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Turkmenistan vs. Uzbekistan

Introduction

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Background
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In medieval times, Merv (located in present-day Mary province) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President for Life Saparmyrat NYYAZOW died in December 2006, and Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a deputy chairman under NYYAZOW, emerged as the country's new president. BERDIMUHAMEDOW won Turkmenistan's first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007, and again in 2012 and in 2017 with over 97% of the vote in both instances, in elections widely regarded as undemocratic.

Turkmenistan has sought new export markets for its extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited. As of late 2019, Turkmenistan exported the majority of its gas to China and small levels of gas were also being sent to Russia. Turkmenistan's reliance on gas exports has made the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in the global energy market, and economic hardships since the drop in energy prices in 2014 have led many Turkmenistanis to emigrate, mostly to Turkey.
Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Russia conquered and united the disparate territories of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to the overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, leaving the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half-dry. Independent since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base, although cotton remains a major part of its economy. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islam KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. His successor, former Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic, judicial, and social reforms.

Geography

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Location
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates
40 00 N, 60 00 E
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references
Asia
Asia
Area
total: 488,100 sq km
land: 469,930 sq km
water: 18,170 sq km
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
Land boundaries
total: 4,158 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 804 km, Iran 1148 km, Kazakhstan 413 km, Uzbekistan 1793 km
total: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1314 km, Tajikistan 1312 km, Turkmenistan 1793 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked); note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
none (doubly landlocked)
Climate
subtropical desert
mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 230 m
lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya (Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya, the lake has dropped as low as -110 m) -81 m
highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources
petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use
agricultural land: 72% (2011 est.)
arable land: 4.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 67.8% (2011 est.)
forest: 8.8% (2011 est.)
other: 19.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 62.6% (2011 est.)
arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 51.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 7.7% (2011 est.)
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
19,950 sq km (2012)
42,150 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
earthquakes; mudslides; droughts; dust storms; floods
earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts
Environment - current issues
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; soil erosion; desertification
shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Population distribution
the most densely populated areas are the southern, eastern, and northeastern oases; approximately 50% of the population lives in and around the capital of Ashgabat
most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated

Demographics

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Population
5,528,627 (July 2020 est.)
some sources suggest Turkmenistan's population could be as much as 1 to 2 million people lower than available estimates because of large-scale emigration during the last 10 years
30,565,411 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 25.44% (male 713,441/female 693,042)
15-24 years: 16.48% (male 458,566/female 452,469)
25-54 years: 44.14% (male 1,214,581/female 1,226,027)
55-64 years: 8.56% (male 221,935/female 251,238)
65 years and over: 5.38% (male 129,332/female 167,996) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 23.19% (male 3,631,693/female 3,456,750)
15-24 years: 16.63% (male 2,601,803/female 2,481,826)
25-54 years: 45.68% (male 6,955,260/female 7,006,172)
55-64 years: 8.63% (male 1,245,035/female 1,392,263)
65 years and over: 5.87% (male 768,769/female 1,025,840) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 29.2 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 29.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 30.1 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 30.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
1.06% (2020 est.)
0.88% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
18.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
16.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 98.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 30.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.3 years
male: 68.2 years
female: 74.5 years (2020 est.)
total population: 74.8 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.74 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
0.2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Turkmenistani(s)
adjective: Turkmenistani
noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups
Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5%, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 4.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
50,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<1000 (2019 est.)
Languages
Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

note: in the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status

 

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2019)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2019)
Education expenditures
3.1% of GDP (2012)
6.3% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 52.5% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 50.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 96.1% of population
total: 97.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 3.9% of population
total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
846,000 ASHGABAT (capital) (2020)
2.517 million TASHKENT (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
29 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
3.2% (2015)
2.9% (2017)
Health expenditures
6.9% (2017)
6.4% (2017)
Physicians density
2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.37 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
18.6% (2016)
16.6% (2016)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 55.2
youth dependency ratio: 47.8
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.6
youth dependency ratio: 43.4
elderly dependency ratio: 7.2
potential support ratio: 13.9 (2020 est.)

Government

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Country name
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so Turkmenistan literally means the "Land of the Turkmen [people]"
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"
Government type
presidential republic; authoritarian
presidential republic; highly authoritarian
Capital
name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
geographic coordinates: 37 57 N, 58 23 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: derived from the Persian words "eshq" meaning "love" and "abad" meaning "inhabited place" or "city," and so loosely translates as "the city of love" 
name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: "tash" means "stone" and "kent" means "city" in Turkic languages, so the name simply denotes "stone city"
Administrative divisions
5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat) and 1 independent city*: Ahal Welayaty (Anew), Ashgabat*, Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dasoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati [Bukhara Province], Farg'ona Viloyati [Fergana Province], Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati [Samarkand Province], Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent Province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 14 September 2016
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership or absolute majority approval in a referendum; amended 2017
history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2024)
election results: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (DPT) 97.7%, other 2.3%
chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Transport Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected from single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 March 2018, although interim elections are held on an ad hoc basis to fill vacant sets
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DPT 55, APT 11, PIE 11, independent 48 (individuals nominated by citizen groups); composition - men 94, women 31, percent of women 24.8%
description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of:
Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held 13-14 January 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
Legislative Chamber - last held on 22 December 2019 and 5 January 2020 (next to be held in December 2024)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 83, women 17, percent of women 17%
Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, National Revival Democratic Party 36, Adolat 24, PDP 22, Ecological Movement 15; composition - NA
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of Turkmenistan (consists of the court president and 21 associate judges and organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms
subordinate courts: High Commercial Court; appellate courts; provincial, district, and city courts; military courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and economic sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term and can be reappointed for subsequent 10-year and lifetime terms
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
Political parties and leaders
Agrarian Party of Turkmenistan or APT [Basim ANNAGURBANOW]
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Ata SERDAROW]
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs or PIE [Saparmyrat OWGANOW]

note: all of these parties support President BERDIMUHAMEDOW; a law authorizing the registration of political parties went into effect in January 2012; unofficial, small opposition movements exist abroad

Ecological Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Partivasi) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Aktam HAITOV]
National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or PDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
International organization participation
ADB, CIS (associate member, has not ratified the 1993 CIS charter although it participates in meetings and held the chairmanship of the CIS in 2012), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
ADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Meret ORAZOW (since 14 February 2001)
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Ambassador Javlon VAHOBOV (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew S. KLIMOW (since 26 June 2019)
telephone: [993] (12) 94-00-45
embassy: No. 9 1984 Street (formerly Pushkin Street), Ashgabat 744000
mailing address: 7070 Ashgabat Place, Washington, DC 20521-7070
FAX: [993] (12) 94-26-14
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel ROSENBLUM (since 24 May 2019)
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description
green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; five white, five-pointed stars and a white crescent moon appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe; the green color and crescent moon represent Islam; the five stars symbolize the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan; the guls reflect the national identity of Turkmenistan where carpet-making has long been a part of traditional nomadic life

note: the flag of Turkmenistan is the most intricate of all national flags

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a vertical, white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white, five-pointed stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
National anthem
name: "Garassyz, Bitarap Turkmenistanyn" (Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem)
lyrics/music: collective/Veli MUKHATOV

note: adopted 1997, lyrics revised in 2008, to eliminate references to deceased President Saparmurat NYYAZOW

name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
Akhal-Teke horse; national colors: green, white
khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkmenistan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Economy - overview

Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and significant natural gas and oil resources. The two largest crops are cotton, most of which is produced for export, and wheat, which is domestically consumed. Although agriculture accounts for almost 8% of GDP, it continues to employ nearly half of the country's workforce. Hydrocarbon exports, the bulk of which is natural gas going to China, make up 25% of Turkmenistan’s GDP. Ashgabat has explored two initiatives to bring gas to new markets: a trans-Caspian pipeline that would carry gas to Europe and the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. Both face major financing, political, and security hurdles and are unlikely to be completed soon.

Turkmenistan’s autocratic governments under presidents NIYAZOW (1991-2006) and BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 2007) have made little progress improving the business climate, privatizing state-owned industries, combatting corruption, and limiting economic development outside the energy sector. High energy prices in the mid-2000s allowed the government to undertake extensive development and social spending, including providing heavy utility subsidies.

Low energy prices since mid-2014 are hampering Turkmenistan’s economic growth and reducing government revenues. The government has cut subsidies in several areas, and wage arrears have increased. In January 2014, the Central Bank of Turkmenistan devalued the manat by 19%, and downward pressure on the currency continues. There is a widening spread between the official exchange rate (3.5 TMM per US dollar) and the black market exchange rate (approximately 14 TMM per US dollar). Currency depreciation and conversion restrictions, corruption, isolationist policies, and declining spending on public services have resulted in a stagnate economy that is nearing crisis. Turkmenistan claims substantial foreign currency reserves, but non-transparent data limit international institutions’ ability to verify this information.

Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings.

Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdowns in neighboring Russia and China have hurt Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsened its foreign currency shortage. Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV and election of President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, emphasis on such initiatives and government efforts to improve the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets.

As a part of its economic reform efforts, the Uzbek Government is looking to expand opportunities for small and medium enterprises and prioritizes increasing foreign direct investment. In September 2017, the government devalued the official currency rate by almost 50% and announced the loosening of currency restrictions to eliminate the currency black market, increase access to hard currency, and boost investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$103.7 billion (2017 est.)
$97.41 billion (2016 est.)
$91.72 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$223 billion (2017 est.)
$211.8 billion (2016 est.)
$196.5 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
6.5% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2017 est.)
7.8% (2016 est.)
7.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$18,200 (2017 est.)
$17,300 (2016 est.)
$16,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$6,900 (2017 est.)
$6,700 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 7.5% (2017 est.)
industry: 44.9% (2017 est.)
services: 47.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
services: 48.5% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
0.2% (2012 est.)
14% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
8% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
12.5% (2017 est.)
8% (2016 est.)

note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012

Labor force
2.305 million (2013 est.)
13.273 million (2018 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 48.2%
industry: 14%
services: 37.8% (2004 est.)
agriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate
11% (2014 est.)
10.6% (2013)
5% (2017 est.)
5.1% (2016 est.)

note: official data; another 20% are underemployed

Distribution of family income - Gini index
40.8 (1998)
36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)
Budget
revenues: 5.657 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 6.714 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 15.22 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 15.08 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate
1% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
cotton, grain, melons; livestock
cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Exports
$7.458 billion (2017 est.)
$6.987 billion (2016 est.)
$11.48 billion (2017 est.)
$11.2 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, textiles, cotton fiber
energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners
China 83.7%, Turkey 5.1% (2017)
Switzerland 38.7%, China 15.5%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.7%, Afghanistan 4.7% (2017)
Imports
$4.571 billion (2017 est.)
$5.215 billion (2016 est.)
$11.42 billion (2017 est.)
$10.92 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Imports - partners
Turkey 24.2%, Algeria 14.4%, Germany 9.8%, China 8.9%, Russia 8%, US 6.6% (2017)
China 23.7%, Russia 22.5%, Kazakhstan 10.7%, South Korea 9.8%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.6% (2017)
Debt - external
$539.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$425.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Turkmenistani manat (TMM) per US dollar -
4.125 (2017 est.)
3.5 (2016 est.)
3.5 (2015 est.)
3.5 (2014 est.)
2.85 (2013 est.)
Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
3,906.1 (2017 est.)
2,966.6 (2016 est.)
2,966.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$24.91 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$4.359 billion (2017 est.)
-$7.207 billion (2016 est.)
$1.713 billion (2017 est.)
$384 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$37.93 billion (2017 est.)
$48.83 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$3.061 billion (2013 est.)
$3.117 billion (2012 est.)

NA

Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)
Central bank discount rate
5% (31 December 2014)
5% (31 December 2013)
9% (2016)
9% (2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
19% (31 December 2017 est.)
16% (31 December 2016 est.)
16% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$28.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$5.558 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.326 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.255 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$4.173 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.729 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$12.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.632 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$4.173 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.729 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
14.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
31.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 50% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 10% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 28.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 26.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 59.5% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 19% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -20% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
23.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
32.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Electricity - production
21.18 billion kWh (2016 est.)
55.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
15.09 billion kWh (2016 est.)
49.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
3.201 billion kWh (2015 est.)
13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
10.84 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
244,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
67,790 bbl/day (2015 est.)
27,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
600 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
594 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
7.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
77.45 billion cu m (2017 est.)
52.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
39.31 billion cu m (2017 est.)
43.07 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
38.14 billion cu m (2017 est.)
9.401 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
4.001 million kW (2016 est.)
12.96 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
86% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
191,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
61,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
160,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
60,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
53,780 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,977 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
100.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
95.58 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 648,223
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11.85 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,262,896
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10.77 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 8,908,821
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 162.86 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 30,662,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101.21 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.tm
.uz
Internet users
total: 1,149,840
percent of population: 21.25% (July 2018 est.)
total: 15,705,402
percent of population: 52.31% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: telecommunications network is gradually improving from the former Soviet republic; state control over most economic activities has not helped growth; in cooperation with foreign partners, the telecom sector has installed high-speed fiber-optic lines and has upgraded most of the country's telephone exchanges and switching centers with new digital technology; the mobile market will see slow growth; some rural areas are still without telephones; mobile broadband is in the early stages of development; in 2019 Russia-based operator said to be leaving the country and leaving only 1 public operator (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 12 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 163 per 100 persons; first telecommunication satellite was launched in 2015 (2019)
international: country code - 993; linked by fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; an exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2018)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas; increased investment in infrastructure and growing subscriber base; fixed-line is underdeveloped due to preeminence of mobile market; introduction of prepaid Internet has contributed to home Internet usage; increase in mobile broadband penetration yet still early stages; Wi-Fi hotspot in the city of Tashkent in the future (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 11 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 101 per 100; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbek Telecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 2 private and 3 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018 (2019)
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber-optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 4,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
total: 4,123,508
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
broadcast media is government controlled and censored; 7 state-owned TV and 4 state-owned radio networks; satellite dishes and programming provide an alternative to the state-run media; officials sometimes limit access to satellite TV by removing satellite dishes
the government controls media; 17 state-owned broadcasters - 13 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2019, the Uzbek Agency for Press and Information was reorganized into the Agency of Information and Mass Communications and became part of the Uzbek Presidential Administration with recent appointment of the Uzbek President's elder daughter as it deputy director (2019)

Transportation

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Railways
total: 5,113 km (2017)
broad gauge: 5,113 km 1.520-m gauge (2017)
total: 4,642 km (2018)
broad gauge: 4,642 km 1.520-m gauge (1,684 km electrified) (2018)
Roadways
total: 58,592 km (2002)
paved: 47,577 km (2002)
unpaved: 11,015 km (2002)
total: 86,496 km (2000)
paved: 75,511 km (2000)
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
Waterways
1,300 km (Amu Darya River and Kara Kum Canal are important inland waterways) (2011)
1,100 km (2012)
Pipelines
7500 km gas, 1501 km oil (2013)
13,700 km gas, 944 km oil (2016)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Turkmenbasy
river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
Airports
total: 26 (2013)
total: 53 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 21 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 33 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 5 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
total: 20 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 27
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,457,474 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 16.92 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 34
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,056,558 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 89.43 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
EZ (2016)
UK (2016)

Military

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Military branches
Armed Forces of Turkmenistan: National Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces; Federal Border Guard Service (2019)
Armed Forces of Uzbekistan: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Security Troops (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-27 years of age for compulsory male military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 20 years of age for voluntary service; males may enroll in military schools from age 15 (2013)
18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation for males (conscripts have the option of paying for a shorter service of one month while remaining in the reserves until the age of 27); Uzbek citizens who have completed their service terms in the armed forces have privileges in employment and admission to higher educational institutions (2016)

Transnational Issues

TurkmenistanUzbekistan
Disputes - international

cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian

prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Illicit drugs
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and Western European markets; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons: 3,688 (2019)
stateless persons: 97,346 (2019)
Trafficking in persons
current situation: Turkmenistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Turkmenistanis who migrate abroad are forced to work in the textile, agriculture, construction, and domestic service industries, while women and girls may also be sex trafficked; in 2014, men surpassed women as victims; Turkey and Russia are primary trafficking destinations, followed by the Middle East, South and Central Asia, and other parts of Europe; Turkmenistanis also experience forced labor domestically in the informal construction industry; participation in the cotton harvest is still mandatory for some public sector employees
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Turkmenistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Turkmenistan was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government made some progress in its law enforcement efforts in 2014, convicting more offenders than in 2013; authorities did not make adequate efforts to identify and protect victims and did not fund international organizations or NGOs that offered protective services; some victims were punished for crimes as a result of being trafficked (2015)
current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the UN's International Labour Organization to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook