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United Kingdom vs. Germany

Introduction

United KingdomGermany
Background

The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith in the 19th century, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two world wars and the Irish Republic's withdrawal from the union. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of NATO and the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1998.

The UK has been an active member of the EU since its accession in 1973, although it chose to remain outside the Economic and Monetary Union. However, motivated in part by frustration at a remote bureaucracy in Brussels and massive migration into the country, UK citizens on 23 June 2016 narrowly voted to leave the EU. The UK and the EU are currently negotiating the terms of the UK's withdrawal and a framework for their future relationship ahead of the UK's scheduled departure, now tentatively set for 31 January 2020.

As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating world wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC (now the EU) and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.

Geography

United KingdomGermany
Location
Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France
Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates
54 00 N, 2 00 W
51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references
Europe
Europe
Area
total: 243,610 sq km
land: 241,930 sq km
water: 1,680 sq km

note 1: the percentage area breakdown of the four UK countries is: England 53%, Scotland 32%, Wales 9%, and Northern Ireland 6%

note 2: includes Rockall and the Shetland Islands, which are part of Scotland

total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km
Area - comparative
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries
total: 490 km
border countries (1): Ireland 490 km
total: 3,714 km
border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km
Coastline
12,429 km
2,389 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrain
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 162 m
lowest point: The Fens -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,345 m
mean elevation: 263 m
lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources
coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land
coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 71% (2011 est.)
arable land: 25.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 45.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 11.9% (2011 est.)
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 48% (2011 est.)
arable land: 34.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 13.3% (2011 est.)
forest: 31.8% (2011 est.)
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
950 sq km (2012)
6,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
winter windstorms; floods
flooding
Environment - current issues
air pollution improved but remains a concern, particularly in the London region; soil pollution from pesticides and heavy metals; decline in marine and coastal habitats brought on by pressures from housing, tourism, and industry
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel (the Channel Tunnel or Chunnel); because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastward
Population distribution
the core of the population lies in and around London, with significant clusters found in central Britain around Manchester and Liverpool, in the Scotish lowlands between Endinburgh and Glasgow, southern Wales in and around Cardiff, and far eastern Northern Ireland centered on Belfast
most populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphalia

Demographics

United KingdomGermany
Population
65,105,246 United Kingdom (July 2018 est.)
constituent countries by percentage of total population:
England 84%
Scotland 8%
Wales 5%
Northern Ireland 3%
80,457,737 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.59% (male 5,871,268 /female 5,582,107)
15-24 years: 11.71% (male 3,895,850 /female 3,726,311)
25-54 years: 40.29% (male 13,387,119 /female 12,843,549)
55-64 years: 12.22% (male 3,936,466 /female 4,022,245)
65 years and over: 18.19% (male 5,321,392 /female 6,518,939) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 12.83% (male 5,299,798 /female 5,024,184)
15-24 years: 9.98% (male 4,092,901 /female 3,933,997)
25-54 years: 39.87% (male 16,181,931 /female 15,896,528)
55-64 years: 14.96% (male 5,989,111 /female 6,047,449)
65 years and over: 22.36% (male 7,930,590 /female 10,061,248) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 40.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.7 years
total: 47.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 46.2 years
female: 48.5 years
Population growth rate
0.51% (2018 est.)
-0.17% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
12 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
8.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 80.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 78.7 years
female: 83.2 years
total population: 80.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 78.6 years
female: 83.4 years
Total fertility rate
1.88 children born/woman (2018 est.)
1.46 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
0.1% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British
noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groups
white 87.2%, black/African/Caribbean/black British 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)
German 87.2%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, other 9% (2017 est.)

note:  data represent population by nationality
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
87,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)
Roman Catholic 28.2%, Protestant 26%, Muslim 5%, Orthodox 1.9%, other Christian 1.1%, other .9%, none 37% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<500 (2018 est.)
Languages
English

note: the following are recognized regional languages: Scots (about 30% of the population of Scotland), Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 speakers in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 people in Cornwall) (2012 est.)

German (official)

note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2016)
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2016)
Education expenditures
5.5% of GDP (2016)
4.8% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 83.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 77.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 99.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
9.177 million LONDON (capital), 2.71 million Manchester, 2.589 million Birmingham, 1.876 million West Yorkshire, 1.667 million Glasgow, 920,000 Southampton/Portsmouth (2019)
3.557 million BERLIN (capital), 1.791 million Hamburg, 1.521 million Munich, 1.108 million Cologne (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
9.9% (2015)
11.2% (2015)
Physicians density
2.81 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
4.21 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
8.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
27.8% (2016)
22.3% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.5 years (2014 est.)

note: data represent England and Wales only

29.4 years (2015 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
80.3% (2011)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 55.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 28.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 32.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)

Government

United KingdomGermany
Country name
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - the island of Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK
etymology: self-descriptive country name; the designation "Great Britain," in the sense of "Larger Britain," dates back to medieval times and was used to distinguish the island from "Little Britain," or Brittany in modern France; the name Ireland derives from the Gaelic "Eriu," the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land)
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Reich
etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B.C. as "Germani," a term the Romans adopted as "Germania"; the native designation "Deutsch" comes from the Old High German "diutisc" meaning "of the people"
Government type
parliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
federal parliamentary republic
Capital
name: London
geographic coordinates: 51 30 N, 0 05 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to the United Kingdom proper, not to its crown dependencies or overseas territories

name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the origin of the name is unclear but may be related to the old West Slavic (Polabian) word "berl" or "birl," meaning "swamp"
Administrative divisions

England: 27 two-tier counties, 32 London boroughs and 1 City of London or Greater London, 36 metropolitan districts, 56 unitary authorities (including 4 single-tier counties*);

two-tier counties: Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire;

London boroughs and City of London or Greater London: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, City of London, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminster;

metropolitan districts: Barnsley, Birmingham, Bolton, Bradford, Bury, Calderdale, Coventry, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Kirklees, Knowlsey, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Oldham, Rochdale, Rotherham, Salford, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield, Solihull, South Tyneside, St. Helens, Stockport, Sunderland, Tameside, Trafford, Wakefield, Walsall, Wigan, Wirral, Wolverhampton;

unitary authorities: Bath and North East Somerset, Blackburn with Darwen, Bedford, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Brighton and Hove, City of Bristol, Central Bedfordshire, Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Cornwall, Darlington, Derby, Durham County*, East Riding of Yorkshire, Halton, Hartlepool, Herefordshire*, Isle of Wight*, Isles of Scilly, City of Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, Luton, Medway, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Northumberland*, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Poole, Portsmouth, Reading, Redcar and Cleveland, Rutland, Shropshire, Slough, South Gloucestershire, Southampton, Southend-on-Sea, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon, Telford and Wrekin, Thurrock, Torbay, Warrington, West Berkshire, Wiltshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, Wokingham, York;

Northern Ireland: 5 borough councils, 4 district councils, 2 city councils;

borough councils: Antrim and Newtownabbey; Ards and North Down; Armagh City, Banbridge, and Craigavon; Causeway Coast and Glens; Mid and East Antrim;

district councils: Derry City and Strabane; Fermanagh and Omagh; Mid Ulster; Newry, Murne, and Down;

city councils: Belfast; Lisburn and Castlereagh;

Scotland: 32 council areas;

council areas: Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, The Scottish Borders, West Dunbartonshire, West Lothian

Wales: 22 unitary authorities;

unitary authorities: Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd, Isle of Anglesey, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire, Powys, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea, The Vale of Glamorgan, Torfaen, Wrexham

16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Bremen calls itself a Free Hanseatic City (Freie Hansestadt) and Hamburg considers itself a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)
Independence
no official date of independence: 927 (minor English kingdoms unite); 3 March 1284 (enactment of the Statute of Rhuddlan uniting England and Wales); 1536 (Act of Union formally incorporates England and Wales); 1 May 1707 (Acts of Union formally unite England, Scotland, and Wales as Great Britain); 1 January 1801 (Acts of Union formally unite Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland); 6 December 1921 (Anglo-Irish Treaty formalizes partition of Ireland; six counties remain part of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland); 12 April 1927 (Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act establishes current name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
National holiday
the UK does not celebrate one particular national holiday
German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Constitution
history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
amendments: proposed as a bill for an Act of Parliament by the government, by the House of Commons, or by the House of Lords; passage requires agreement by both houses and by the monarch (Royal Assent); note - additions include the Human Rights Act of 1998, the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010, the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, and the House of Lords (Expulsion and Suspension) Act 2015 (2016)
history: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10-23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections
Executive branch
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Boris JOHNSON (Conservative) (since 24 July 2019); note - Prime Minister Theresa MAY announced her resignation to be effective after the election of a new Conservative Party leader in July
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister; election last held on 8 June 2017 (next to be held by 5 May 2022)

note: in addition to serving as the UK head of state, the British sovereign is the constitutional monarch for 15 additional Commonwealth countries (these 16 states are each referred to as a Commonwealth realm)

chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2022); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor (Angela Merkel since 2005) and appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 14 March 2018 (next to be held after the Bundestag elections in 2021)
election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 364 to 315
Legislative branch
description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
House of Lords (membership not fixed; as of May 2018, 780 lords were eligible to participate in the work of the House of Lords - 664 life peers, 90 hereditary peers, and 26 clergy; members are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister and non-party political members recommended by the House of Lords Appointments Commission); note - House of Lords total does not include ineligible members or members on leave of absence
House of Commons (650 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve 5-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)
elections:
House of Lords - no elections; note - in 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held in the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain; elections held only as vacancies in the hereditary peerage arise)
House of Commons - last held on 8 June 2017 (next to be held by 5 May 2022)
election results:
House of Lords - composition - men 583, women 208, percent of women 26.3%
House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative 48.8%, Labor 40.3%, SNP 5.4%, Lib Dems 1.8%,  DUP 1.5%, Sinn Fein 1.1%, Plaid Cymru 0.6%,other 0.6%; seats by party - Conservative 317, Labor 262, SNP 35, Lib Dems 12, DUP 10, Sinn Fein 7, Plaid Cymru 4, other 3; composition - men 442, women 208, percent of women 32%; total Parliament percent of women 28.9%
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Bundesrat - none; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021); most postwar German governments have been coalitions
election results:
Bundesrat - composition - men 50, women 19, percent of women 27.5%
Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 33%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.7%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 152, AfD 91, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67; composition - men 490, women 219, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.5%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 12 justices, including the court president and deputy president); note - the Supreme Court was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and implemented in October 2009, replacing the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the highest court in the United Kingdom
judge selection and term of office: judge candidates selected by an independent committee of several judicial commissions, followed by their recommendations to the prime minister, and appointed by the monarch; justices serve for life
subordinate courts: England and Wales: Court of Appeal (civil and criminal divisions); High Court; Crown Court; County Courts; Magistrates' Courts; Scotland: Court of Sessions; Sheriff Courts; High Court of Justiciary; tribunals; Northern Ireland: Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland; High Court; county courts; magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals
highest courts: Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges, including the court president, vice presidents, presiding judges, other judges and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels); Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated states and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 federated states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance Party (Northern Ireland) [Naomi LONG] 
Brexit Party [Nigel FARAGE]
Conservative and Unionist Party [Boris JOHNSON]
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Arlene FOSTER]
Green Party of England and Wales or Greens [Sian BERRY and Jonathan BARTLEY]
Labor (Labour) Party [Jeremy CORBYN]
Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Jo SWINSON]
Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Adam PRICE]
Scottish National Party or SNP [Nicola STURGEON]
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Mary Lou MCDONALD]
Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Colum EASTWOOD]
Ulster Unionist Party or UUP (Northern Ireland) [Robin SWANN]
UK Independence Party or UKIP [Pat MOUNTAIN, interim leader]
Alliance '90/Greens [Annalena BAERBOCK and Robert HABECK]
Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND and Joerg MEUTHEN]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Annegret KRAMP-KARRENBAUER]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Markus SOEDER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
The Left or Die Linke [Katja KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Andrea NAHLES]
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, C, CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael TATHAM (since 10 July 2019); note - Ambassador Sir Nigel Kim DARROCH (since 28 January 2016) resigned on 10 July 2019)
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): Orlando (FL), San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Ambassador Emily Margarethe HABER (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Wood "Woody" JOHNSON IV (since 29 August 2017)
telephone: [44] 20-7499-9000
embassy:

33 Nine Elms Lane, London, SW11 7US United Kingdom

mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
FAX: [44] 20-7891-3151
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard GRENELL (since 8 May 2018)
telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0
embassy: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
mailing address: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Flag description
blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field
National anthem
name: God Save the Queen
lyrics/music: unknown

note: in use since 1745; by tradition, the song serves as both the national and royal anthem of the UK; it is known as either "God Save the Queen" or "God Save the King," depending on the gender of the reigning monarch; it also serves as the royal anthem of many Commonwealth nations

name: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)
lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN

note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
lion (Britain in general); lion, Tudor rose, oak (England); lion, unicorn, thistle (Scotland); dragon, daffodil, leek (Wales); shamrock, flax (Northern Ireland); national colors: red, white, blue (Britain in general); red, white (England); blue, white (Scotland); red, white, green (Wales)
eagle; national colors: black, red, yellow
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the United Kingdom
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Economy

United KingdomGermany
Economy - overview

The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining; the UK has been a net importer of energy since 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, are key drivers of British GDP growth. Manufacturing, meanwhile, has declined in importance but still accounts for about 10% of economic output.

In 2008, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Falling home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded the UK’s economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the then CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated an austerity program, which has continued under the Conservative government. However, the deficit still remains one of the highest in the G7, standing at 3.6% of GDP as of 2017, and the UK has pledged to lower its corporation tax from 20% to 17% by 2020. The UK had a debt burden of 90.4% GDP at the end of 2017.

The UK economy has begun to slow since the referendum vote to leave the EU in June 2016. A sustained depreciation of the British pound has increased consumer and producer prices, weighing on consumer spending without spurring a meaningful increase in exports. The UK has an extensive trade relationship with other EU members through its single market membership, and economic observers have warned the exit will jeopardize its position as the central location for European financial services. Prime Minister MAY is seeking a new "deep and special" trade relationship with the EU following the UK’s exit. However, economists doubt that the UK will be able to preserve the benefits of EU membership without the obligations. The UK is expected to officially leave the EU by the end of March 2019.

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment. Germany benefits from a highly skilled labor force, but, like its Western European neighbors, faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong economic growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.

Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.

Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.

The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Domestic consumption, investment, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth in 2018, and the country’s budget and trade surpluses are likely to remain high.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$2.925 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.877 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.827 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$4.199 trillion (2017 est.)
$4.099 trillion (2016 est.)
$4.012 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1.7% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$44,300 (2017 est.)
$43,800 (2016 est.)
$43,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$50,800 (2017 est.)
$49,800 (2016 est.)
$49,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 20.2% (2017 est.)
services: 79.2% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 30.7% (2017 est.)
services: 68.6% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
15% (2013 est.)
16.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2012)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2.7% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
1.7% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force
33.5 million (2017 est.)
45.9 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 15.2%
services: 83.5% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 24.2%
services: 74.3% (2016)
Unemployment rate
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
32.4 (2012)
33.4 (2010)
27 (2006)
30 (1994)
Budget
revenues: 1.028 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.079 trillion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.665 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.619 trillion (2017 est.)
Industries
machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial production growth rate
3.4% (2017 est.)
3.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish; milk, eggs
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry
Exports
$441.2 billion (2017 est.)
$407.3 billion (2016 est.)
$1.434 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.322 trillion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
Exports - partners
US 13.2%, Germany 10.5%, France 7.4%, Netherlands 6.2%, Ireland 5.6%, China 4.8%, Switzerland 4.5% (2017)
US 8.8%, France 8.2%, China 6.8%, Netherlands 6.7%, UK 6.6%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 4.9%, Poland 4.7%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)
Imports
$615.9 billion (2017 est.)
$591 billion (2016 est.)
$1.135 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.022 trillion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
Imports - partners
Germany 13.7%, US 9.5%, China 9.3%, Netherlands 8%, France 5.4%, Belgium 5% (2017)
Netherlands 13.8%, China 7%, France 6.6%, Belgium 5.9%, Italy 5.4%, Poland 5.4%, Czechia 4.8%, US 4.5%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)
Debt - external
$8.126 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$8.642 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
$5.326 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.21 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rates
British pounds (GBP) per US dollar -
0.7836 (2017 est.)
0.738 (2016 est.)
0.738 (2015 est.)
0.607 (2014 est.)
0.6391 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
6 April - 5 April
calendar year
Public debt
87.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
87.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euros; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$150.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$129.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$99.21 billion (2017 est.)
-$139.3 billion (2016 est.)
$291 billion (2017 est.)
$297.5 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$2.628 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.701 trillion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$2.078 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.858 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.653 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$2.11 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.611 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.298 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.981 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$3.019 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$2.903 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.107 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.716 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.739 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate
0.25% (31 December 2016)
0.5% (31 December 2015)
0% (31 December 2017)
0% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate
4.38% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.44% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.67% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.78% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$3.22 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.785 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.033 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.433 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$110.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$96.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.453 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money
$110.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$96.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.453 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
39.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
45% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 12.1%
male: 13.5%
female: 10.6% (2017 est.)
total: 6.8%
male: 7.6%
female: 5.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 65.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 30.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -31.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 53.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 20.4% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 47.3% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
13.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
12% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
28% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

United KingdomGermany
Electricity - production
318.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
612.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
309.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
536.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
2.153 billion kWh (2016 est.)
78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
19.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
1 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
907,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
1.836 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
710,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
6,569 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
2.069 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
129.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
176 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
39.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
42.11 billion cu m (2017 est.)
7.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
79.17 billion cu m (2017 est.)
93.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
11.27 billion cu m (2017 est.)
34.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
47 billion cu m (2017 est.)
119.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
97.06 million kW (2016 est.)
208.5 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
50% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
39% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
52% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
1.29 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
2.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
1.584 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
2.46 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
613,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
494,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
907,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
883,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
424 million Mt (2017 est.)
847.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

United KingdomGermany
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 33,140,662
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 44.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 79,173,658
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 106 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system; one of the largest markets in Europe for revenue and subscribers; will complete the switch to fibre by 2025; mobile penetration above the EU average; govt funding for trial 5G technologies; FttP provided to over million customers; super-fast broadband available to about 95% of customers (2018)
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems; fixed-line 50 per 100 and mobile-cellular 121 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part; universal 3G available infrastructure and LTE networks; penetration in broadband and mobile sectors average for region (2018)
domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 55 per 100 for fixed-line and 132 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 49; landing points for SeaMeWe-3, TAT-14, AC-1, CONTACT-3, Fehmarn Balt, C-Lion1, GC1, GlobalConnect-KPN, and Germany-Denmark 2 & 3  submarine cables to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia; as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2019)
Internet country code
.uk
.de
Internet users
total: 61,064,454
percent of population: 94.8% (July 2016 est.)
total: 72,365,643
percent of population: 89.6% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
public service broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world; BBC operates multiple TV networks with regional and local TV service; a mixed system of public and commercial TV broadcasters along with satellite and cable systems provide access to hundreds of TV stations throughout the world; BBC operates multiple national, regional, and local radio networks with multiple transmission sites; a large number of commercial radio stations, as well as satellite radio services are available (2018)
a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; 70 national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations

Transportation

United KingdomGermany
Railways
total: 16,837 km (2015)
standard gauge: 16,534 km 1.435-m gauge (5,357 km electrified) (2015)
broad gauge: 303 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Ireland) (2015)
total: 33,590 km (2017)
standard gauge: 33,331 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified) (2015)
narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified)
15 km 0.900-m gauge, 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2015)
Roadways
total: 394,428 km (2009)
paved: 394,428 km (includes 3,519 km of expressways) (2009)
total: 625,000 km (2017)
paved: 625,000 km (includes 12,996 km of expressways) (2017)

note: includes local roads

Waterways
3,200 km (620 km used for commerce) (2009)
7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
Pipelines
502 km condensate, 9 km condensate/gas, 28603 km gas, 59 km liquid petroleum gas, 5256 km oil, 175 km oil/gas/water, 4919 km refined products, 255 km water (2013)
37 km condensate, 26985 km gas, 2400 km oil, 4479 km refined products, 8 km water (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Dover, Felixstowe, Immingham, Liverpool, London, Southampton, Teesport (England); Forth Ports (Scotland); Milford Haven (Wales)
oil terminal(s): Fawley Marine terminal, Liverpool Bay terminal (England); Braefoot Bay terminal, Finnart oil terminal, Hound Point terminal (Scotland)
container port(s) (TEUs): Felixstowe (3,849,700), London (2,431,000), Southampton (2,040,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Isle of Grain, Milford Haven, Teesside
major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock
oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s) (TEUs): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,510,000), Hamburg (8,860,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg
river port(s): Bremen (Weser)
North Sea - Wilhelmshaven Bremerhaven (Geeste) Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine) Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe) Lubeck (Wakenitz)
Merchant marine
total: 1,570
by type: bulk carrier 129, container ship 109, general cargo 162, oil tanker 177, other 993 (2018)
total: 629
by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 107, general cargo 92, oil tanker 36, other 393 (2018)
Airports
total: 460 (2013)
total: 539 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 271 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 7 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 89 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 80 (2013)
under 914 m: 66 (2013)
total: 318 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 70 (2017)
under 914 m: 125 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 189 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 26 (2013)
under 914 m: 160 (2013)
total: 221 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)
under 914 m: 185 (2013)
Heliports
9 (2013)
23 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 28 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,242 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 131,449,680 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,466,504,676 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 20 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,540,886 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,985,007,915 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
G (2016)
D (2016)

Military

United KingdomGermany
Military branches
British Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force (2019)
Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), includes air defense), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
Slight variations by service, but generally 16-36 years of age for enlisted (with parental consent under 18) and 18-29 for officers; minimum length of service 4 years; women serve in military services including ground combat roles (2019)
17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.13% of GDP (est) (2019)
2.11% of GDP (2018)
2.11% of GDP (2017)
2.11% of GDP (2016)
2.05% of GDP (2015)
1.24% of GDP (2018)
1.24% of GDP (2017)
1.2% of GDP (2016)
1.18% of GDP (2015)
1.18% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

United KingdomGermany
Disputes - international

in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted UK citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm

none

Illicit drugs
producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 17,231 (Iran), 13,041 (Eritrea), 9,839 (Afghanistan), 9,720 (Syria), 8,959 (Sudan), 7,742 (Pakistan), 6,772 (Zimbabwe), 5,711 (Sri Lanka) (2018)
stateless persons: 125 (2018)
refugees (country of origin): 532,065 (Syria), 136,463 (Iraq), 126,018 (Afghanistan), 55,334 (Eritrea), 41,150 (Iran), 24,036 (Turkey), 23,581 (Somalia), 9,155 (Serbia and Kosovo), 8,119 (Russia), 7,454 (Pakistan), 6,453 (Nigeria) (2018)
stateless persons: 14,779 (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook