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Turkmenistan vs. Afghanistan

Demographics

TurkmenistanAfghanistan
Population
5,411,012 (July 2018 est.)
34,940,837 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 25.66% (male 704,067 /female 684,581)
15-24 years: 17.71% (male 482,094 /female 476,080)
25-54 years: 43.52% (male 1,169,965 /female 1,185,159)
55-64 years: 8.17% (male 208,328 /female 233,902)
65 years and over: 4.93% (male 116,218 /female 150,618) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 40.92% (male 7,263,716 /female 7,033,427)
15-24 years: 21.85% (male 3,883,693 /female 3,749,760)
25-54 years: 30.68% (male 5,456,305 /female 5,263,332)
55-64 years: 3.95% (male 679,766 /female 699,308)
65 years and over: 2.61% (male 420,445 /female 491,085) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 28.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 27.8 years
female: 28.8 years
total: 19 years (2018 est.)
male: 19 years
female: 19.1 years
Population growth rate
1.1% (2018 est.)
2.37% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
18.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
37.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 33.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 39.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 108.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 115.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 100.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 70.7 years (2018 est.)
male: 67.6 years
female: 73.9 years
total population: 52.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 50.6 years
female: 53.6 years
Total fertility rate
2.06 children born/woman (2018 est.)
5.02 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
<.1% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Turkmenistani(s)
adjective: Turkmenistani
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan
Ethnic groups
Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz) (2015)

note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
7,200 (2018 est.)
Religions
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<500 (2018 est.)
Languages
Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 77% (Dari functions as the lingua franca), Pashto (official) 48%, Uzbek 11%, English 6%, Turkmen 3%, Urdu 3%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabic 1%, Balochi 1% (2017 est.)

note: data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because there is much bilingualism in the country and because respondents were allowed to select more than one language

note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.2%
male: 52%
female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures
3% of GDP (2012)
3.9% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 52% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 25.8% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 3.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 53.7% of population
total: 71.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 46.3% of population
total: 28.9% of population (2012 est.)
improved: urban: 78.2% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 55.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 21.8% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 100% of population (2012 est.)
rural: 98.2% of population (2012 est.)
total: 99.1% of population (2012 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2012 est.)
rural: 1.8% of population (2012 est.)
total: 0.9% of population (2012 est.)
improved: urban: 45.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 27% of population (2015 est.)
total: 31.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 54.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 73% of population (2015 est.)
total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
828,000 ASHGABAT (capital) (2019)
4.114 million KABUL (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
638 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
3.2% (2015)
25% (2013)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2015)
10.2% (2016)
Physicians density
2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
7.4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
18.6% (2016)
5.5% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
50.2% (2015/16)
22.5% (2015/16)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 52.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 46.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 88.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 84.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.2 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook