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Uganda vs. Democratic Republic of the Congo

Introduction

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Background
British influence in Uganda began in the 1860s with explorers seeking the source of the Nile and expanded in subsequent decades with various trade agreements and the establishment of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. In December 2017, parliament approved the removal of presidential age limits, thereby making it possible for MUSEVENI to continue standing for office. Uganda faces numerous challenges, however, that could affect future stability, including explosive population growth, power and infrastructure constraints, corruption, underdeveloped democratic institutions, and human rights deficits.

The Kingdom of Kongo ruled the area around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. To the center and east, the Kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century. in the 1870s, European exploration of the Congo Basin, sponsored by King Leopold II of Belgium, eventually allowed the ruler to acquire rights to the Congo territory and to make it his private property under the name of the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the king's colonial military forced the local population to produce rubber. From 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese people died as a result of disease and exploitation. International condemnation finally forced Leopold to cede the land to Belgium, creating the Belgian Congo.

The Republic of the Congo gained its independence from Belgium in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from conflict in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. KABILA renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. Presidential, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006, with Joseph KABILA elected to office.

National elections were held in November 2011 and disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency. While the DRC constitution barred President KABILA from running for a third term, the DRC Government delayed national elections originally slated for November 2016, to 30 December 2018. This failure to hold elections as scheduled fueled significant civil and political unrest, with sporadic street protests by KABILA’s opponents and exacerbation of tensions in the tumultuous eastern DRC regions. Presidential, legislative, and provincial elections were held in late December 2018 and early 2019 across most of the country. The DRC Government canceled presidential elections in the cities of Beni and Butembo (citing concerns over an ongoing Ebola outbreak in the region) as well as Yumbi (which had recently experienced heavy violence).

Opposition candidate Felix TSHISEKEDI was announced the election winner on 10 January 2019 and inaugurated two weeks later. This was the first transfer of power to an opposition candidate without significant violence or a coup since the DRC's independence. 

The DRC, particularly in the East, continues to experience violence perpetrated by more than 100 armed groups active in the region, including the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), and assorted Mai Mai militias. The UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) has operated in the region since 1999 and is the largest and most expensive UN peacekeeping mission in the world.

 

Geography

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Location
East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Central Africa, northeast of Angola
Geographic coordinates
1 00 N, 32 00 E
0 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
total: 2,344,858 sq km
land: 2,267,048 sq km
water: 77,810 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land boundaries
total: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
total: 10,481 km
border countries (9): Angola 2646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 236 km, Central African Republic 1747 km, Republic of the Congo 1229 km, Rwanda 221 km, South Sudan 714 km, Tanzania 479 km, Uganda 877 km, Zambia 2332 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
37 km
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: since 2011 the DRC has a Common Interest Zone agreement with Angola for the mutual development of off-shore resources
Climate
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
Terrain
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Elevation extremes
lowest point: Albert Nile 614 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
mean elevation: 726 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
Natural resources
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
Land use
agricultural land: 71.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 34.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 11.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 25.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 14.5% (2011 est.)
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 11.4% (2011 est.)
arable land: 3.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 8% (2011 est.)
forest: 67.9% (2011 est.)
other: 20.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
140 sq km (2012)
110 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms

periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley

volcanism: Nyiragongo (3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - current issues
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial discharge and water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation (forests endangered by fires set to clean the land for agricultural purposes; forests also used as a source of fuel); soil erosion; mining (diamonds, gold, coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors for electronic devices) causing environmental damage
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers; Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest fresh water lake, is shared among three countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda

note 1: second largest country in Africa (after Algeria) and largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa; straddles the equator; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands; the narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River is the DRC's only outlet to the South Atlantic Ocean

note 2: because of its speed, cataracts, rapids, and turbulence the Congo River, most of which flows through the DRC, has never been accurately measured along much of its length; nonetheless, it is conceded to be the deepest river in the world; estimates of its greatest depth vary between 220 and 250 meters

Population distribution
population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated as shown in this population distribution map
urban clusters are spread throughout the country, particularly in the northeast along the boarder with Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi; the largest city is the capital, Kinshasha, located in the west along the Congo River; the south is least densely populated as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Population
43,252,966 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

101,780,263 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.21% (male 10,548,913/female 10,304,876)
15-24 years: 20.25% (male 4,236,231/female 4,521,698)
25-54 years: 26.24% (male 5,202,570/female 6,147,304)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 579,110/female 681,052)
65 years and over: 2.38% (male 442,159/female 589,053) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 46.38% (male 23,757,297/female 23,449,057)
15-24 years: 19.42% (male 9,908,686/female 9,856,841)
25-54 years: 28.38% (male 14,459,453/female 14,422,912)
55-64 years: 3.36% (male 1,647,267/female 1,769,429)
65 years and over: 2.47% (male 1,085,539/female 1,423,782) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 15.7 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 16.7 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 16.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
3.34% (2020 est.)
3.18% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
42.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
41 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-3.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 94.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 99.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 32.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 64.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 68.2 years
male: 66 years
female: 70.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 61 years
male: 59.3 years
female: 62.8 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.77 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
6.1% (2019 est.)
0.8% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
Ethnic groups
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
more than 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) - make up about 45% of the population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.5 million (2019 est.)
520,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Roman Catholic 29.9%, Protestant 26.7%, Kimbanguist 2.8%, other Christian 36.5%, Muslim 1.3%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 1.2%, none 1.3%, unspecified .2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
21,000 (2019 est.)
15,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic
French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.5%
male: 82.7%
female: 70.8% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 77%
male: 88.5%
female: 66.5% (2016)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
note - on 18 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for an Ebola outbreak in the South Kivu (Kivu Sud), North Kivu (Kivu Nord), and Ituri provinces in the northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; travelers to this area could be infected with Ebola if they come into contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids; travelers should seek medical care immediately if they develop fever, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, stomach pain, or unexplained bleeding or bruising during or after travel
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
total: 11 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2013)
Education expenditures
2.6% of GDP (2017)
1.5% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 25% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 45.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.53% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 77.2% of population
total: 80.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 22.8% of population
total: 19.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 32.4% of population
total: 55.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 67.6% of population
total: 44.8% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 67.8% of population
rural: 26.6% of population
total: 36.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 32.2% of population
rural: 73.4% of population
total: 63.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 54.7% of population
rural: 29.8% of population
total: 40.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 44.5% of population
rural: 70.2% of population
total: 59.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
3.298 million KAMPALA (capital) (2020)
14.342 million KINSHASA (capital), 2.525 million Mbuji-Mayi, 2.478 million Lubumbashi, 1.458 million Kananga, 1.261 million Kisangani, 1.078 million Bukavu (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
375 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
473 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
10.4% (2016)
23.4% (2013)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2017)
4% (2017)
Physicians density
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (201)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.3% (2016)
6.7% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
18.9 years (2011 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

19.9 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.

Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.

Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.

Despite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 30 percent of children under the age of 5 are malnourished. The overall coverage of basic public services – education, health, sanitation, and potable water – is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.

The DRC is a source and host country for refugees. Between 2012 and 2014, more than 119,000 Congolese refugees returned from the Republic of Congo to the relative stability of northwest DRC, but more than 540,000 Congolese refugees remained abroad as of year-end 2015. In addition, an estimated 3.9 million Congolese were internally displaced as of October 2017, the vast majority fleeing violence between rebel group and Congolese armed forces. Thousands of refugees have come to the DRC from neighboring countries, including Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and Burundi.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
41.8% (2018)
20.4% (2013/14)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 92.3
youth dependency ratio: 88.5
elderly dependency ratio: 3.8
potential support ratio: 26.2 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 95.4
youth dependency ratio: 89.5
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2020 est.)

Government

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the name "Buganda," adopted by the British as the designation for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: DRC
local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
local short form: RDC
former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
abbreviation: DRC (or DROC)
etymology: named for the Congo River, most of which lies within the DRC; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning "hunters"
Government type
presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capital
name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the site of the original British settlement was referred to by its native name as Akasozi ke'Empala ("hill of the impala" [plural]); over time this designation was shortened to K'empala and finally Kampala
name: Kinshasa
geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: the DRC has two time zones

etymology:
founded as a trading post in 1881 and named Leopoldville in honor of King Leopold II of the Belgians, who controlled the Congo Free State, the vast central African territory that became the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960; in 1966, Leopoldville was renamed Kinshasa, after a village of that name that once stood near the site


Administrative divisions
134 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Bugweri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwo, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bunyangabu, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Butebo, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Kalaki, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kapelebyong, Karenga, Kasese, Kasanda, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kazo, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kikuube, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitagwenda, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kwania, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Kyotera, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Madi-Okollo, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nabilatuk, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namisindwa, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Obongi, Omoro, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pakwach, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubanda, Rubirizi, Rukiga, Rukungiri, Rwampara, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
26 provinces (provinces, singular - province); Bas-Uele (Lower Uele), Equateur, Haut-Katanga (Upper Katanga), Haut-Lomami (Upper Lomami), Haut-Uele (Upper Uele), Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa
Independence
9 October 1962 (from the UK)
30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
National holiday
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Independence Day, 30 June (1960)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership in the second and third readings; proposals affecting "entrenched clauses," including the sovereignty of the people, supremacy of the constitution, human rights and freedoms, the democratic and multiparty form of government, presidential term of office, independence of the judiciary, and the institutions of traditional or cultural leaders, also requires passage by referendum, ratification by at least two-thirds majority vote of district council members in at least two thirds of Uganda's districts, and assent ofthe president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2017
history: several previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by either house of Parliament, or by public petition; agreement on the substance of a proposed bill requires absolute majority vote in both houses; passage requires a referendum only if both houses in joint meeting fail to achieve three-fifths majority vote; constitutional articles, including the form of government, universal suffrage, judicial independence, political pluralism, and personal freedoms, cannot be amended; amended 2011
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next scheduled to be held February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
head of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both head of state and head of government
chief of state: President Felix TSHISEKEDI (since 24 January 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Sylvestre ILUNGA Ilunkamba (since 20 May 2019); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Henri MOVA Sankanyi (since February 2018)
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 December 2018 (next to be held in December 2023); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Felix TSHISEKEDI elected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 38.6%, Martin FAYULU (Lamuka coalition) 34.8%, Emmanuel Ramazani SHADARY (PPRD) 23.9%, other 2.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (445 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; up to 18 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 292, FDC 37, DP 5, UPDF 10, UPC 6, independent 66 (excludes 19 ex-officio members)
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate (108 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

National Assembly (500 seats; 439 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 61 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2007 (follow-on election has been delayed)
National Assembly - last held on 30 December 2018
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, other 18, independent 26; composition - men 103, women 5, percent of women 4.6%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 62, UDPS 41, PPPD 29, MSR 27, MLC 22, PALU 19, UNC 17, ARC 16, AFDC 15, ECT 11, RRC 11, other 214 (includes numerous political parties that won 10 or fewer seats and 2 constituencies where voting was halted), independent 16; composition - men 456, women 44, percent of women  8.8%; total Parliament percent of women 8.1%;note - the November 2011 election was marred by violence including the destruction of ballots in 2 constituencies resulting in the closure of polling sites; election results were delayed 3 months, strongly contested, and continue to be unresolved
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, an 8-member independent advisory body, and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also acts as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts; local council courts; family and children courts
highest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for National Transformation or ANT [Ms. Alice ALASO, acting national coordinator]; note - Mugisha MUNTU resigned his position as ANT national coordinator in late June 2020 to run in the 2021 presidential election
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Patrick Oboi AMURIAT]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]
Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]
Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC
Engagement for Citizenship and Development or ECiDe [Martin FAYULU]
Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]
Lamuka coalition [Martin FAYULU] (includes ECiDe, MLC, Together for Change, CNB, and, Nouvel Elan)
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]
Nouvel Elan [Adolphe MUZITO]
Our Congo or CNB ("Congo Na Biso") [Freddy MATUNGULU]
People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA Sakanyi]
Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]
Together for Change (Ensemble") [Moise KATUMBI]
Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]
Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Felix TSHISEKEDI]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Mull Sebujja KATENDE (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Ambassador Francois Nkuna BALUMUENE (since 23 September 2015)
chancery: 1100 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 725, Washington DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690 through 7691
FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609
representative office: New York New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Natalie E. BROWN (since 17 November 2020)
telephone: (256)-414-259791
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
FAX: [256] 414-306-009
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael A. HAMMER (since 22 December 2018)
telephone: [243] 081 556-0151
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa, Gombe
mailing address: Unit 2220, DPO AE 09828
FAX: [243] 81 556-0175
Flag description
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
sky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner; blue represents peace and hope, red the blood of the country's martyrs, and yellow the country's wealth and prosperity; the star symbolizes unity and the brilliant future for the country
National anthem
name: Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

note: adopted 1962

name: "Debout Congolaise" (Arise Congolese)
lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi

note: adopted 1960; replaced when the country was known as Zaire; but readopted in 1997

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
leopard; national colors: sky blue, red, yellow
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Economy - overview

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, substantial reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, but has recovered lately, largely due to record coffee harvests, which account for 16% of exports, and increasing gold exports, which account for 10% of exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy equipment. Overall, productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern technology in agriculture, and corruption.

Uganda’s economic growth has slowed since 2016 as government spending and public debt has grown. Uganda’s budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while Uganda relies on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through concessional loans, but at inflated costs. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.

Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as oil production starts in the next three to 10 years. Over the next three to five years, foreign investors are planning to invest $9 billion in production facilities projects, $4 billion in an export pipeline, as well as in a $2-3 billion refinery to produce petroleum products for the domestic and East African Community markets. Furthermore, the government is looking to build several hundred million dollars’ worth of highway projects to the oil region.

Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. Additional economic risks include: poor economic management, endemic corruption, and the government’s failure to invest adequately in the health, education, and economic opportunities for a burgeoning young population. Uganda has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa - only 22% of Ugandans have access to electricity, dropping to 10% in rural areas.

The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast natural resource wealth - continues to perform poorly. Systemic corruption since independence in 1960, combined with countrywide instability and intermittent conflict that began in the early-90s, has reduced national output and government revenue, and increased external debt. With the installation of a transitional government in 2003 after peace accords, economic conditions slowly began to improve as the government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA began implementing reforms. Progress on implementing substantive economic reforms remains slow because of political instability, bureaucratic inefficiency, corruption, and patronage, which also dampen international investment prospects.

Renewed activity in the mining sector, the source of most export income, boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth until 2015, but low commodity prices have led to slower growth, volatile inflation, currency depreciation, and a growing fiscal deficit. An uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems for the large mining sector and for the economy as a whole. Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data.

Poverty remains widespread in DRC, and the country failed to meet any Millennium Development Goals by 2015. DRC also concluded its program with the IMF in 2015. The price of copper – the DRC’s primary export - plummeted in 2015 and remained at record lows during 2016-17, reducing government revenues, expenditures, and foreign exchange reserves, while inflation reached nearly 50% in mid-2017 – its highest level since the early 2000s.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$89.19 billion (2017 est.)
$85.07 billion (2016 est.)
$83.14 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$68.6 billion (2017 est.)
$66.33 billion (2016 est.)
$64.78 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.8% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
3.4% (2017 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,400 (2017 est.)
$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$800 (2017 est.)
$800 (2016 est.)
$800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 28.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 21.1% (2017 est.)
services: 50.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 19.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 43.6% (2017 est.)
services: 36.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
21.4% (2017 est.)
63% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
5.6% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
41.5% (2017 est.)
18.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force
15.84 million (2015 est.)
20.692 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 71%
industry: 7%
services: 22% (2013 est.)
agriculture: NA
industry: NA
services: NA
Unemployment rate
9.4% (2014 est.)

NA

Distribution of family income - Gini index
39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
42.1 (2012 est.)
Budget
revenues: 3.848 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.928 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 4.634 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 5.009 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
mining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate
4.4% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, plantains, peanuts, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
Exports
$3.339 billion (2017 est.)
$2.921 billion (2016 est.)
$10.98 billion (2017 est.)
$8.228 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
diamonds, copper, gold, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee
Exports - partners
Kenya 17.7%, UAE 16.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.6%, Rwanda 6.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)
China 41.4%, Zambia 22.7%, South Korea 7.2%, Finland 6.2% (2017)
Imports
$5.036 billion (2017 est.)
$4.424 billion (2016 est.)
$10.82 billion (2017 est.)
$10.21 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners
China 17.4%, India 13.4%, UAE 12.2%, Kenya 7.9%, Japan 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Indonesia 4.4%, South Africa 4.1% (2017)
China 19.9%, South Africa 18%, Zambia 10.4%, Belgium 9.1%, India 4.3%, Tanzania 4.2% (2017)
Debt - external
$10.8 billion (22 March 2018 est.)
$11.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.963 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.35 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,695 (2017 est.)
3,420.1 (2016 est.)
3,420.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)
Congolese francs (CDF) per US dollar -
1,546.8 (2017 est.)
1,010.3 (2016 est.)
1,010.3 (2015 est.)
925.99 (2014 est.)
925.23 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt
40% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$3.654 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.034 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: excludes gold

$457.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$708.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.212 billion (2017 est.)
-$707 million (2016 est.)
-$200 million (2017 est.)
-$1.215 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$26.62 billion (2017 est.)
$41.44 billion (2017 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

NA

Central bank discount rate
9% (February 2018)
9.5% (December 2017)
20% (31 December 2017)
20% (31 December 2011)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
21.28% (31 December 2017 est.)
23.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
20.62% (31 December 2017 est.)
19.05% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$4.297 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.989 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.252 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.044 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.192 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.044 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.192 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
14.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
11.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-4.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-0.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 14.8%
male: 12.7%
female: 17.3% (2017 est.)
total: 8.7%
male: 11.3%
female: 6.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 74.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 18.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -25.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 78.5% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 12.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 15.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 25.7% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -32.8% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Electricity - production
3.463 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.046 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
3.106 billion kWh (2016 est.)
7.43 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
121 million kWh (2015 est.)
422 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
50 million kWh (2016 est.)
20 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
17,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
180 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
991.1 million cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
1.02 million kW (2016 est.)
2.587 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
19% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
68% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
98% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
32,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
31,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
21,140 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
4.703 million Mt (2017 est.)
3.146 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 32 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 29% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 66% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2019)
population without electricity: 79 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 9% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 19% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 0.4% (2019)

Telecommunications

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 184,065
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 0 NA
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 23,957,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 42,166,976
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42.77 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.ug
.cd
Internet users
total: 9,620,681
percent of population: 23.71% (July 2018 est.)
total: 8,231,357
percent of population: 8.62% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps; consumers rely on mobile infrastructure to provide voice and broadband services as fixed-line infrastructure is poor; 5G migration is a few years off; govt. commissions broadband satellite services for rural areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile- cellular systems teledensity about 57 per 100 persons; intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations (2019)
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: poorly developed national and international infrastructure; bandwidth is limited; Internet pricing is expensive; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; wars and social upheaval have not promoted advancement; a revised Telecommunications Act adopted in May 2018; govt. only loosely regulates the telecom sector, much of the investment is from donor countries (specifically China) (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services is over 43 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 243; ACE and WACS submarine cables to West and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 9,485
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 4,620
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; 31 Free-To-Air (FTA) TV stations, 2 digital terrestrial TV stations, 3 cable TV stations, and 5 digital satellite TV stations; 258 operational FM stations
state-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations - 2 with near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available

Transportation

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Railways
total: 1,244 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 4,007 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 3,882 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified) (2014)
125 1.000-m gauge
Roadways
total: 20,544 km (excludes local roads) (2017)
paved: 4,257 km (2017)
unpaved: 16,287 km (2017)
total: 152,373 km (2015)
paved: 3,047 km (2015)
unpaved: 149,326 km (2015)
urban: 7,400 km (2015)
non-urban: 144,973 km
Waterways
(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
15,000 km (including the Congo River, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)
Ports and terminals
lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
major seaport(s): Banana
river or lake port(s): Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo)
Kindu (Lualaba)Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu)Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)
Merchant marine
total: 1
by type: bulk carrier 1 (2017)
total: 21
by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 2, other 15 (2019)
Airports
total: 47 (2013)
total: 198 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 5 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
total: 26 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 42 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 26 (2013)
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 172 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 87 (2013)
under 914 m: 65 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 26
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,537 (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 13
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 932,043 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 890,000 mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
5X (2016)
9Q (2016)

Military

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Military branches
Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces, Air Forces, Marine Forces, Special Operations Command, Reserve Force (2019)
Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Land Forces, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC); Republican Guard (responsible for presidential security) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for voluntary military duty (must be single, no children); 9-year service obligation (2019)
18-45 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.1% of GDP (2019)
1.4% of GDP (2018)
1.3% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
0.7% of GDP (2019)
0.7% of GDP (2018)
0.7% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.4% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

UgandaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Disputes - international

Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda Government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 885,171 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 418,369 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 49,082 (Burundi), 41,850 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 17,239 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers), 14,865 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2020)
IDPs: 32,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence, land disputes, and cattle raids) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 172,234 (Central African Republic), 214,777 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers), 89,401 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 48,824 (Burundi) (2020)
IDPs: 5.512 million (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; conflict in Kasai region since 2016) (2019)

Source: CIA Factbook