2009)

manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3% (2009)

managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3% (2009)

sales and office: 24.2% (2009)

other services: 17.6% (2009)

note: figures exclude the unemployed
Unemployment rate3.17% (2019 est.)

2.51% (2018 est.)
3.89% (2018 est.)

4.4% (2017 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index34.8 (2016 est.)

33.4 (2010)
41.1 (2016 est.)

40.8 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: 1.028 trillion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.079 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: 3.315 trillion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 3.981 trillion (2017 est.)

note: revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion
Industriesmachine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goodshighly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Industrial production growth rate3.4% (2017 est.)2.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, milk, barley, sugar beet, potatoes, rapeseed, poultry, oats, pork, beefmaize, milk, soybeans, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, poultry, potatoes, cotton, pork
Exports$901.882 billion (2019 est.)

$877.501 billion (2018 est.)

$851.693 billion (2017 est.)
$2,377,156,000,000 (2019 est.)

$2,379,936,000,000 (2018 est.)

$2,310,851,000,000 (2017 est.)
Exports - commoditiescars, gas turbines, gold, crude petroleum, packaged medicines (2019)refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, aircraft (2019)
Exports - partnersUnited States 15%, Germany 10%, China 7%, Netherlands 7%, France 7%, Ireland 6% (2019)Canada 17%, Mexico 16%, China 7%, Japan 5% (2019)
Imports$987.018 billion (2019 est.)

$955.655 billion (2018 est.)

$930.354 billion (2017 est.)
$3,214,184,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,179,875,000,000 (2018 est.)

$3,054,759,000,000 (2017 est.)
Imports - commoditiesgold, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment (2019)cars, crude petroleum, computers, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)
Imports - partnersGermany 13%, China 10%, United States 8%, Netherlands 7%, France 6%, Belgium 5% (2019)China 18%, Mexico 15%, Canada 13%, Japan 6%, Germany 5% (2019)
Debt - external$8,721,590,000,000 (2019 est.)

$8,696,559,000,000 (2018 est.)
$20,275,951,000,000 (2019 est.)

$19,452,478,000,000 (2018 est.)

note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
Exchange ratesBritish pounds (GBP) per US dollar -

0.7836 (2017 est.)

0.738 (2016 est.)

0.738 (2015 est.)

0.607 (2014 est.)

0.6391 (2013 est.)
British pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.885 (2017 est.), 0.903 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)

note 1: the following countries and territories use the US dollar officially as their legal tender: British Virgin Islands, Ecuador, El Salvador, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Timor Leste, Turks and Caicos, and islands of the Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba)

note 2: the following countries and territories use the US dollar as official legal tender alongside local currency: Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, and Panama

note 3: the following countries and territories widely accept the US dollar as a dominant currency but have yet to declare it as legal tender: Bermuda, Burma, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Somalia
Fiscal year6 April - 5 April1 October - 30 September
Public debt87.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

87.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
78.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intragovernment debt were added, "gross debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$150.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$129.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$123.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$117.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$121.921 billion (2019 est.)

-$104.927 billion (2018 est.)
-$480.225 billion (2019 est.)

-$449.694 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2,827,918,000,000 (2019 est.)$21,433,228,000,000 (2019 est.)
Taxes and other revenues39.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)17% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.2%

male: 13%

female: 9.2% (2019 est.)
total: 14.9%

male: 15%

female: 14.8% (2020 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 65.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 30.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -31.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 68.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 12.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -15% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving13.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

13.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

13.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.7% of GDP (2019 est.)

18.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

18.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

Energy

United KingdomUnited States
Electricity - production318.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)4.095 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption309.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)3.902 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports2.153 billion kWh (2016 est.)9.695 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports19.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)72.72 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production1 million bbl/day (2018 est.)10.962 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports907,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)7.969 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports710,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)1.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves2.069 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)NA bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves176 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
Natural gas - production42.11 billion cu m (2017 est.)772.8 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption79.17 billion cu m (2017 est.)767.6 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports11.27 billion cu m (2017 est.)89.7 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports47 billion cu m (2017 est.)86.15 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity97.06 million kW (2016 est.)1.087 billion kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels50% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)70% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources39% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1.29 million bbl/day (2017 est.)20.3 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.584 million bbl/day (2017 est.)19.96 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports613,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)5.218 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports907,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)2.175 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

United KingdomUnited States
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 32.288 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49.37 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 107.568 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32.77 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 80.967 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123.79 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 442.457 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134.8 (2019 est.)
Communications - notenote 1: the British Library claims to be the largest library in the world with well over 150 million items and in most known languages; it receives copies of all books produced in the UK or Ireland, as well as a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK; in addition to books (print and digital), holdings include: journals, manuscripts, newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings, videos, maps, prints, patents, and drawings

note 2: on 1 May 1840, the United Kingdom led the world with the introduction of postage stamps; the Austrian Empire had examined the idea of an "adhesive tax postmark" for the prepayment of postage in 1835; while the suggestion was reviewed in detail, it was rejected for the time being; other countries (including Austria) soon followed the UK's example with their own postage stamps; by the 1860s, most countries were issuing stamps; originally, stamps had to be cut from sheets; the UK issued the first postage stamps with perforations in 1854
note 1: The Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA, claims to be the largest library in the world with more than 167 million items (as of 2018); its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include materials from all parts of the world and in over 450 languages; collections include: books, newspapers, magazines, sheet music, sound and video recordings, photographic images, artwork, architectural drawings, and copyright data

note 2: Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA, hosts one of four dedicated ground antennas that assist in the operation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system (the others are on Ascension (Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tistan da Cunha), Diego Garcia (British Indian Ocean Territory), and at Kwajalein (Marshall Islands)
Internet country code.uk.us
Internet userstotal: 61,784,878

percent of population: 94.9% (July 2018 est.)
total: 285,519,020

percent of population: 87.27% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

UK’s telecom market remains one of the largest in Europe, characterized by competition, affordable pricing, and its technologically advanced systems; mobile penetration above the EU average; government to invest in infrastructure and 5G technologies with ambition for a fully-fibered nation by 2033; operators expanded the reach of 5G services in 2020; super-fast broadband available to about 95% of customers; London is developing smart city technology, in collaboration with private, tech, and academic sectors; legislation banned Chinese company Huawei from UK 5G networks following advisement from the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC); importer of broadcasting equipment from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems; fixed-line 48 per 100 and mobile-cellular 118 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 44; Landing points for the GTT Atlantic, Scotland-Northern Ireland -1, & -2, Lanis 1,-2, &-3, Sirius North, BT-MT-1, SHEFA-2, BT Highlands and Islands Submarine Cable System, Northern Lights, FARICE-1, Celtic Norse, Tampnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, CC-2, E-LLan, Sirius South, ESAT -1 & -2, Rockabill, Geo-Eirgrid, UK-Netherlands-14, Circle North & South, Ulysses2, Conceto, Farland North, Pan European Crossing, Solas, Swansea-Bream, GTT Express, Tata TGN-Atlantic & -Western Europe, Apollo, EIG, Glo-1, TAT-14, Yellow, Celtic, FLAG Atlantic-1, FEA, Isle of Scilly Cable, UK-Channel Islands-8 and SeaMeWe-3 submarine cables providing links throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australia, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers (2018)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system; reliable Internet available for most of the population though challenges remain in rural areas and tribal lands; concentration among industry operators; saturated mobile subscriber penetration rate; national LTE-M services with reassignment of 2G spectrum for 5G, centered in urban areas; operators signed alliance to develop 6G in line with technology standards, and government policies; almost all citizens have access to both fixed-line and mobile-broadband services; government fund to connect 5.3 million residences and businesses in rural areas; in pandemic, emergency funding for Internet and devices related to education; cooperative approach to e-commerce, health, education, and energy with smart city technology in several areas; federal subsidies to private satellite Internet constellation with aims for fast, world-wide connections; government policy designated Chinese companies Huawei and ZTE as national security threats and restricted partnership; importer of broadcasting equipment from China with export of same to Hong Kong (2021) (2020)

domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country; fixed-line 33 per 100 and mobile-cellular 124 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 1; landing points for the Quintillion Subsea Cable Network, TERRA SW, AU-Aleutian, KKFL, AKORN, Alaska United -West, & -East & -Southeast, North Star, Lynn Canal Fiber, KetchCar 1, PC-1, SCCN, Tat TGN-Pacific & -Atlantic, Jupiter, Hawaiki, NCP, FASTER, HKA, JUS, AAG, BtoBE, Currie, Southern Cross NEXT, SxS, PLCN, Utility EAC-Pacific, SEA-US, Paniolo Cable Network, HICS, HIFN, ASH, Telstra Endeavor, Honotua, AURORA, ARCOS, AMX-1, Americas -I & -II, Columbus IIb & -III, Maya-1, MAC, GTMO-1, BICS, CFX-1, GlobeNet, Monet, SAm-1, Bahamas 2, PCCS, BRUSA, Dunant, MAREA, SAE x1, TAT 14, Apollo, Gemini Bermuda, Havfrue/AEC-2, Seabras-1, WALL-LI, NYNJ-1, FLAG Atalantic-1, Yellow, Atlantic Crossing-1, AE Connect -1, sea2shore, Challenger Bermuda-1, and GTT Atlantic submarine cable systems providing international connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific, & Atlantic, and Indian Ocean Islands, Central and South America, Caribbean, Canada and US; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2020)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments
Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 26,786,963

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40.96 (2019 est.)
total: 114.259 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34.81 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediapublic service broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world; BBC operates multiple TV networks with regional and local TV service; a mixed system of public and commercial TV broadcasters along with satellite and cable systems provide access to hundreds of TV stations throughout the world; BBC operates multiple national, regional, and local radio networks with multiple transmission sites; a large number of commercial radio stations, as well as satellite radio services are available (2018)4 major terrestrial TV networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with many affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 900 member stations; satellite radio available; in total, over 15,000 radio stations operating (2018)

Transportation

United KingdomUnited States
Railwaystotal: 16,837 km (2015)

standard gauge: 16,534 km 1.435-m gauge (5,357 km electrified) (2015)

broad gauge: 303 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Ireland) (2015)
total: 293,564 km (2014)

standard gauge: 293,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 394,428 km (2009)

paved: 394,428 km (includes 3,519 km of expressways) (2009)
total: 6,586,610 km (2012)

paved: 4,304,715 km (includes 76,334 km of expressways) (2012)

unpaved: 2,281,895 km (2012)
Waterways3,200 km (620 km used for commerce) (2009)41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce; Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, is shared with Canada) (2012)
Pipelines502 km condensate, 9 km condensate/gas, 28603 km gas, 59 km liquid petroleum gas, 5256 km oil, 175 km oil/gas/water, 4919 km refined products, 255 km water (2013)1,984,321 km natural gas, 240,711 km petroleum products (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dover, Felixstowe, Immingham, Liverpool, London, Southampton, Teesport (England); Forth Ports (Scotland); Milford Haven (Wales)

oil terminal(s): Fawley Marine terminal, Liverpool Bay terminal (England); Braefoot Bay terminal, Finnart oil terminal, Hound Point terminal (Scotland)

container port(s) (TEUs): Felixstowe (3,584,000), London (2,790,000), Southampton (1,924,847) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Isle of Grain, Milford Haven, Teesside
oil terminal(s): LOOP terminal, Haymark terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Charleston (2,436,185), Hampton Roads (2,937,962), Houston (2,987,291), Long Beach (7,632,032), Los Angeles (9,337,632), New York/New Jersey (7,471,131), Oakland (2,500,431), Savannah (4,599,177), Seattle/Tacoma (3,775,303) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Cameron (LA), Corpus Christi (TX), Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Freeport (TX), Sabine Pass (LA)
note - two additional export facilities are under construction and expected to begin commercial operations in 2023-2024

LNG terminal(s) (import): Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Everett (MA), Freeport (TX), Golden Pass (TX), Hackberry (LA), Lake Charles (LA), Neptune (offshore), Northeast Gateway (offshore), Pascagoula (MS), Sabine Pass (TX)

cargo ports: Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Hampton Roads, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines (LA), Tampa, Texas City

cruise departure ports (passengers): Miami (2,032,000), Port Everglades (1,277,000), Port Canaveral (1,189,000), Seattle (430,000), Long Beach (415,000) (2009)
Merchant marinetotal: 1,304

by type: bulk carrier 147, container ship 59, general cargo 116, oil tanker 99, other 883 (2020)
total: 3,652

by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 63, general cargo 104, oil tanker 68, other 3,412 (2020)
Airportstotal: 460 (2013)total: 13,513 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 271 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 7 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 89 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 80 (2013)

under 914 m: 66 (2013)
total: 5,054 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 189 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 235 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,478 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 2,249 (2013)

under 914 m: 903 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 189 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 26 (2013)

under 914 m: 160 (2013)
total: 8,459 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 140 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1,552 (2013)

under 914 m: 6,760 (2013)
Heliports9 (2013)5,287 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 20 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 794

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 165,388,610 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,198,370,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 99 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7,249

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 889.022 million (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 42,985,300,000 mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixGN

Military

United KingdomUnited States
Military branchesBritish Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force (2021)

note: in 2021 the UK formed a Space Command as a joint command staffed by Army, Navy, and Air Force personnel, as well as civilians and key members of the commercial sector to manage space operations, training, and capabilities; in 2019, the UK formed the Strategic Command (formerly Joint Forces Command) to develop and manage the British military's medical services, training and education, intelligence, and information systems across the land, sea, air, space, and cyber domains; it also manages joint overseas operations
United States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Space Force; US Coast Guard (administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy); National Guard (Army National Guard and Air National Guard) (2021)

note: the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard are reserve components of their services and operate in part under state authority
Military service age and obligationslight variations by service, but generally 16-36 years of age for enlisted (with parental consent under 18) and 18-29 for officers; minimum length of service 4 years; women serve in military services including ground combat roles; conscription abolished in 1963 (2021)18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 34 (Army), 39 (Air Force), 39 (Navy), 28 (Marines), 31 (Coast Guard); 8-year service obligation, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard); all military occupations and positions open to women (2020)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.32% of GDP (2020 est.)

2.1% of GDP (2019)

2.11% of GDP (2018)

2.09% of GDP (2017)

2.08% of GDP (2016)
3.73% of GDP (2020 est.)

3.51% of GDP (2019)

3.27% of GDP (2018)

3.3% of GDP (2017)

3.51% of GDP (2016)
Military - notethe UK is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949the US is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

Transnational Issues

United KingdomUnited States
Disputes - international

in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted UK citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm

the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution

Illicit drugsproducer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering centerworld's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 19,744 (Iran), 13,755 (Eritrea), 10,575 (Sudan), 10,389 (Syria), 9,513 (Afghanistan), 8,164 (Pakistan), 5,522 (Sri Lanka) (2019)

stateless persons: 4,662 (2020)
refugees (country of origin): the US admitted 11,814 refugees during FY2020 including: 2,868 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 2,115 (Burma), 1,927 (Ukraine), 604 (Afghanistan), 537 (Iraq)

note: 72,722 Venezuelans have claimed asylum since 2014 because of the economic and political crisis (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook