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Turkmenistan vs. Kazakhstan

Demographics

TurkmenistanKazakhstan
Population
5,411,012 (July 2018 est.)
18,744,548 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 25.66% (male 704,067 /female 684,581)
15-24 years: 17.71% (male 482,094 /female 476,080)
25-54 years: 43.52% (male 1,169,965 /female 1,185,159)
55-64 years: 8.17% (male 208,328 /female 233,902)
65 years and over: 4.93% (male 116,218 /female 150,618) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 26.09% (male 2,406,397 /female 2,483,562)
15-24 years: 13.55% (male 1,295,882 /female 1,244,540)
25-54 years: 42.32% (male 3,884,454 /female 4,049,072)
55-64 years: 10.14% (male 831,872 /female 1,068,651)
65 years and over: 7.9% (male 517,471 /female 962,647) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 28.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 27.8 years
female: 28.8 years
total: 30.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 29.7 years
female: 32.2 years
Population growth rate
1.1% (2018 est.)
0.98% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
18.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
17.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.54 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 33.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 39.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 70.7 years (2018 est.)
male: 67.6 years
female: 73.9 years
total population: 71.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 66.2 years
female: 76.3 years
Total fertility rate
2.06 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.22 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
0.2% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Turkmenistani(s)
adjective: Turkmenistani
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani
Ethnic groups
Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
Kazakh (Qazaq) 68%, Russian 19.3%, Uzbek 3.2%, Ukrainian 1.5%, Uighur 1.5%, Tatar 1.1%, German 1%, other 4.4% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
26,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<500 (2018 est.)
Languages
Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2017)
Education expenditures
3% of GDP (2012)
2.9% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 52% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 57.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.29% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 53.7% of population
total: 71.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 46.3% of population
total: 28.9% of population (2012 est.)
improved: urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 85.6% of population
total: 92.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 14.4% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population (2012 est.)
rural: 98.2% of population (2012 est.)
total: 99.1% of population (2012 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2012 est.)
rural: 1.8% of population (2012 est.)
total: 0.9% of population (2012 est.)
improved: urban: 97% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
828,000 ASHGABAT (capital) (2019)
1.863 million Almaty, 1.118 million NUR-SULTAN (capital), 1.021 million Shimkent (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
10 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
3.2% (2015)
2% (2015)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2015)
3.9% (2015)
Physicians density
2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.25 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
7.4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
6.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
18.6% (2016)
21% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
50.2% (2015/16)
54.8% (2018)
note: percent of women aged 18-49
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 52.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 46.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 40.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook