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Uganda vs. Rwanda

Introduction

UgandaRwanda
Background
British influence in Uganda began in the 1860s with explorers seeking the source of the Nile and expanded in subsequent decades with various trade agreements and the establishment of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. In December 2017, parliament approved the removal of presidential age limits, thereby making it possible for MUSEVENI to continue standing for office. Uganda faces numerous challenges, however, that could affect future stability, including explosive population growth, power and infrastructure constraints, corruption, underdeveloped democratic institutions, and human rights deficits.
A Rwandan kingdom dominated the region from the mid-18th century onward, with the Tutsi rulers conquering others militarily, centralizing power, and increasingly enacting anti-Hutu policies. German colonial rule began in 1898, but Belgian forces captured Rwanda in 1916 during World War I. Both European nations ruled through the kings and pursued a pro-Tutsi policy. In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed approximately 800,000 of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda joined the Commonwealth in late 2009. President Paul KAGAME won the presidential election in August 2017 after changing the constitution in 2016 to allow him to run for a third term.

Geography

UgandaRwanda
Location
East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Burundi
Geographic coordinates
1 00 N, 32 00 E
2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,668 sq km
water: 1,670 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries
total: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
total: 930 km
border countries (4): Burundi 315 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 221 km, Tanzania 222 km, Uganda 172 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climate
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Albert Nile 614 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
mean elevation: 1,598 m
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 71.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 34.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 11.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 25.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 14.5% (2011 est.)
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 74.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 47% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 17.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 18% (2011 est.)
other: 7.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
140 sq km (2012)
96 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms

periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo

volcanism: Visoke (3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano

Environment - current issues
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial discharge and water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; land degradation; soil erosion; a decline in soil fertility (soil exhaustion); wetland degradation and loss of biodiversity; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers; Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest fresh water lake, is shared among three countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
landlocked; most of the country is intensively cultivated and rugged with the population predominantly rural
Population distribution
population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated as shown in this population distribution map
one of Africa's most densely populated countries; large concentrations tend to be in the central regions and along the shore of Lake Kivu in the west as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

UgandaRwanda
Population
43,252,966 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

12,712,431 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.21% (male 10,548,913/female 10,304,876)
15-24 years: 20.25% (male 4,236,231/female 4,521,698)
25-54 years: 26.24% (male 5,202,570/female 6,147,304)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 579,110/female 681,052)
65 years and over: 2.38% (male 442,159/female 589,053) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 39.95% (male 2,564,893/female 2,513,993)
15-24 years: 20.1% (male 1,280,948/female 1,273,853)
25-54 years: 33.06% (male 2,001,629/female 2,201,132)
55-64 years: 4.24% (male 241,462/female 298,163)
65 years and over: 2.65% (male 134,648/female 201,710) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 15.7 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 19.7 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 20.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
3.34% (2020 est.)
2% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
42.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
27.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-3.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 94.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 95.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 32.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 28 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 68.2 years
male: 66 years
female: 70.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 65.1 years
male: 63.2 years
female: 67.1 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.52 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
6.1% (2019 est.)
2.9% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Hutu, Tutsi, Twa (Pygmy)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.5 million (2019 est.)
230,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Protestant 49.5% (includes Adventist 11.8% and other Protestant 37.7%), Roman Catholic 43.7%, Muslim 2%, other 0.9% (includes Jehovah's Witness), none 2.5%, unspecified 1.3% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
21,000 (2019 est.)
2,800 (2019 est.)
Languages
English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic
Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <.1, English (official) <.1, Swahili/Kiswahili (official, used in commercial centers) <.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.5%
male: 82.7%
female: 70.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.2%
male: 77.6%
female: 69.4% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact diseases: rabies
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2019)
Education expenditures
2.6% of GDP (2017)
3.1% of GDP (2018)
Urbanization
urban population: 25% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 17.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 77.2% of population
total: 80.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 22.8% of population
total: 19.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 92% of population
rural: 76.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 8% of population
rural: 23.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 67.8% of population
rural: 26.6% of population
total: 36.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 32.2% of population
rural: 73.4% of population
total: 63.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 88.4% of population
rural: 79.4% of population
total: 80.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 11.6% of population
rural: 20.6% of population
total: 19.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
3.298 million KAMPALA (capital) (2020)
1.132 million KIGALI (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
375 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
248 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
10.4% (2016)
9.6% (2015)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2017)
6.6% (2017)
Physicians density
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.3% (2016)
5.8% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
18.9 years (2011 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

23 years (2014/15 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.

Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.

Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.

Rwanda’s fertility rate declined sharply during the last decade, as a result of the government’s commitment to family planning, the increased use of contraceptives, and a downward trend in ideal family size. Increases in educational attainment, particularly among girls, and exposure to social media also contributed to the reduction in the birth rate. The average number of births per woman decreased from a 5.6 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2016. Despite these significant strides in reducing fertility, Rwanda’s birth rate remains very high and will continue to for an extended period of time because of its large population entering reproductive age. Because Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, its persistent high population growth and increasingly small agricultural landholdings will put additional strain on families’ ability to raise foodstuffs and access potable water. These conditions will also hinder the government’s efforts to reduce poverty and prevent environmental degradation.

The UNHCR recommended that effective 30 June 2013 countries invoke a cessation of refugee status for those Rwandans who fled their homeland between 1959 and 1998, including the 1994 genocide, on the grounds that the conditions that drove them to seek protection abroad no longer exist. The UNHCR’s decision is controversial because many Rwandan refugees still fear persecution if they return home, concerns that are supported by the number of Rwandans granted asylum since 1998 and by the number exempted from the cessation. Rwandan refugees can still seek an exemption or local integration, but host countries are anxious to send the refugees back to Rwanda and are likely to avoid options that enable them to stay. Conversely, Rwanda itself hosts almost 160,000 refugees as of 2017; virtually all of them fleeing conflict in neighboring Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
41.8% (2018)
53.2% (2014/15)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 92.3
youth dependency ratio: 88.5
elderly dependency ratio: 3.8
potential support ratio: 26.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 74.2
youth dependency ratio: 68.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.4 (2020 est.)

Government

UgandaRwanda
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the name "Buganda," adopted by the British as the designation for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda, German East Africa
etymology: the name translates as "domain" in the native Kinyarwanda language
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the site of the original British settlement was referred to by its native name as Akasozi ke'Empala ("hill of the impala" [plural]); over time this designation was shortened to K'empala and finally Kampala
name: Kigali
geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 03 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the city takes its name from nearby Mount Kigali; the name "Kigali" is composed of the Bantu prefix "ki" and the Rwandan "gali" meaning "broad" and likely refers to the broad, sprawling hill that has been dignified with the title of "mount"
Administrative divisions
134 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Bugweri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwo, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bunyangabu, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Butebo, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Kalaki, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kapelebyong, Karenga, Kasese, Kasanda, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kazo, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kikuube, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitagwenda, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kwania, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Kyotera, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Madi-Okollo, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nabilatuk, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namisindwa, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Obongi, Omoro, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pakwach, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubanda, Rubirizi, Rukiga, Rukungiri, Rwampara, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Independence
9 October 1962 (from the UK)
1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership in the second and third readings; proposals affecting "entrenched clauses," including the sovereignty of the people, supremacy of the constitution, human rights and freedoms, the democratic and multiparty form of government, presidential term of office, independence of the judiciary, and the institutions of traditional or cultural leaders, also requires passage by referendum, ratification by at least two-thirds majority vote of district council members in at least two thirds of Uganda's districts, and assent ofthe president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2017
history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (with Council of Ministers approval) or by two-thirds majority vote of both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses; changes to constitutional articles on national sovereignty, the presidential term, the form and system of government, and political pluralism also require approval in a referendum; amended 2008, 2010, 2015
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next scheduled to be held February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
head of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both head of state and head of government
chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard NGIRENTE (since 30 August 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); note - a constitutional amendment approved in December 2016 reduced the presidential term from 7 to 5 years but included an exception that allowed President KAGAME to serve another 7-year term in 2017, potentially followed by two additional 5-year terms; election last held on 4 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2024); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 98.8%, Philippe MPAYIMANA (independent) 0.7%, Frank HABINEZA (DGPR)0.5%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (445 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; up to 18 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 292, FDC 37, DP 5, UPDF 10, UPC 6, independent 66 (excludes 19 ex-officio members)
description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate or Senat (26 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum - a body of registered political parties, and 2 selected by institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (80 seats; 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 24 women selected by special interest groups, and 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members serve 5-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 16-18 September 2019 (next to be held in 2027)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 3 September 2018 (next to be held in September 2023)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 16, women 10, percent of women 38.5%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 40, PSD 5, PL 4, other 4 indirectly elected 27; composition - men 26, women 54, percent of women 67.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 60.4%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, an 8-member independent advisory body, and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also acts as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts; local council courts; family and children courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 15 judges; normally organized into 3-judge panels); High Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 24 judges and organized into 5 chambers)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary (SCJ), a 27-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal professionals) and approved by the Senate; chief and deputy chief justices appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of judges NA; High Court president and vice president appointed by the president of the republic upon approval by the Senate; judges appointed by the Supreme Court chief justice upon approval of the SCJ; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts

 

Political parties and leaders
Alliance for National Transformation or ANT [Ms. Alice ALASO, acting national coordinator]; note - Mugisha MUNTU resigned his position as ANT national coordinator in late June 2020 to run in the 2021 presidential election
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Patrick Oboi AMURIAT]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Democratic Green Party of Rwanda or DGPR [Frank HABINEZA]
Liberal Party or PL [Donatille MUKABALISA]
Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Dr. Alivera MUKABARAMBA]
Party Imberakuri or PS-Imberakuri [Christine MUKABUNANI]
Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]
Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition (includes RPF, PPC) [Paul KAGAME]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Mull Sebujja KATENDE (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Natalie E. BROWN (since 17 November 2020)
telephone: (256)-414-259791
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
FAX: [256] 414-306-009
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter H. VROOMAN (since 5 April 2018)
telephone: [250] 252 596-400
embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, P. O. Box 28, Kigali
mailing address: B.P. 28, Kigali
FAX: [250] 252 580 325
Flag description
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band; blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency from ignorance
National anthem
name: Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

note: adopted 1962

name: "Rwanda nziza" (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country)
lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-Bosco HASHAKAIMANA

note: adopted 2001

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
traditional woven basket with peaked lid; national colors: blue, yellow, green
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

UgandaRwanda
Economy - overview

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, substantial reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, but has recovered lately, largely due to record coffee harvests, which account for 16% of exports, and increasing gold exports, which account for 10% of exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy equipment. Overall, productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern technology in agriculture, and corruption.

Uganda’s economic growth has slowed since 2016 as government spending and public debt has grown. Uganda’s budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while Uganda relies on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through concessional loans, but at inflated costs. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.

Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as oil production starts in the next three to 10 years. Over the next three to five years, foreign investors are planning to invest $9 billion in production facilities projects, $4 billion in an export pipeline, as well as in a $2-3 billion refinery to produce petroleum products for the domestic and East African Community markets. Furthermore, the government is looking to build several hundred million dollars’ worth of highway projects to the oil region.

Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. Additional economic risks include: poor economic management, endemic corruption, and the government’s failure to invest adequately in the health, education, and economic opportunities for a burgeoning young population. Uganda has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa - only 22% of Ugandans have access to electricity, dropping to 10% in rural areas.

Rwanda is a rural, agrarian country with agriculture accounting for about 63% of export earnings, and with some mineral and agro-processing. Population density is high but, with the exception of the capital Kigali, is not concentrated in large cities – its 12 million people are spread out on a small amount of land (smaller than the state of Maryland). Tourism, minerals, coffee, and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap private sector growth.

The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy well beyond pre-1994 levels. GDP has rebounded with an average annual growth of 6%-8% since 2003 and inflation has been reduced to single digits. In 2015, 39% of the population lived below the poverty line, according to government statistics, compared to 57% in 2006.

The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment. Rwanda consistently ranks well for ease of doing business and transparency.

The Rwandan Government is seeking to become a regional leader in information and communication technologies and aims to reach middle-income status by 2020 by leveraging the service industry. In 2012, Rwanda completed the first modern Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Kigali. The SEZ seeks to attract investment in all sectors, but specifically in agribusiness, information and communications, trade and logistics, mining, and construction. In 2016, the government launched an online system to give investors information about public land and its suitability for agricultural development.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$89.19 billion (2017 est.)
$85.07 billion (2016 est.)
$83.14 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$24.68 billion (2017 est.)
$23.26 billion (2016 est.)
$21.94 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.8% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
6.1% (2017 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,400 (2017 est.)
$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$2,100 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 28.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 21.1% (2017 est.)
services: 50.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 30.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 17.6% (2017 est.)
services: 51.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
21.4% (2017 est.)
39.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 43.2% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
5.6% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2017 est.)
5.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
15.84 million (2015 est.)
6.227 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 71%
industry: 7%
services: 22% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 75.3%
industry: 6.7%
services: 18% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate
9.4% (2014 est.)
2.7% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
50.4 (2013 est.)
51.3 (2010 est.)
Budget
revenues: 3.848 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.928 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.943 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.337 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Exports
$3.339 billion (2017 est.)
$2.921 billion (2016 est.)
$1.05 billion (2017 est.)
$745 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners
Kenya 17.7%, UAE 16.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.6%, Rwanda 6.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)
UAE 38.3%, Kenya 15.1%, Switzerland 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.5%, US 4.9%, Singapore 4.5% (2017)
Imports
$5.036 billion (2017 est.)
$4.424 billion (2016 est.)
$1.922 billion (2017 est.)
$2.036 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners
China 17.4%, India 13.4%, UAE 12.2%, Kenya 7.9%, Japan 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Indonesia 4.4%, South Africa 4.1% (2017)
China 20.4%, Uganda 11%, India 7.2%, Kenya 7.1%, Tanzania 5.3%, UAE 5.1% (2017)
Debt - external
$10.8 billion (22 March 2018 est.)
$11.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.258 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.611 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,695 (2017 est.)
3,420.1 (2016 est.)
3,420.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)
Rwandan francs (RWF) per US dollar -
839.1 (2017 est.)
787.25 (2016 est.)
787.25 (2015 est.)
720.54 (2014 est.)
680.95 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt
40% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
40.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$3.654 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.034 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: excludes gold

$997.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.104 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.212 billion (2017 est.)
-$707 million (2016 est.)
-$622 million (2017 est.)
-$1.336 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$26.62 billion (2017 est.)
$9.136 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$541 million (2017)

NA

$2.378 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.072 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

NA

$113.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$26.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

NA

Central bank discount rate
9% (February 2018)
9.5% (December 2017)
7.75% (31 December 2010)
11.25% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
21.28% (31 December 2017 est.)
23.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
17.17% (31 December 2017 est.)
17.29% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$4.297 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.989 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.861 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.614 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$963.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$895 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$963.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$895 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
14.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
21.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-4.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-4.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 14.8%
male: 12.7%
female: 17.3% (2017 est.)
total: 20.6%
male: 18.8%
female: 22.6% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 74.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 18.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -25.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 75.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 18.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -32.8% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
6.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
7.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

UgandaRwanda
Electricity - production
3.463 billion kWh (2016 est.)
525 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
3.106 billion kWh (2016 est.)
527.3 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
121 million kWh (2015 est.)
4 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
50 million kWh (2016 est.)
42 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
56.63 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
1.02 million kW (2016 est.)
191,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
19% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
42% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
68% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
51% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
32,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
6,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
31,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
6,628 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
4.703 million Mt (2017 est.)
985,600 Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 32 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 29% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 66% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2019)
population without electricity: 6 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 53% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 76% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 48% (2019)

Telecommunications

UgandaRwanda
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 184,065
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 11,215
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 23,957,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,531,609
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76.49 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.ug
.rw
Internet users
total: 9,620,681
percent of population: 23.71% (July 2018 est.)
total: 2,653,197
percent of population: 21.77% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps; consumers rely on mobile infrastructure to provide voice and broadband services as fixed-line infrastructure is poor; 5G migration is a few years off; govt. commissions broadband satellite services for rural areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile- cellular systems teledensity about 57 per 100 persons; intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations (2019)
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: govt. invests in smart city infrastructure; expanding wholesale LTE services; govt. launches SIM card registration; growing economy and foreign aid help launch telecom sector, despite widespread poverty; slow to liberalize mobile sector; competing operators roll out national fiber optic backbone that connects to submarine cables of neighboring countries ending expensive dependence on satellite (2020)
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay, and recently by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased to 76 telephones per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service); international submarine fiber-optic cables on the African east coast has brought international bandwidth and lessened the dependency on satellites
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 9,485
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 7,501
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; 31 Free-To-Air (FTA) TV stations, 2 digital terrestrial TV stations, 3 cable TV stations, and 5 digital satellite TV stations; 258 operational FM stations
13 TV stations; 35 radio stations registered, including international broadcasters, government owns most popular TV and radio stations; regional satellite-based TV services available

Transportation

UgandaRwanda
Roadways
total: 20,544 km (excludes local roads) (2017)
paved: 4,257 km (2017)
unpaved: 16,287 km (2017)
total: 4,700 km (2012)
paved: 1,207 km (2012)
unpaved: 3,493 km (2012)
Waterways
(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
(Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft) (2011)
Ports and terminals
lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
lake port(s): Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye (Lake Kivu)
Airports
total: 47 (2013)
total: 7 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 5 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
total: 4 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 42 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 26 (2013)
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 26
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,537 (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,073,528 (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
5X (2016)
9XR (2016)

Military

UgandaRwanda
Military branches
Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces, Air Forces, Marine Forces, Special Operations Command, Reserve Force (2019)
Rwanda Defense Force (RDF): Rwanda Army (Rwanda Land Force), Rwanda Air Force (Force Aerienne Rwandaise, FAR), Rwanda Reserve Force (2020)
Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for voluntary military duty (must be single, no children); 9-year service obligation (2019)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship is required, as is a 9th-grade education for enlisted recruits and an A-level certificate for officer candidates; enlistment is either as contract (5-years, renewable twice) or career; retirement (for officers and senior NCOs) after 20 years of service or at 40-60 years of age (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.1% of GDP (2019)
1.4% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.2% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.3% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

UgandaRwanda
Disputes - international

Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 885,171 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 418,369 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 49,082 (Burundi), 41,850 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 17,239 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers), 14,865 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2020)
IDPs: 32,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence, land disputes, and cattle raids) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 77,017 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 72,007 (Burundi) (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook