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Tajikistan vs. China

Introduction

TajikistanChina
Background"The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called ""basmachi"") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. In September 2015, government security forces rebuffed attacks led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power during the civil war, used the attacks to ban the main opposition political party in Tajikistan. In May 2016, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself designated ""Leader of the Nation"" with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, eligible to run for president in 2020. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade emanating from neighboring Afghanistan.
"
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communist Party of China under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically but political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

Geography

TajikistanChina
LocationCentral Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 71 00 E
35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Wisconsin
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 4,130 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
total: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
14,500 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatemid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrainmountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 3,186 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
mean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
Natural resourceshydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
Land useagricultural land: 34.7%
arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%
forest: 2.9%
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land7,420 sq km (2012)
690,070 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; floods
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Environment - current issuesinadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; coastal destruction due to land reclamation, industrial development, and aquaculture; deforestation and habitat destruction; poor land management leads to soil erosion, landslides, floods, droughts, dust storms and desertification; trade in endangered species
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
Population distributionthe country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
overwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang

Demographics

TajikistanChina
Population8,468,555 (July 2017 est.)
1,379,302,771 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 32.33% (male 1,393,804/female 1,343,825)
15-24 years: 18.61% (male 799,736/female 776,417)
25-54 years: 40.12% (male 1,683,228/female 1,714,507)
55-64 years: 5.62% (male 219,043/female 257,066)
65 years and over: 3.32% (male 116,511/female 164,418) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 17.15% (male 127,484,177/female 109,113,241)
15-24 years: 12.78% (male 94,215,607/female 82,050,623)
25-54 years: 48.51% (male 341,466,438/female 327,661,460)
55-64 years: 10.75% (male 74,771,050/female 73,441,177)
65 years and over: 10.81% (male 71,103,029/female 77,995,969) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.5 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 25.1 years (2017 est.)
total: 37.4 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 38.4 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.62% (2017 est.)
0.41% (2017 est.)
Birth rate23.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 31.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.1 years
male: 64.9 years
female: 71.4 years (2017 est.)
total population: 75.7 years
male: 73.6 years
female: 78 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.6 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.3% (2016 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groupsTajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai, and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS14,000 (2016 est.)
NA
ReligionsSunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<1000 (2016 est.)
NA
LanguagesTajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
Education expenditures5.2% of GDP (2015)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 27% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.72% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 57.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: data do not include Hong Kong and Macau
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 95% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.2% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
Shanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.3% (2012)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures6.9% of GDP (2014)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate14.2% (2016)
6.2% (2016)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 62.5
youth dependency ratio: 57.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4
potential support ratio: 18.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 37.7
youth dependency ratio: 24.3
elderly dependency ratio: 13.3
potential support ratio: 7.5
data do not include Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan (2015 est.)

Government

TajikistanChina
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Tajikistan literally means ""Land of the Tajik [people]""
"
"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
Government typepresidential republic
communist party-led state
Capitalname: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
"name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang time zone"" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
"
Administrative divisions2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holidayIndependence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
National Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one-third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval by the president or approval by at least at least two-thirds of the Assembly of Representatives membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; note – constitutional articles including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - in early 2017, the National People's Congress took the first step in adopting a new civil code by passing the General Provisions of the Civil Law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (unlimited terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1
description: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - 2,987
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases); note - in late December 2016, the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth circuit courts of the Supreme People's Court began operation
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); limited to 2 consecutive 5-year-terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
Political parties and leadersAgrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOYEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [SaidjafFar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Ovezmammed MAMMEDOV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has 8 nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leadersGroup 24 [Suhrob ZAFAR] (banned)
New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV (jailed since 2013)] (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV - jailed in 2015] (banned)
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI - in exile] (banned)
no substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kevin COVERT (since 31 August 2017)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
"chief of mission: Ambassador Terry BRANSTAD (since 12 July 2017)Charge d""Affaires Johnathan FRITZ (acting)(since 5 June 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
"
Flag description"three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number ""seven"" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
"
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
National anthem"name: ""Surudi milli"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
"
"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green
dragon, giant panda; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified

Economy

TajikistanChina
Economy - overviewTajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2014 were equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project is a sensitive issue for downstream neighbors and faces large financing shortfalls. In 2016, Tajikistan officially contracted with Italian firm Salini Impregilo to construct the dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent its reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phaseout of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing announced it would allow a resumption of gradual liberalization. From 2013 until early2015, the renminbi (RMB) appreciated roughly 2% against the dollar, but the exchange rate fell 13% from mid-2015 until end-2016 amid strong capital outflows in part stemming from the August 2015 official devaluation; in 2017 the RMB resumed appreciating against the dollar – roughly 7% from end-of-2016 to end-of-2017. From 2013 to 2017, China had one of the fastest growing economies in the world, averaging slightly more than 7% real growth per year. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi, after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. However, since late 2015 the Chinese Government has strengthened capital controls and oversight of overseas investments to better manage the exchange rate and maintain financial stability.

The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) managing its high corporate debt burden to maintain financial stability; (c) controlling off-balance sheet local government debt used to finance infrastructure stimulus; (d) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (e) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector without sharply slowing the economy; (f) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (g) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital and state-support for innovation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy” - which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children - is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese Government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made more progress on subsidizing innovation than rebalancing the economy. Beijing has committed to giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but the Chinese Government’s policies continue to favor state-owned enterprises and emphasize stability. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time. The slight acceleration in economic growth in 2017—the first such uptick since 2010—gives Beijing more latitude to pursue its economic reforms, focusing on financial sector deleveraging and its Supply-Side Structural Reform agenda, first announced in late 2015.
"
GDP (purchasing power parity)$27.67 billion (2017 est.)
$26.48 billion (2016 est.)
$24.77 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$23.12 trillion (2017 est.)
$21.66 trillion (2016 est.)
$20.3 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.5% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
6.8% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,100 (2017 est.)
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$16,600 (2017 est.)
$15,700 (2016 est.)
$14,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 28.6%
industry: 25.5%
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 8.2%
industry: 39.5%
services: 52.2%
(2017 est.)
Population below poverty line31.5% (2016 est.)
3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.9% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2017 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.295 million (2016 est.)
806.7 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
Unemployment rate2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
4% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.214 billion
expenditures: $2.316 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $2.672 trillion
expenditures: $3.146 trillion (2017 est.)
Industriesaluminum, cement, vegetable oil
world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizer; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, railcars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
Exports$794.7 million (2017 est.)
$691.1 million (2016 est.)
$2.157 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.99 trillion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
electrical and other machinery, including computers and telecommunications equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles
Exports - partnersTurkey 27.8%, Russia 15.6%, China 14.7%, Switzerland 9.8%, Iran 6.5%, Algeria 6.5%, Italy 5.8% (2016)
US 18.2%, Hong Kong 13.8%, Japan 6.1%, South Korea 4.5% (2016)
Imports$2.725 billion (2017 est.)
$2.604 billion (2016 est.)
$1.731 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.495 trillion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
electrical and other machinery, including integrated circuits and other computer components, oil and mineral fuels; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
Imports - partnersRussia 31.2%, China 13.9%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Uzbekistan 5.2%, Iran 5.1% (2016)
South Korea 10%, Japan 9.2%, US 8.5%, Germany 5.4%, Australia 4.4% (2016)
Debt - external$5.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.649 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.467 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.764 (2017 est.)
7.8358 (2016 est.)
7.8358 (2015 est.)
6.1631 (2014 est.)
4.9348 (2013 est.)
Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.7588 (2017 est.)
6.6445 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.1434 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt41.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, including debt officially recognized by China's National Audit Office report in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, and China Asset Management Company debt
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$642.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.194 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.098 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$458 million (2017 est.)
-$265 million (2016 est.)
$162.5 billion (2017 est.)
$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$7.234 billion (2016 est.)
$11.94 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.514 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$16.3 billion (31 December 2009)
$1.342 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.227 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate16% (20 March 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2012)
2.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate30% (31 December 2017 est.)
25.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$26.87 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$936 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.108 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.16 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.001 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.065 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.24 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.3 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
-4% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 103.2%
government consumption: 16.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.3%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 13.4%
imports of goods and services: -48.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 39.1%
government consumption: 14.6%
investment in fixed capital: 43.3%
investment in inventories: 1.1%
exports of goods and services: 19.6%
imports of goods and services: -17.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving11.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
45.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
45.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

TajikistanChina
Electricity - production16.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption12.94 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exportsNA kWh (2015 est.)
18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports63 million kWh (2015 est.)
6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production180 bbl/day (2016 est.)
3.981 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6.167 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports78.6 bbl/day (2014 est.)
32,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves12 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
25.62 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
5.194 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production20 million cu m (2015 est.)
138.4 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption189 million cu m (2015 est.)
210.3 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
3.243 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports212 million cu m (2014 est.)
75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity5.5 million kW (2016 est.)
1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants93% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production445.8 bbl/day (2014 est.)
10.85 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
11.75 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
709,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports21,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
971,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)

Telecommunications

TajikistanChina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 468,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 206.624 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 9.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,364.934 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies (2016)
general assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services (2016)
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place (2016)
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
Internet country code.tj
.cn
Internet userstotal: 1,705,345
percent of population: 20.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 730,723,960
percent of population: 53.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)

Transportation

TajikistanChina
Railwaystotal: 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
total: 124,000 km
standard gauge: 124,000 km 1.435-m gauge (80,000 km electrified); 102,000 traditional, 22,000 high-speed (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 27,767 km (2000)
total: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
Waterways200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
gas 70,000 km; crude oil 22,900 km; refined petroleum products 25,500 km; water 710,206 km (2015)
Airports24 (2013)
507 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 802,470
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 105,376 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 56
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2,890
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 436,183,969
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 19.806 billion mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixEY (2016)
B (2016)

Military

TajikistanChina
Military branchesGround Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
People's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.19% of GDP (2017)
1.25% of GDP (2016)
1.22% of GDP (2015)
1.13% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2012)
1.9% of GDP (2016)
1.95% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.85% of GDP (2013)
1.84% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

TajikistanChina
Disputes - internationalin 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China's Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
Illicit drugsTajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates
major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 17,002 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 317,098 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (2014)

Source: CIA Factbook