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Swaziland vs. Mozambique

Demographics

SwazilandMozambique
Population
1,087,200 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

27,233,789 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 34.41% (male 186,747 /female 187,412)
15-24 years: 19.31% (male 99,192 /female 110,770)
25-54 years: 38.22% (male 193,145 /female 222,405)
55-64 years: 4.28% (male 19,915 /female 26,663)
65 years and over: 3.77% (male 15,470 /female 25,481) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 44.52% (male 6,097,116 /female 6,028,416)
15-24 years: 21.6% (male 2,905,254 /female 2,977,732)
25-54 years: 27.62% (male 3,525,755 /female 3,995,264)
55-64 years: 3.37% (male 442,990 /female 475,900)
65 years and over: 2.88% (male 359,624 /female 425,738) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 23.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 22.2 years
female: 24 years
total: 17.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 16.7 years
female: 17.8 years
Population growth rate
0.82% (2018 est.)
2.46% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
25.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
37.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
10.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 46.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 51.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.7 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 66 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 57.2 years (2018)
male: 55.1 years
female: 59.3 years
total population: 54.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 53.3 years
female: 54.9 years
Total fertility rate
2.63 children born/woman (2018 est.)
5.02 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
27.3% (2018 est.)
12.6% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: liSwati (singular), emaSwati (plural); note - former term, Swazi(s), still used among English speakers
adjective: Swati; note - former term, Swazi, still used among English speakers
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups
African 97%, European 3%
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Euro-African 0.2%, Indian 0.08%, European 0.06%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
210,000 (2018 est.)
2.2 million (2018 est.)
Religions
Christian 90% (Zionist - a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship - 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, other 30% - includes Anglican, Methodist, Mormon, Jehovah's Witness), Muslim 2%, other 8% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, indigenous, Jewish) (2015 est.)
Roman Catholic 27.2%, Muslim 18.9%, Zionist Christian 15.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.3%, Anglican 1.7%, other 4.8%, none 13.9%, unspecified 2.5% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
2,400 (2018 est.)
53,900 (2018 est.)
Languages
English (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)
Emakhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Xichangana 8.6%, Cinyanja 8.1, Cisena 7.1%, Elomwe 7.1%, Echuwabo 4.7%, Cindau 3.8%, Xitswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 87.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 56%
male: 70.8%
female: 43.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2017)
Education expenditures
7.1% of GDP (2014)
6.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanization
urban population: 24% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 36.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 93.6% of population
rural: 68.9% of population
total: 74.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.4% of population
rural: 31.1% of population
total: 25.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 63.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 56% of population (2015 est.)
total: 57.5% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 44% of population (2015 est.)
total: 42.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 42.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 10.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 20.5% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 89.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
68,000 MBABANE (capital) (2018)
1.669 million Matola, 1.104 million MAPUTO (capital), 811,000 Nampula (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
437 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
289 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
5.8% (2014)
15.6% (2011)
Health expenditures
7.7% (2016)
5.4% (2015)
Physicians density
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
16.5% (2016)
7.2% (2016)
Demographic profile

Eswatini, a small, predominantly rural, landlocked country surrounded by South Africa and Mozambique, suffers from severe poverty and the world’s highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. A weak and deteriorating economy, high unemployment, rapid population growth, and an uneven distribution of resources all combine to worsen already persistent poverty and food insecurity, especially in rural areas. Erratic weather (frequent droughts and intermittent heavy rains and flooding), overuse of small plots, the overgrazing of cattle, and outdated agricultural practices reduce crop yields and further degrade the environment, exacerbating Eswatini's poverty and subsistence problems. Eswatini's extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate – more than 28% of adults have the disease – compounds these issues. Agricultural production has declined due to HIV/AIDS, as the illness causes households to lose manpower and to sell livestock and other assets to pay for medicine and funerals.

Swazis, mainly men from the country’s rural south, have been migrating to South Africa to work in coal, and later gold, mines since the late 19th century. Although the number of miners abroad has never been high in absolute terms because of Eswatini's small population, the outflow has had important social and economic repercussions. The peak of mining employment in South Africa occurred during the 1980s. Cross-border movement has accelerated since the 1990s, as increasing unemployment has pushed more Swazis to look for work in South Africa (creating a "brain drain" in the health and educational sectors); southern Swazi men have continued to pursue mining, although the industry has downsized. Women now make up an increasing share of migrants and dominate cross-border trading in handicrafts, using the proceeds to purchase goods back in Eswatini. Much of today’s migration, however, is not work-related but focuses on visits to family and friends, tourism, and shopping.

Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.

Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
66.1% (2014)
27.1% (2015)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 68.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 63.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 93.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook