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Uganda vs. Kenya

Introduction

UgandaKenya
Background
British influence in Uganda began in the 1860s with explorers seeking the source of the Nile and expanded in subsequent decades with various trade agreements and the establishment of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. In December 2017, parliament approved the removal of presidential age limits, thereby making it possible for MUSEVENI to continue standing for office. Uganda faces numerous challenges, however, that could affect future stability, including explosive population growth, power and infrastructure constraints, corruption, underdeveloped democratic institutions, and human rights deficits.

Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel Arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982, after which time the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) changed the constitution to make itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.

KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which approximately 1,100 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and devolved power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister. Uhuru KENYATTA won the first presidential election under the new constitution in March 2013, and was sworn into office the following month; he began a second term in November 2017 following a contentious, repeat election.

Geography

UgandaKenya
Location
East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates
1 00 N, 32 00 E
1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
total: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries
total: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
total: 3,457 km
border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
536 km
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Albert Nile 614 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
mean elevation: 762 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resources
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Land use
agricultural land: 71.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 34.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 11.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 25.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 14.5% (2011 est.)
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 48.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 9.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 37.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 6.1% (2011 est.)
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
140 sq km (2012)
1,030 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms

recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - current issues
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial discharge and water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; water shortage and degraded water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; flooding; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers; Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest fresh water lake, is shared among three countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value; Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest fresh water lake, is shared among three countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
Population distribution
population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated as shown in this population distribution map
population heavily concentrated in the west along the shore of Lake Victoria; other areas of high density include the capital of Nairobi, and in the southeast along the Indian Ocean coast as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

UgandaKenya
Population
43,252,966 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

53,527,936 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.21% (male 10,548,913/female 10,304,876)
15-24 years: 20.25% (male 4,236,231/female 4,521,698)
25-54 years: 26.24% (male 5,202,570/female 6,147,304)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 579,110/female 681,052)
65 years and over: 2.38% (male 442,159/female 589,053) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 38.71% (male 10,412,321/female 10,310,908)
15-24 years: 20.45% (male 5,486,641/female 5,460,372)
25-54 years: 33.75% (male 9,046,946/female 9,021,207)
55-64 years: 4.01% (male 1,053,202/female 1,093,305)
65 years and over: 3.07% (male 750,988/female 892,046) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 15.7 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 20 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.1 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
3.34% (2020 est.)
2.2% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
42.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
27.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-3.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 94.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 99.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 32.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 29.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 33 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 68.2 years
male: 66 years
female: 70.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 69 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 70.6 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.43 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
6.1% (2019 est.)
4.8% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groups
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Kikuyu 17.1%, Luhya 14.3%, Kalenjin 13.4%, Luo 10.7%, Kamba 9.8%, Somali 5.8%, Kisii 5.7%, Mijikenda 5.2%, Meru 4.2%, Maasai 2.5%, Turkana 2.1%, non-Kenyan 1%, other 8.2% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.5 million (2019 est.)
1.5 million (2019 est.)
Religions
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Christian 85.5% (Protestant 33.4%, Catholic 20.6%, Evangelical 20.4%, African Instituted Churches 7%, other Christian 4.1%), Muslim 10.9%, other 1.8%, none 1.6%, don't know/no answer 0.2% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
21,000 (2019 est.)
21,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.5%
male: 82.7%
female: 70.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 85%
female: 78.2% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
Education expenditures
2.6% of GDP (2017)
5.2% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 25% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 28% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 77.2% of population
total: 80.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 22.8% of population
total: 19.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 89% of population
rural: 60.4% of population
total: 68% of population
unimproved: urban: 11% of population
rural: 39.6% of population
total: 32% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 67.8% of population
rural: 26.6% of population
total: 36.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 32.2% of population
rural: 73.4% of population
total: 63.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 78.8% of population
rural: 41.2% of population
total: 51.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 21.2% of population
rural: 58.8% of population
total: 48.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
3.298 million KAMPALA (capital) (2020)
4.735 million NAIROBI (capital), 1.296 million Mombassa (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
375 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
342 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
10.4% (2016)
11.2% (2014)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2017)
4.8% (2017)
Physicians density
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.3% (2016)
7.1% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
18.9 years (2011 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

20.3 years (2014 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.

Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.

Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.

Kenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first Sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.

Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya shelters more than 300,000 Somali refugees as of April 2017.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
41.8% (2018)
60.5% (2017)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 92.3
youth dependency ratio: 88.5
elderly dependency ratio: 3.8
potential support ratio: 26.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 69.8
youth dependency ratio: 65.5
elderly dependency ratio: 4.3
potential support ratio: 23.5 (2020 est.)

Government

UgandaKenya
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the name "Buganda," adopted by the British as the designation for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words "kirinyaga," "kirenyaa," and "kiinyaa" - all of which mean "God's resting place"
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the site of the original British settlement was referred to by its native name as Akasozi ke'Empala ("hill of the impala" [plural]); over time this designation was shortened to K'empala and finally Kampala
name: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name derives from the Maasai expression meaning "cool waters" and refers to a cold water stream that flowed through the area in the late 19th century
Administrative divisions
134 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Bugweri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwo, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bunyangabu, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Butebo, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Kalaki, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kapelebyong, Karenga, Kasese, Kasanda, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kazo, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kikuube, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitagwenda, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kwania, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Kyotera, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Madi-Okollo, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nabilatuk, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namisindwa, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Obongi, Omoro, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pakwach, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubanda, Rubirizi, Rukiga, Rukungiri, Rwampara, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
Independence
9 October 1962 (from the UK)
12 December 1963 (from the UK)
National holiday
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Jamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership in the second and third readings; proposals affecting "entrenched clauses," including the sovereignty of the people, supremacy of the constitution, human rights and freedoms, the democratic and multiparty form of government, presidential term of office, independence of the judiciary, and the institutions of traditional or cultural leaders, also requires passage by referendum, ratification by at least two-thirds majority vote of district council members in at least two thirds of Uganda's districts, and assent ofthe president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2017
history: previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010
amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by petition of at least one million eligible voters; passage of amendments by Parliament requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses in each of two readings, approval in a referendum by majority of votes cast by at least 20% of eligible voters in at least one half of Kenya’s counties, and approval by the president; passage of amendments introduced by petition requires approval by a majority of county assemblies, approval by majority vote of both houses, and approval by the president
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next scheduled to be held February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
head of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both head of state and head of government
chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister was abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 26 October 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (Jubilee Party) 98.3%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 1%, other 0.7%; note - Kenya held a previous presidential election on 8 August 2017, but Kenya's Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the results, citing irregularities; the political opposition boycotted the October vote
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (445 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; up to 18 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 292, FDC 37, DP 5, UPDF 10, UPC 6, independent 66 (excludes 19 ex-officio members)
description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)
National Assembly - last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Party 24; National Super Alliance 28, other 14, independent 1; composition - men 46, women 41, percent of women is 31.3%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Party 165, National Super Alliance 119, other 51, independent 13; composition - men 273, women 76, percent of women 21.8%; note - total Parliament percent of women is 23%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, an 8-member independent advisory body, and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also acts as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts; local council courts; family and children courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by the president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or until age 70, whichever comes first; other judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for National Transformation or ANT [Ms. Alice ALASO, acting national coordinator]; note - Mugisha MUNTU resigned his position as ANT national coordinator in late June 2020 to run in the 2021 presidential election
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Patrick Oboi AMURIAT]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Alliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
Amani National Congress or ANC [Musalia MUDAVADI]
Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Mull Sebujja KATENDE (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Ambassador Lazarus Ombai AMAYO (since 17 July 2020)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Natalie E. BROWN (since 17 November 2020)
telephone: (256)-414-259791
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
FAX: [256] 414-306-009
chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle MCCARTER (since 12 March 2019)
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
Flag description
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
National anthem
name: Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

note: adopted 1962

name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE

note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years

Economy

UgandaKenya
Economy - overview

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, substantial reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, but has recovered lately, largely due to record coffee harvests, which account for 16% of exports, and increasing gold exports, which account for 10% of exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy equipment. Overall, productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern technology in agriculture, and corruption.

Uganda’s economic growth has slowed since 2016 as government spending and public debt has grown. Uganda’s budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while Uganda relies on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through concessional loans, but at inflated costs. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.

Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as oil production starts in the next three to 10 years. Over the next three to five years, foreign investors are planning to invest $9 billion in production facilities projects, $4 billion in an export pipeline, as well as in a $2-3 billion refinery to produce petroleum products for the domestic and East African Community markets. Furthermore, the government is looking to build several hundred million dollars’ worth of highway projects to the oil region.

Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. Additional economic risks include: poor economic management, endemic corruption, and the government’s failure to invest adequately in the health, education, and economic opportunities for a burgeoning young population. Uganda has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa - only 22% of Ugandans have access to electricity, dropping to 10% in rural areas.

Kenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last decade. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic development has been impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 48.5 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production. Tourism also holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. In spite of political turmoil throughout the second half of 2017, tourism was up 20%, showcasing the strength of this sector. Kenya has long been a target of terrorist activity and has struggled with instability along its northeastern borders. Some high visibility terrorist attacks during 2013-2015 (e.g., at Nairobi’s Westgate Mall and Garissa University) affected the tourism industry severely, but the sector rebounded strongly in 2016-2017 and appears poised to continue growing.

Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market issuing its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014, with a second occurring in February 2018. The first phase of a Chinese-financed and constructed standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi opened in May 2017.

In 2016 the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks when underlying weaknesses were exposed. The government also enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy. A prolonged election cycle in 2017 hurt the economy, drained government resources, and slowed GDP growth. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country pushed 2017 inflation above 8%, but the rate had fallen to 4.5% in February 2018.

The economy, however, is well placed to resume its decade-long 5%-6% growth rate. While fiscal deficits continue to pose risks in the medium term, other economic indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, current account deficits, remittances and FDI are positive. The credit and drought-related impediments were temporary. Now In his second term, President KENYATTA has pledged to make economic growth and development a centerpiece of his second administration, focusing on his "Big Four" initiatives of universal healthcare, food security, affordable housing, and expansion of manufacturing.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$89.19 billion (2017 est.)
$85.07 billion (2016 est.)
$83.14 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$163.7 billion (2017 est.)
$156 billion (2016 est.)
$147.4 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.8% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
5.39% (2019 est.)
6.32% (2018 est.)
4.79% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,400 (2017 est.)
$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$3,500 (2017 est.)
$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 28.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 21.1% (2017 est.)
services: 50.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 34.5% (2017 est.)
industry: 17.8% (2017 est.)
services: 47.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
21.4% (2017 est.)
36.1% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
5.6% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
8% (2017 est.)
6.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force
15.84 million (2015 est.)
19.6 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 71%
industry: 7%
services: 22% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 61.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate
9.4% (2014 est.)
40% (2013 est.)
40% (2001 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
48.5 (2016 est.)
42.5 (2008 est.)
Budget
revenues: 3.848 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.928 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 13.95 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 19.24 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism, information technology
Industrial production growth rate
4.4% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
Exports
$3.339 billion (2017 est.)
$2.921 billion (2016 est.)
$5.792 billion (2017 est.)
$5.695 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement, apparel
Exports - partners
Kenya 17.7%, UAE 16.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.6%, Rwanda 6.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)
Uganda 10.8%, Pakistan 10.6%, US 8.1%, Netherlands 7.3%, UK 6.4%, Tanzania 4.8%, UAE 4.4% (2017)
Imports
$5.036 billion (2017 est.)
$4.424 billion (2016 est.)
$15.99 billion (2017 est.)
$13.41 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
machinery and transportation equipment, oil, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners
China 17.4%, India 13.4%, UAE 12.2%, Kenya 7.9%, Japan 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Indonesia 4.4%, South Africa 4.1% (2017)
China 22.5%, India 9.9%, UAE 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.1%, Japan 4.5% (2017)
Debt - external
$10.8 billion (22 March 2018 est.)
$11.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$27.59 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,695 (2017 est.)
3,420.1 (2016 est.)
3,420.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)
Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
102.1 (2017 est.)
101.5 (2016 est.)
101.504 (2015 est.)
98.179 (2014 est.)
87.921 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 July - 30 June
1 July - 30 June
Public debt
40% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
53.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$3.654 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.034 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: excludes gold

$7.354 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.256 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.212 billion (2017 est.)
-$707 million (2016 est.)
-$57.594 billion (2019 est.)
-$56.194 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$26.62 billion (2017 est.)
$79.22 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$541 million (2017)

NA

$8.738 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.317 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

NA

$1.545 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$335.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$19.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$26.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate
9% (February 2018)
9.5% (December 2017)
10% (1 January 2017)
11.5% (1 January 2016)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
21.28% (31 December 2017 est.)
23.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.67% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.56% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$4.297 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.989 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$29.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
14.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
17.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-4.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 14.8%
male: 12.7%
female: 17.3% (2017 est.)
total: 7.4%
male: 7.3%
female: 7.4% (2016)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 74.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 18.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -25.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 79.5% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 14.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 18.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 13.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -25.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
10.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
11% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

UgandaKenya
Electricity - production
3.463 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.634 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
3.106 billion kWh (2016 est.)
7.863 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
121 million kWh (2015 est.)
39.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
50 million kWh (2016 est.)
184 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
12,550 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
1.02 million kW (2016 est.)
2.401 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
19% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
33% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
68% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
34% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
33% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
13,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
32,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
109,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
173 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
31,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
90,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
4.703 million Mt (2017 est.)
17.98 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 32 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 29% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 66% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2019)
population without electricity: 8 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 85% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 99% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 79% (2019)

Telecommunications

UgandaKenya
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 184,065
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 68,072
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 23,957,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 54,336,841
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103.77 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.ug
.ke
Internet users
total: 9,620,681
percent of population: 23.71% (July 2018 est.)
total: 9,129,243
percent of population: 17.83% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps; consumers rely on mobile infrastructure to provide voice and broadband services as fixed-line infrastructure is poor; 5G migration is a few years off; govt. commissions broadband satellite services for rural areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile- cellular systems teledensity about 57 per 100 persons; intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations (2019)
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good with a mobile subscriber base of 47 million, especially in urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; to encourage advancement of the LTE services the govt. has fostered an open-access approach and pushed for a national broadband strategy; more licensing being awarded has led to competition which is good for growth; govt. commits KE 300 million to its free Wi-Fi project (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 104 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS, LION2, DARE1, PEACE Cable, and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems covering East, North and South Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat; launched first micro satellites in 2018 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 9,485
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 371,498
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; 31 Free-To-Air (FTA) TV stations, 2 digital terrestrial TV stations, 3 cable TV stations, and 5 digital satellite TV stations; 258 operational FM stations
about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit regional stations broadcasting in local languages; TV transmissions of all major international broadcasters available, mostly via paid subscriptions; direct radio frequency modulation transmissions available for several foreign government-owned broadcasters (2019)

Transportation

UgandaKenya
Railways
total: 1,244 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,819 km (2018)
standard gauge: 485 km 1.435-m gauge (2018)
narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge (2018)
Roadways
total: 20,544 km (excludes local roads) (2017)
paved: 4,257 km (2017)
unpaved: 16,287 km (2017)
total: 177,800 km (2018)
paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads) (2017)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
Waterways
(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
Ports and terminals
lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
Merchant marine
total: 1
by type: bulk carrier 1 (2017)
total: 24
by type: oil tanker 2, other 22 (2019)
Airports
total: 47 (2013)
total: 197 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 5 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
total: 16 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 42 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 26 (2013)
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 181 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 107 (2013)
under 914 m: 60 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 26
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,537 (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 188
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,935,831 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 294.97 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
5X (2016)
5Y (2016)

Military

UgandaKenya
Military branches
Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces, Air Forces, Marine Forces, Special Operations Command, Reserve Force (2019)
Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2019)
note: the National Police Service includes a paramilitary General Service Unit
Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for voluntary military duty (must be single, no children); 9-year service obligation (2019)
18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy) and subsequent 3-year reenlistments; applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate, and undergo a series of mental and physical examinations; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 but personnel leaving before this age remain in a reserve status until they reach age 55 unless they were removed for disciplinary reasons; there is no active military reserve, although the Ministry of Defence has stated its desire to create one as recently as 2017 (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.1% of GDP (2019)
1.4% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.3% of GDP (2019)
1.2% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.3% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

UgandaKenya
Disputes - international

Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; as of March 2019, Kenya provides shelter to nearly 475,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times; in 2018, Kenya signed an MoU with Uganda and South Sudan to help demarcate their borders

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 885,171 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 418,369 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 49,082 (Burundi), 41,850 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 17,239 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers), 14,865 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2020)
IDPs: 32,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence, land disputes, and cattle raids) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 266,074 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 122,256 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 44,836 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 28,836 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 16,010 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers), 10,007 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2020)
IDPs: 162,000 (election-related violence, intercommunal violence, resource conflicts, al-Shabaab attacks in 2017 and 2018) (2019)
stateless persons: 18,500 (2019); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards

Terrorism

UgandaKenya
Terrorist groups - foreign based
al-Shabaab: aim(s): punish Ugandan Government for participating in African Union military operations against al-Shabaab; compel Uganda to withdraw forces from Somalia
area(s) of operation: aspires to renew attacks in Kampala; no permanent presence (2018)
al-Shabaab: aim(s): establish Islamic rule in Kenya’s northeastern border region and coast; avenge Kenya's past intervention in Somalia against al-Shabaab and its ongoing participation in the African Union mission; compel Kenya to withdraw troops from Somalia; attract Kenyan recruits to support operations in Somalia
area(s) of operation: maintains an operational and recruitment presence, mostly along the coast and the northeastern border region (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook