Home

Togo vs. Benin

Introduction

TogoBenin
BackgroundFrench Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. Since 2007, President GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to political reconciliation and democratic reform, and Togo has held multiple presidential and legislative elections that were deemed generally free and fair by international observers. Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly and many Togolese complain that important political measures such as presidential term limits and electoral reforms remain undone, leaving the country’s politics in a lethargic state. Internationally, Togo is still known as a country where the same family has been in power for five decades.
Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a West African kingdom that rose to prominence in about 1600 and over the next two and a half centuries became a regional power, largely based on its slave trade. Coastal areas of Dahomey began to be controlled by the French in the second half of the 19th century; the entire kingdom was conquered by 1894. French Dahomey achieved independence in 1960; it changed its name to the Republic of Benin in 1975.
A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were alleged. KEREKOU stepped down at the end of his second term in 2006 and was succeeded by Thomas YAYI Boni, a political outsider and independent, who won a second five-year term in March 2011. Patrice TALON, a wealthy businessman, took office in 2016 after campaigning to restore public confidence in the government.

Geography

TogoBenin
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Nigeria and Togo
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 1 10 E
9 30 N, 2 15 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
total: 112,622 sq km
land: 110,622 sq km
water: 2,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than West Virginia
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 1,880 km
border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1,098 km
total: 2,123 km
border countries (4): Burkina Faso 386 km, Niger 277 km, Nigeria 809 km, Togo 651 km
Coastline56 km
121 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terraingently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 236 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
mean elevation: 273 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m
Natural resourcesphosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Land useagricultural land: 67.4%
arable land 45.2%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 18.4%
forest: 4.9%
other: 27.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 31.3%
arable land 22.9%; permanent crops 3.5%; permanent pasture 4.9%
forest: 40%
other: 28.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land70 sq km (2012)
230 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March
Environment - current issuesdeforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands
Population distributionone of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast
the population is primarily located in the south, with the highest concentration of people residing in and around the cities on the Atlantic coast; most of the north remains sparsely populated with higher concentrations of residents in the west

Demographics

TogoBenin
Population7,965,055
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
11,038,805
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 40.29% (male 1,610,020/female 1,599,105)
15-24 years: 19.2% (male 763,507/female 765,884)
25-54 years: 32.79% (male 1,297,489/female 1,314,130)
55-64 years: 4.31% (male 161,809/female 181,180)
65 years and over: 3.41% (male 117,409/female 154,522) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 42.65% (male 2,402,029/female 2,305,622)
15-24 years: 20.44% (male 1,148,204/female 1,108,342)
25-54 years: 30.44% (male 1,699,623/female 1,660,517)
55-64 years: 3.61% (male 174,633/female 223,398)
65 years and over: 2.87% (male 124,708/female 191,729) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.8 years
male: 19.5 years
female: 20.1 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.2 years
male: 17.9 years
female: 18.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.64% (2017 est.)
2.71% (2017 est.)
Birth rate33.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
35 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 42.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 48.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 52.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 65.4 years
male: 62.8 years
female: 68.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 62.3 years
male: 60.9 years
female: 63.8 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate4.38 children born/woman (2017 est.)
4.77 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.1% (2016 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese
Ethnic groupsAfrican (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Fon and related 38.4%, Adja and related 15.1%, Yoruba and related 12%, Bariba and related 9.6%, Fulani and related 8.6%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4.3%, Dendi and related 2.9%, other 0.9%, foreigner 1.9% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS100,000 (2016 est.)
67,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsChristian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Muslim 27.7%, Roman Catholic 25.5%, Protestant 13.5% (Celestial 6.7%, Methodist 3.4%, other Protestant 3.4%), Vodoun 11.6%, other Christian 9.5%, other traditional religions 2.6%, other 2.6%, none 5.8% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths5,100 (2016 est.)
2,400 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.7%
male: 77.3%
female: 51.2% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.4%
male: 49.9%
female: 27.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: NA
female: NA (2011)
total: 12 years
male: 14 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2015)
4.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 41% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 44.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 63.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 72.1% of population
total: 77.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 27.9% of population
total: 22.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 24.7% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 11.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 75.3% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 35.6% of population
rural: 7.3% of population
total: 19.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 64.4% of population
rural: 92.7% of population
total: 80.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLOME (capital) 956,000 (2015)
PORTO-NOVO (capital) 268,000 (2014); COTONOU (seat of government) 682,000; Abomey-Calavi 757,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
405 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight16.2% (2014)
18% (2014)
Health expenditures5.2% of GDP (2014)
4.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
0.15 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.4% (2016)
9.6% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 774,801
percentage: 47% (2010 est.)
total number: 1,020,981
percentage: 46% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
Demographic profileTogo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.
Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.
Benin has a youthful age structure – almost 65% of the population is under the age of 25 – which is bolstered by high fertility and population growth rates. Benin’s total fertility has been falling over time but remains high, declining from almost 7 children per women in 1990 to 4.8 in 2016. Benin’s low contraceptive use and high unmet need for contraception contribute to the sustained high fertility rate. Although the majority of Beninese women use skilled health care personnel for antenatal care and delivery, the high rate of maternal mortality indicates the need for more access to high quality obstetric care.
Poverty, unemployment, increased living costs, and dwindling resources increasingly drive the Beninese to migrate. An estimated 4.4 million, more than 40%, of Beninese live abroad. Virtually all Beninese emigrants move to West African countries, particularly Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire. Of the less than 1% of Beninese emigrants who settle in Europe, the vast majority live in France, Benin’s former colonial ruler.
With about 40% of the population living below the poverty line, many desperate parents resort to sending their children to work in wealthy households as domestic servants (a common practice known as vidomegon), mines, quarries, or agriculture domestically or in Nigeria and other neighboring countries, often under brutal conditions. Unlike in other West African countries, where rural people move to the coast, farmers from Benin’s densely populated southern and northwestern regions move to the historically sparsely populated central region to pursue agriculture. Immigrants from West African countries came to Benin in increasing numbers between 1992 and 2002 because of its political stability and porous borders.
Contraceptive prevalence rate19.9% (2013/14)
17.9% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 81.2
youth dependency ratio: 76.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 86.1
youth dependency ratio: 80.1
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)

Government

TogoBenin
Country name"conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
etymology: derived from the Ewe words ""to"" (water) and ""go"" (shore) to give the sense of ""by the water""; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation
"
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form: Benin
local long form: Republique du Benin
local short form: Benin
former: Dahomey
etymology: named for the Bight of Benin, the body of water on which the country lies
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Porto-Novo (constitutional capital); Cotonou (seat of government)
geographic coordinates: 6 29 N, 2 37 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
12 departments; Alibori, Atacora, Atlantique, Borgou, Collines, Couffo, Donga, Littoral, Mono, Oueme, Plateau, Zou
Independence27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
1 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 April (1960)
Independence Day, 1 August (1960)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-fifth of the National Assembly membership; passage requires four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; a referendum is required if approved by only two-thirds majority of the Assembly or if requested by the president; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2007; note - a September 2017 Assembly vote on a package of amendments failed the four-fifths majority vote required for passage but met the two-thirds majority vote required for holding a referendeum (2017)
history: previous 1946, 1958 (preindependence); latest adopted by referendum 2 December 1990, promulgated 11 December 1990
amendments: proposed concurrently by the president of the republic (after a decision in the Council of Ministers) and the National Assembly; consideration of drafts or proposals requires at least three-fourths majority vote of the Assembly membership; passage requires approval in a referendum unless approved by at least four-fifths majority vote of the Assembly membership; constitutional articles affecting territorial sovereignty, the republican form of government, and secularity of Benin cannot be amended (2017)
Legal systemcustomary law system
civil law system modeled largely on the French system and some customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE (ADDI) 4%, other 2%
chief of state: President Patrice TALON (since 6 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Patrice TALON (since 6 April 2016); prime minister position abolished
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 6 March and 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Patrice TALON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Lionel ZINSOU (FCBE) 28.4%, Patrice TALON (independent) 24.8%, Sebastien AJAVON (independent) 23.0%, Abdoulaye Bio TCHANE (ABT) 8.8%, Pascal KOUPAKI (NC) 5.9%, other 9.1%; percent of vote in second round - Patrice TALON 65.4%, Lionel ZINSOU 34.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - UNIR 46.7%, CST 28.9%, Rainbow Alliance 10.8%, UFC 7.7%, independent 0.8%, other 5.1%; seats by coalition/party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independent 1
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 April 2015 (next to be held in April 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - FCBE 30.2%, UN 14.4%, PRD 10.6%, AND 7.6%, RB-RP 7.1%, other 30.1%; seats by party - FCBE 33, UN 13, PRD 10, AND 5, RB-RP 7, other 15
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 3 chamber presidents organized into an administrative division, judicial chamber, and chamber of accounts); Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 7 members including the court president); High Court of Justice (consists of the Constitutional Court members, 6 members appointed by the National Assembly, and the Supreme Court president); note - jurisdiction of the High Court of Justice is limited to cases of high treason by the national president or members of the government while in office
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the national president upon the advice of the National Assembly; judges appointed for single renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members - 4 appointed by the National Assembly and 3 by the national president; members appointed for single renewable 5-year terms; High Court of Justice ""other"" members elected by the National Assembly; member tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; district courts; village courts; Assize courts
"
Political parties and leadersAction Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yaovi AGBOYIBO]
Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOGUE]
Combat for Political Change in 2015 or CAP 2015 [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Democrastic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
New Togolese Commitment [Gerry TAAMA]
Pan-African National Party or PNP [Tikpi ATCHADAM]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Rainbow Alliance (a coalition including CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
Alliance for a Triumphant Benin or ABT [Abdoulaye BIO TCHANE]
African Movement for Development and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]
Benin Renaissance or RB [Lehady SOGLO]
Cowrie Force for an Emerging Benin or FCBE [Yayi BONI]
Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]
New Consciousness Rally or NC [Pascal KOUPAKI]
Patriotic Awakening or RP [Janvier YAHOUEDEOU]
Social Democrat Party or PSD [Emmanuel GOLOU]
Sun Alliance or AS [Sacca LAFIA]
Union Makes the Nation or UN [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI] (includes PRD, MADEP)
United Democratic Forces or FDU [Mathurin NAGO]
note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Frederic Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
chief of mission: Ambassador Hector POSSET (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 2124 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David R. GILMOUR (20 December 2015)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
chief of mission: Ambassador Lucy TAMLYN (since 8 November 2015)
embassy: Caporal Bernard Anani, 01 BP 2012, Cotonou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone: [229] 21-30-06-50
FAX: [229] 21-30-03-84
Flag descriptionfive equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a vertical green band on the hoist side; green symbolizes hope and revival, yellow wealth, and red courage
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem"name: ""Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux"" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
"
"name: ""L'Aube Nouvelle"" (The Dawn of a New Day)
lyrics/music: Gilbert Jean DAGNON
note: adopted 1960
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white
leopard; national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Benin
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

TogoBenin
Economy - overviewTogo has enjoyed a period of steady economic growth fueled by political stability and a concerted effort by the government to modernize the country’s commercial infrastructure, but discontent with President Faure GNASSINGBE has led to a rapid rise in protests, creating downside risks. The country completed an ambitious large-scale infrastructure improvement program, including new principal roads, a new airport terminal, and a new sea-port. The economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for around 60% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton and other agricultural products generate about 20% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves, which provide more than 20% of export earnings.

The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms, and in January 2017, the IMF signed an Extended Credit Facility arrangement consisting of a three-year $238 million loan package. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.

Togo’s 2017 economic growth probably remained steady at 5.0%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in the port and mineral sectors, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.
The free market economy of Benin has grown consecutively for three years, averaging about 5% annually since 2014, but its close trade links to Nigeria expose Benin to risks from volatile commodity prices. Cotton is a key export commodity; high prices supported export earnings, but prices have fallen. Inflation had subsided, but probably accelerated in 2017.

During the first 6 months of President TALON’s administration, electrical supply, which has hampered Benin’s economic growth, increased and blackouts have been reduced. Private foreign direct investment is small, and foreign aid accounts for the majority of investment in infrastructure projects.

Benin’s 2001 privatization policy continues in telecommunications, water, electricity, and agriculture. Benin has appealed for international assistance to mitigate piracy against commercial shipping in its territory. Pilferage has significantly dropped as the Port of Cotonou is still making progress towards implementing the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code in an effort to remain competitive. Projects included in Benin's $307 million Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) compact (2006-11) were designed to increase investment and private sector activity by improving key institutional and physical infrastructure. The four projects focused on access to land, access to financial services, access to justice, and access to markets (including modernization of the port). The Port of Cotonou is the largest component of Benin’s economy with revenues projected to account for more than 40% of Benin’s national budget.

Realizing its economic potential requires further efforts to infrastructure upgrades, stemming corruption, and expanding access to foreign markets in Nigeria and neighboring landlocked countries. In September 2015, Benin signed a MCC second Compact for $375 million that is designed to strengthen the national utility service provider, attract private sector investment, fund infrastructure investments in electricity generation and distribution, and develop off-grid electrification for poor and unserved households. In order to raise growth, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, encourage new information and communication technology, and establish Independent Power Producers (IPP). In April 2017, the IMF approved a three year $150.4 million Extended Credit Facility agreement to maintain debt sustainability and boost donor confidence.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$12.43 billion (2017 est.)
$11.84 billion (2016 est.)
$11.28 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$25.29 billion (2017 est.)
$23.99 billion (2016 est.)
$23.06 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,600 (2017 est.)
$1,600 (2016 est.)
$1,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$2,200 (2017 est.)
$2,200 (2016 est.)
$2,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 28.1%
industry: 21.6%
services: 50.3% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 25.6%
industry: 23.1%
services: 51.3% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line55.1% (2015 est.)
36.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 29% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.8% (2017 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
2% (2017 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.595 million (2007 est.)
3.662 million (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate6.9% (2016 est.)
1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46 (2011)
36.5 (2003)
Budgetrevenues: $1.469 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.372 billion
expenditures: $2.261 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesphosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement
Industrial production growth rate7.5% (2017 est.)
5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
cotton, corn, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, beans, palm oil, peanuts, cashews; livestock
Exports$1.002 billion (2017 est.)
$967.4 million (2016 est.)
$1.76 billion (2017 est.)
$1.588 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesreexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
cotton, cashews, shea butter, textiles, palm products, seafood
Exports - partnersBenin 17.5%, Burkina Faso 15.9%, India 7.6%, Mali 7.2%, Niger 7%, Cote dIvoire 6.1%, Ghana 4.8%, Nigeria 4.3% (2016)
India 14.3%, Malaysia 12.2%, Bangladesh 9.5%, Belarus 7.4%, China 6.2%, Nigeria 6.1%, Niger 5.6% (2016)
Imports$2.009 billion (2017 est.)
$1.981 billion (2016 est.)
$2.448 billion (2017 est.)
$2.209 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
foodstuffs, capital goods, petroleum products
Imports - partnersChina 28.7%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 4.3%, Japan 4.2% (2016)
India 14.9%, Thailand 12.4%, France 10.1%, China 8.4%, Togo 7.3%, Netherlands 4.8%, Belgium 4.7% (2016)
Debt - external$1.387 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.716 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.476 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
617.4 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt68.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
71.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
56.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$215.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$42.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$60.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$57.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$396 million (2017 est.)
-$431 million (2016 est.)
-$822 million (2017 est.)
-$615 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$4.797 billion (2016 est.)
$9.41 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate2.5% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate8.29% (31 December 2015 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2015 )
Stock of domestic credit$1.814 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.822 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.661 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.202 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.118 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.182 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.239 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.958 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.609 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-9.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 79.2%
government consumption: 18.2%
investment in fixed capital: 24.2%
investment in inventories: -1.7%
exports of goods and services: 39.1%
imports of goods and services: -59% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 69%
government consumption: 17%
investment in fixed capital: 26.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 27.1%
imports of goods and services: -39.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving17.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
20% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

TogoBenin
Electricity - production78.8 million kWh (2015 est.)
311.6 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption1.213 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.121 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports1.242 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.078 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
8 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
1.133 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity229,000 kW (2015 est.)
213,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels69.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
97.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants29.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
2.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption14,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
44,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
5,152 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports12,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
47,940 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 5,000,000
electrification - total population: 27%
electrification - urban areas: 35%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)
population without electricity: 7,300,000
electrification - total population: 29%
electrification - urban areas: 57%
electrification - rural areas: 9% (2013)

Telecommunications

TogoBenin
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 33,817
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 124,883
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5,505,424
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (July 2016 est.)
total: 8,892,490
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 70 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2016)
general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections; fixed-line network characterized by aging, deteriorating equipment
domestic: fixed-line teledensity only about 1 per 100 persons; spurred by the presence of multiple mobile-cellular providers, cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidly, exceeding 80 per 100 persons in 2016
international: country code - 229; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; long distance fiber-optic links with Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.tg
.bj
Internet userstotal: 877,310
percent of population: 11.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,288,336
percent of population: 12.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2017)
state-run Office de Radiodiffusion et de Television du Benin (ORTB) operates a TV station providing a wide broadcast reach; several privately owned TV stations broadcast from Cotonou; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio, under ORTB control, includes a national station supplemented by a number of regional stations; substantial number of privately owned radio broadcast stations; transmissions of a few international broadcasters are available on FM in Cotonou (2016)

Transportation

TogoBenin
Railwaystotal: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 438 km
narrow gauge: 438 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 11,652 km
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)
total: 16,000 km
paved: 1,400 km
unpaved: 14,600 km (2006)
Waterways50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
150 km (seasonal navigation on River Niger along northern border) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome
major seaport(s): Cotonou
LNG terminal(s) (import): Cotonou
Merchant marinetotal: 308
by type: bulk carrier 11, container ship 3, general cargo 199, oil tanker 44, other 51 (2017)
total: 6
by type: other 6 (2017)
Airports8 (2013)
6 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 769,904
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 112,392
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 805,347 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix5V (2016)
TY (2016)

Military

TogoBenin
Military branchesTogolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre); update State, April 2017, Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2017)
Benin Armed Forces (Forces Armees Beninoises, FAB): Army (l'Arme de Terre), Benin Navy (Forces Navales Beninois, FNB), Benin Air Force (Force Aerienne du Benin, FAB) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for military service; 2-year service obligation; currently the military is only an all-volunteer force (2017)
18-35 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; a higher education diploma is required; both sexes are eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.86% of GDP (2016)
1.71% of GDP (2015)
1.85% of GDP (2014)
1.77% of GDP (2013)
1.63% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2016)
1.1% of GDP (2015)
0.96% of GDP (2014)
0.94% of GDP (2013)
0.96% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

TogoBenin
Disputes - internationalin 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso near the town of Koualou; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Illicit drugstransit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
transshipment point used by traffickers for cocaine destined for Western Europe; vulnerable to money laundering due to poorly enforced financial regulations

Source: CIA Factbook