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Sweden vs. Finland

Introduction

SwedenFinland
Background

A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 19.1% in 2018.

 

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Geography

SwedenFinland
Location
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates
62 00 N, 15 00 E
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references
Europe
Europe
Area
total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km
Area - comparative
almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries
total: 2,211 km
border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1666 km
total: 2,563 km
border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1309 km
Coastline
3,218 km
1,250 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
Climate
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 320 m
lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
mean elevation: 164 m
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
Natural resources
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use
agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 68.7% (2011 est.)
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 7.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 72.9% (2011 est.)
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
1,640 sq km (2012)
690 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
severe winters in the north
Environment - current issues

marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices

limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Population distribution
most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated

Demographics

SwedenFinland
Population
10,040,995 (July 2018 est.)
5,537,364 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.54% (male 904,957 /female 855,946)
15-24 years: 11.06% (male 573,595 /female 537,358)
25-54 years: 39.37% (male 2,005,422 /female 1,947,245)
55-64 years: 11.67% (male 588,314 /female 583,002)
65 years and over: 20.37% (male 946,170 /female 1,098,986) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 16.44% (male 465,298 /female 445,186)
15-24 years: 11.21% (male 317,500 /female 303,326)
25-54 years: 37.64% (male 1,064,751 /female 1,019,748)
55-64 years: 13.19% (male 359,434 /female 370,993)
65 years and over: 21.51% (male 519,775 /female 671,353) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 41.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 40.1 years
female: 42.2 years
total: 42.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 41 years
female: 44.3 years
Population growth rate
0.8% (2018 est.)
0.33% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
2.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 82.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 80.3 years
female: 84.3 years
total population: 81.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 78.1 years
female: 84.2 years
Total fertility rate
1.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2018)
Nationality
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups

Swedish 80.9%, Syrian 1.8%, Finnish 1.4%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 14.5%

(2018 est.)
note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000
Finn, Swede, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
11,000 (2016 est.)
4,000 (2018)
Religions
Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 60.2%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.5%, none or unspecified 31.3% (2017 est.)

note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members); an estimated 57.7% of Sweden's population were members of the Church of Sweden in 2018

Lutheran 69.8%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<100 (2018)
Languages
Swedish (official)

note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages

Finnish (official) 87.6%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.8% (2018 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2016)
total: 19 years
male: 19 years
female: 20 years (2016)
Education expenditures
7.6% of GDP (2015)
7.1% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 87.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 85.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 88% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 12% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.608 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2019)
1.292 million HELSINKI (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
11% (2015)
9.4% (2015)
Physicians density
5.4 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
3.81 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
4.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
20.6% (2016)
22.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
29.1 years (2015 est.)
28.8 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 58.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 57.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 25.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 32 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)

Government

SwedenFinland
Country name
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.
Government type
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary republic
Capital
name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: "stock" and "holm" literally mean "log" and "islet" in Swedish, but there is no consensus as to what the words refer to
name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish "helsing," an archaic name for "neck" ("hals"), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; "fors" refers to "rapids," so "helsing fors" meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"
Administrative divisions
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
Independence
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday
National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government") (2016)
history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016); note - Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN was ousted in a no-confidence vote on 25 September 2018 and headed a caretaker government until the next government was formed; LOFVEN was reelected as Prime Minister and took office on 21 January 2019
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Antti RINNE (since 6 June 2019); note - date when he was approved by parliament
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament
election results: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 September 2018 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 28.3%, M 19.8%, SD 17.5%, C 8.6%, V 8%, KD 6.3%, L 5.5%, MP 4.4%, other 1.6%; seats by party - SAP 100, M 70, SD 62, C 31, V 28, KD 22, L 20, MP 16; composition - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46.1%
description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms) (e.g. 2019)
elections: last held on 14 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023) (e.g. 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP 17.7%, Finn Party 17.5%, Kok 17.0%. Centre Party  13.8%, Green League 11.5%, Left Alliance 8.2%; seats by party/coalition -SDP 40, Finn Party 39, Kok 38, Centre Party 31, Green League 20, Left Alliance 16; composition men 107, women 93, percent of women 46.5% (e.g. 2019)
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
highest courts: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
Political parties and leaders
Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Per BOLUND]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO]
Green League or Vihr [Pekka HAAVISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 536-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 536-1501
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Pamela TREMONT (since April 2019)
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert "Bob" Frank PENCE (since 24 May 2018)
telephone: [358] (9) 6162-50
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
FAX: [358] (9) 6162-5135
Flag description
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter
National anthem
name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
lion; national colors: blue, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

Economy

SwedenFinland
Economy - overview

Sweden’s small, open, and competitive economy has been thriving and Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system.

 

Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of a manufacturing economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. Exports, including engines and other machines, motor vehicles, and telecommunications equipment, account for more than 44% of GDP. Sweden enjoys a current account surplus of about 5% of GDP, which is one of the highest margins in Europe.

 

GDP grew an estimated 3.3% in 2016 and 2017 driven largely by investment in the construction sector. Swedish economists expect economic growth to ease slightly in the coming years as this investment subsides. Global economic growth boosted exports of Swedish manufactures further, helping drive domestic economic growth in 2017. The Central Bank is keeping an eye on deflationary pressures and bank observers expect it to maintain an expansionary monetary policy in 2018. Swedish prices and wages have grown only slightly over the past few years, helping to support the country’s competitiveness.

 

In the short and medium term, Sweden’s economic challenges include providing affordable housing and successfully integrating migrants into the labor market.

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a strong increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to grow a rate of 2-3% in the next few years.

Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$518 billion (2017 est.)
$507.3 billion (2016 est.)
$494 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$244.9 billion (2017 est.)
$238.2 billion (2016 est.)
$232.4 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
2.1% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$51,200 (2017 est.)
$50,800 (2016 est.)
$50,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$44,500 (2017 est.)
$43,400 (2016 est.)
$42,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 33% (2017 est.)
services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)
services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
lowest 10%: 6.7%
highest 10%: 45.2% (2013)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.9% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force
5.361 million (2017 est.)
2.473 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 4%
industry: 20.7%
services: 75.3% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate
6.7% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2017 est.)
8.8% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
24.9 (2013)
25 (1992)
27.2 (2016)
22.2 (1995)
Budget
revenues: 271.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 264.4 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 134.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 135.6 billion (2017 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting

Industries
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate
4.1% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Exports
$165.6 billion (2017 est.)
$151.4 billion (2016 est.)
$67.73 billion (2017 est.)
$51.9 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
machinery (26%), motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2016 est.)
electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partners
Germany 11%, Norway 10.2%, Finland 6.9%, US 6.9%, Denmark 6.9%, UK 6.2%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.5%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2017)
Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)
Imports
$153.2 billion (2017 est.)
$140.2 billion (2016 est.)
$65.26 billion (2017 est.)
$58.18 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners
Germany 18.7%, Netherlands 8.9%, Norway 7.7%, Denmark 7.2%, China 5.5%, UK 5.1%, Finland 4.7%, Belgium 4.7% (2017)
Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%, Netherlands 8.7% (2017)
Debt - external
$939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$150.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$147.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
8.442 (2017 est.)
8.5605 (2016 est.)
8.5605 (2015 est.)
8.4335 (2014 est.)
6.8612 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
40.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$62.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$11.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
$17.79 billion (2017 est.)
$21.84 billion (2016 est.)
$1.806 billion (2017 est.)
-$819 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$535.6 billion (2017 est.)
$252.8 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$458.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$135.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$84.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$523.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.7 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$231 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$207.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$208.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate
-0.5% (31 December 2017)
-0.5% (31 December 2016)

note: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a "Reference rate" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate

1.25% (31 December 2017)
0% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate
1.93% (31 December 2017 est.)
2% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.61% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.79% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$929.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$749.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$323.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$351.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$329.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$273.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$152.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$124 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money
$329.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$273.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$152.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$124 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
50.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
53.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 17.9%
male: 18.8%
female: 17% (2017 est.)
total: 20.1%
male: 20.9%
female: 19.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 26% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
28.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
20% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

SwedenFinland
Electricity - production
152.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
66.54 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
133.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
82.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3.159 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
22.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
400,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
236,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
14,570 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
NA cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
2.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
4 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
2.322 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
40.29 million kW (2016 est.)
16.27 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
310,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
323,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
217,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
166,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
122,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
52.31 million Mt (2017 est.)
46.01 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

SwedenFinland
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 2,794,418
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 378,200
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 12,435,709
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 7,307,800
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2018)
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2017)
general assessment: modern system with excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; forefront in testing 5G networks; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies (2018)
domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line 7 per 100 subscription; 132 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)
Internet country code
.se
.finote - Aland Islands assigned .ax
Internet users
total: 9,041,427
percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 4,822,132
percent of population: 87.7% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently
a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio

Transportation

SwedenFinland
Railways
total: 14,127 km (2016)
standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified) (2016)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
total: 5,926 km (2016)
broad gauge: 5,926 km 1.524-m gauge (3,270 km electrified) (2016)
Roadways
total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways) (2016)
paved: 140,100 km (2016)
unpaved: 433,034 km (2016)

note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads

total: 454,000 km (2012)
highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved) (2012)
private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)
urban: 26,000 km (2012)
Waterways
2,052 km (2010)
8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
Pipelines
1626 km gas (2013)
1288 km gas transmission pipes, 1976 km distribution pipes (2016)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
Merchant marine
total: 359
by type: general cargo 66, oil tanker 22, other 271 (2018)
total: 259
by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 1, general cargo 88, oil tanker 4, other 159 (2018)
Airports
total: 231 (2013)
total: 148 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 149 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2013)
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
total: 74 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 21 (2017)
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 82 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
total: 74 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 71 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 8 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 9,972,333 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713.484 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
SE (2016)
OH (2016)

Military

SwedenFinland
Military branches
Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army, Navy, Air Force, Home Guard (2019)
Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in January 2018; conscription is selective, includes both female and male (age 18), and requires 9-12 months of service (2018)
all Finnish men are called-up for military service the year they turn 18; at 18, women may volunteer for military service; service obligation 6-12 months; individuals enter the reserve upon completing their initial obligation; military obligation to age 60 (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.04% of GDP (2018)
1.03% of GDP (2017)
1.06% of GDP (2016)
1.08% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)
1.29% of GDP (2019)
1.23% of GDP (2018)
1.26% of GDP (2017)
1.31% of GDP (2016)
1.29% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

SwedenFinland
Disputes - international

none

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 109,343 (Syria), 27,653 (Eritrea), 28,204 (Afghanistan), 21,032 (Somalia), 12,693 (Iraq), 6,485 (Iran) (2018)
stateless persons: 31,819 (2018); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia
refugees (country of origin): 8,523 (Iraq) (2018)
stateless persons: 2,759 (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook