Uganda vs. Rwanda


BackgroundThe colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted presidential term limits.
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009 and assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.


LocationEast-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Burundi
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 32 00 E
2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,668 sq km
water: 1,670 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
total: 930 km
border countries (4): Burundi 315 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 221 km, Tanzania 222 km, Uganda 172 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrainmostly plateau with rim of mountains
mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
mean elevation: 1,598 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 71.2%
arable land 34.3%; permanent crops 11.3%; permanent pasture 25.6%
forest: 14.5%
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 74.5%
arable land 47%; permanent crops 10.1%; permanent pasture 17.4%
forest: 18%
other: 7.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land140 sq km (2012)
96 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
volcanism: Visoke (elev. 3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano
Environment - current issuesdraining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notelandlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 48.26% (male 9,223,926/female 9,268,714)
15-24 years: 21.13% (male 4,010,464/female 4,087,350)
25-54 years: 26.1% (male 5,005,264/female 4,997,907)
55-64 years: 2.5% (male 460,000/female 496,399)
65 years and over: 2.01% (male 337,787/female 431,430) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 41.53% (male 2,719,248/female 2,674,688)
15-24 years: 18.87% (male 1,226,141/female 1,225,009)
25-54 years: 32.93% (male 2,142,936/female 2,134,064)
55-64 years: 4.09% (male 249,447/female 282,225)
65 years and over: 2.58% (male 138,834/female 195,831) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 15.7 years
male: 15.6 years
female: 15.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 19 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 19.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate3.22% (2016 est.)
2.53% (2016 est.)
Birth rate43.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
33.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 57.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 56.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 55.4 years
male: 54 years
female: 56.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 60.1 years
male: 58.5 years
female: 61.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.8 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate7.07% (2015 est.)
2.89% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groupsBaganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Hutu (Bantu), Tutsi (Hamitic), Twa (Pygmy)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,461,700 (2015 est.)
201,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsProtestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Roman Catholic 49.5%, Protestant 39.4% (includes Adventist 12.2% and other Protestant 27.2%), other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 1.8%, animist 0.1%, other 0.6%, none 3.6% (2001), unspecified 0.5% (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths28,200 (2015 est.)
2,900 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Kinyarwanda only (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, Kinyarwanda and other language(s) 6.2%, French (official) and other language(s) 0.1%, English (official) and other language(s) 0.1%, Swahili (or Kiswahili, used in commercial centers) 0.02%, other 0.03%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.5%
male: 73.2%
female: 68% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Education expenditures1.7% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 16.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 28.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 6.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 71.9% of population
total: 76.1% of population
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 28.1% of population
total: 23.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 17.3% of population
total: 19.1% of population
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 82.7% of population
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 58.5% of population
rural: 62.9% of population
total: 61.6% of population
urban: 41.5% of population
rural: 37.1% of population
total: 38.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
KIGALI (capital) 1.257 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
290 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight14.1% (2011)
11.7% (2011)
Health expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.9% (2014)
3.3% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
23 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Demographic profileUganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.
Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.
Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s businesspeople and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.
Rwanda’s fertility rate declined sharply during the last decade, as a result of the government’s commitment to family planning, the increased use of contraceptives, and a downward trend in ideal family size. Increases in educational attainment, particularly among girls, and exposure to social media also contributed to the reduction in the birth rate. The average number of births per woman decreased from a 5.6 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2016. Despite these significant strides in reducing fertility, Rwanda’s birth rate remains very high and will continue to for an extended period of time because of its large population entering reproductive age. Because Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, its persistent high population growth and increasingly small agricultural landholdings will put additional strain on families’ ability to raise foodstuffs and access potable water. These conditions will also hinder the government’s efforts to reduce poverty and prevent environmental degradation.
The UNHCR recommended that effective 30 June 2013 countries invoke a cessation of refugee status for those Rwandans who fled their homeland between 1959 and 1998, including the 1994 genocide, on the grounds that the conditions that drove them to seek protection abroad no longer exist. The UNHCR’s decision is controversial because many Rwandan refugees still fear persecution if they return home, concerns that are supported by the number of Rwandans granted asylum since 1998 and by the number exempted from the cessation. Rwandan refugees can still seek an exemption or local integration, but host countries are anxious to send the refugees back to Rwanda and are likely to avoid options that enable them to stay. Conversely, Rwanda itself hosts almost 160,000 refugees as of 2017; virtually all of them fleeing conflict in neighboring Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.3% (2015)
53.2% (2014/15)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 102.3
youth dependency ratio: 97.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 78.1
youth dependency ratio: 73.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the Swahili ""Buganda,"" adopted by the British as the name for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
"conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda, German East Africa
etymology: the name translates as ""domain"" in the native Kinyarwanda language
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Kigali
geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 03 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo; note - four new districts, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Omoro, and Rubanda, have been reported, but not yet vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Independence9 October 1962 (from the UK)
1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 9 October (1962)
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
several previous; latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
mixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016))
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limit); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Anastase MUREKEZI (since 24 July 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); note - constitutional amendments approved in December 2016, included one that reduces the presidential term from 7 to 5 years, but includes an exception that allows President KAGAME to serve another 7-year term in 2017, potentially followed by two additional 5-year terms; election last held on 9 August 2010 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 93.1%, Jean NTAWUKURIRYAYO (PSD) 5.1%, other 1.8%
Legislative branch"description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (427 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 25 ""representatives"" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; there are 13 ex-officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate or Senat (26 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum - a body of registered political parties, and 2 selected by institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (80 seats; 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 24 women elected by special interest groups, and 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - NA; Chamber of Deputies - last held on 16-18 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Chamber of Deputies percent of vote by party - Rwndan Front Coalition 76.2%, PSD 13%, PL 9.3%, other 1.5%; seats by party - Rwandan Front Coalition 41, PSD 7, PL 5, 27 members indirectly elected
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 10 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts ; local council courts; family and children courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 15 judges; normally organized into 3-judge panels); High Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and a minimum of 24 judges and organized into 5 chambers
note: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president of the republic after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary or SCJ (a 27-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal professionals), and approved by the Senate; chief and deputy chief justices appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of judges NA; High Court president and vice-president appointed by the president of the republic upon approval by the Senate; judges appointed by the Supreme Court chief justice upon approval of the SCJ; judge tenure NA
judge selection and term of office: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; Gacaca and military specialized courts
subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; Gacaca and military specialized courts
Political parties and leadersConservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Mugisha MUNTU]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]
Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Christian MARARA]
Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Prosper HIGIRO]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Political pressure groups and leadersNational Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA (since 6 June 2013)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
chief of mission: Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA (since 5 July 2013)
chancery: 1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 418, Washington, DC, 2000
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambsssador Deborah R. MALAC (since 27 February 2016)
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
chief of mission: Ambassador Erica BARKS-RUGGLES (since 26 January 2015)
embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, Kigali
mailing address: B.P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 252 596-400
FAX: [250] 252 580 325
Flag descriptionsix equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band; blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency from ignorance
National anthem"name: ""Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!""
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962
"name: ""Rwanda nziza"" (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country)
lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-Bosco HASHAKAIMANA
note: adopted 2001
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
traditional woven basket with peaked lid; national colors: blue, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


Economy - overviewUganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing more than one-third of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Uganda’s economy remains predominantly agricultural with a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs like oil and equipment. Overall productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including underinvestment in an agricultural sector that continues to rely on rudimentary technology. Industrial growth is impeded by high-costs due to poor infrastructure, low levels of private investment, and the depreciation of the Ugandan shilling.

Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes were especially aimed at dampening inflation while encouraging foreign investment to boost production and export earnings. Since 1990, economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, and better domestic security.

The global economic downturn in 2008 hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and a rapidly growing urban consumer population. Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as production starts in the next five to 10 years. However, lower oil prices since 2014 and protracted negotiations and legal disputes between the Ugandan government and oil companies may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development.

Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. High energy costs, inadequate transportation and energy infrastructure, insufficient budgetary discipline, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence. During 2015 and 2016, the Uganda shilling depreciated 50% against the dollar.

The budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while relying on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through low-interest concessional loans. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.
Rwanda is a rural, agrarian country with about 35% of the population engaged in subsistence agriculture, and with some mineral and agro-processing. Population density is high but not concentrated in large metropolises – its 13 million people are spread out on a small amount of land (about the size of Vermont and New Hampshire combined). Tourism, minerals, coffee and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap private sector growth.

The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy beyond pre-1994 levels. GDP has rebounded with an average annual growth of 6%-8% since 2003 and inflation has been reduced to single digits. In 2015, 39% of the population lived below the poverty line, according to government statistics, compared to 57% in 2006. Mining profits in 2015 were reduced by almost half, owing to the drop in global demand for minerals.

Africa's most densely populated country is trying to overcome the limitations of its small, landlocked economy by leveraging regional trade; Rwanda joined the East African Community and is aligning its budget, trade, and immigration policies with its regional partners. The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment. In recognition of Rwanda's successful management of its macro economy, in 2010, the IMF graduated Rwanda to a Policy Support Instrument.

The Rwandan Government is seeking to become a regional leader in information and communication technologies. In 2012, Rwanda completed the first modern Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Kigali. The SEZ seeks to attract investment in all sectors, but specifically in agribusiness, information and communications, trade and logistics, mining, and construction. In 2016, the government launched an online system to give investors information about public land and its suitability for agricultural development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$84.93 billion (2016 est.)
$80.92 billion (2015 est.)
$77.21 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.97 billion (2016 est.)
$20.73 billion (2015 est.)
$19.39 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.9% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
4.9% (2014 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,100 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
$2,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,900 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 24.5%
industry: 21%
services: 54.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 34.6%
industry: 15.1%
services: 50.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line19.7% (2013 est.)
39.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 43.2% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.6% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
4.6% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force19.03 million (2016 est.)
6.03 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 71.9%
industry: 4.4%
services: 23.7% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 75.3%
industry: 6.7%
services: 18% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate9.4% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
46.8 (2000)
28.9 (1985)
Budgetrevenues: $3.748 billion
expenditures: $5.41 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.865 billion
expenditures: $2.279 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate5% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Exports$2.723 billion (2016 est.)
$2.667 billion (2015 est.)
$674.9 million (2016 est.)
$683.7 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescoffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partnersRwanda 10.8%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.8%, Kenya 9.8%, Italy 5.8%, Netherlands 4.9%, Germany 4.8%, China 4.1% (2015)
Democratic Republic of the Congo 19.8%, US 10.8%, China 10.3%, Swaziland 7.9%, Malaysia 7%, Pakistan 6.2%, Germany 5.9%, Thailand 5.5% (2015)
Imports$4.677 billion (2016 est.)
$4.911 billion (2015 est.)
$1.961 billion (2016 est.)
$1.917 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescapital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partnersKenya 16.5%, UAE 15.6%, India 13.5%, China 13.1% (2015)
Uganda 15.8%, Kenya 11.8%, India 8.7%, China 8.7%, UAE 8.6%, Russia 6.6%, Tanzania 5.1% (2015)
Debt - external$6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.649 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.442 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.178 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesUgandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,427 (2016 est.)
3,234.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)
2,505.6 (2012 est.)
Rwandan francs (RWF) per US dollar -
787.9 (2016 est.)
720.54 (2015 est.)
720.54 (2014 est.)
680.95 (2013 est.)
616.6 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt36.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
36.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.851 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.909 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: excludes gold
$756.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.03 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.544 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.669 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.216 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.105 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$25.61 billion (2016 est.)
$8.341 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$1.779 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.484 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$25.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate14% (December 2014)
17% (30 March 2016)
7.75% (31 December 2010)
11.25% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate22.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
22.6% (31 December 2015 est.)
17.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
17.33% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$4.287 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.973 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.891 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.337 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.043 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$957.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.013 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.262 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.705 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.817 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 2.6%
male: 2%
female: 3.2% (2013 est.)
total: 4.5%
male: 3.6%
female: 5.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 73.7%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 77.8%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 26.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 13.6%
imports of goods and services: -29.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.6% of GDP (2014 est.)


Electricity - production3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption2.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports100 million kWh (2014)
3 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports50 million kWh (2014 est.)
95 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves2.5 billion bbl
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
56.63 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity711,400 kW (2014 est.)
100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
34.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants59.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
65.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources19.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports26,290 bbl/day (2013 est.)
5,979 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy2.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 32,100,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
population without electricity: 9,300,000
electrification - total population: 21%
electrification - urban areas: 67%
electrification - rural areas: 5% (2013)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 328,811
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 16,983
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 20.22 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 54 (July 2015 est.)
total: 8.76 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 69 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and fiber-optic cables through Kenya and the Indian Ocean
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 55 per 100 persons
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania (2015)
general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and government
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased and now exceeds 65 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service) (2015)
Internet country code.ug
Internet userstotal: 7.131 million
percent of population: 19.2% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.279 million
percent of population: 18% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediapublic broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007, there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
government owns and operates the only TV station; government-owned and operated Radio Rwanda has a national reach; 9 private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)


Roadwaystotal: 20,000 km (excludes local roads)
paved: 3,264 km
unpaved: 16,736 km (2011)
total: 4,700 km
paved: 1,207 km
unpaved: 3,493 km (2012)
Waterways(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
(Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft) (2011)
Ports and terminalslake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
lake port(s): Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye (Lake Kivu)
Airports47 (2013)
7 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 42
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


Military branchesUganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
Rwanda Defense Force (RDF): Rwanda Army (Rwanda Land Force), Rwanda Air Force (Force Aerienne Rwandaise, FAR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation"18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, ""no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces""; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship is required, as is a 9th-grade education for enlisted recruits and an A-level certificate for officer candidates; enlistment is either as contract (5-years, renewable twice) or career; retirement (for officers and senior NCOs) after 20 years of service or at 40-60 years of age (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)
3.22% of GDP (2011)
1.16% of GDP (2015)
1.15% of GDP (2014)
1.1% of GDP (2013)
1.11% of GDP (2012)
1.18% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalUganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 950,562 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 218,981 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 48,439 (Burundi); 42,826 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 17,147 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 53,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 86,702 (Burundi); 73,357 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: undetermined (fighting between government and insurgency in 1998-99; returning refugees) (2012)

Source: CIA Factbook