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Sudan vs. Eritrea

Introduction

SudanEritrea
Background

The region along the Nile River south of Egypt has long been referred to as Nubia. It was the site of the Kingdom of Kerma, which flourished for about a millennium (ca. 2500-1500 B.C.) until absorbed into the New Kingdom of Egypt. By the 11th century B.C., a Kingdom of Kush emerged and regained the region's independence from Egypt; it lasted in various forms until the middle of the fourth century A.D. After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria, and Alodia, the latter two endured until around 1500. Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads, and between the 16th–19th centuries it underwent extensive Islamization. Egyptian occupation early in the 19th century was overthrown by a native Mahdist Sudan state (1885-99) that was crushed by the British who then set up an Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - nominally a condominium, but in effect a British colony.

Following independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956, military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. The 30-year reign of President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR ended in his ouster in April 2019, and a Sovereignty Council, a joint civilian-military-executive body, holds power as of November 2019.

Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), resulting in a humanitarian crisis affecting more than a million people. A earlier conflict that broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displaced nearly 2 million people and caused thousands of deaths.  While some repatriation has taken place, about 1.83 million IDPs remain in Sudan as of May 2019. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007, but are slowly drawing down as the situation in Darfur becomes more stable. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations. However, Sudan's new transitional government has stated its priority to allow greater humanitarian access, as the food security and humanitarian situation in Sudan worsens and as it appeals to the West for greater engagement.

On 6 January 2021, Sudan signed the US-sponsored Abraham Accords, normalizing ties with Israel and becoming the fourth Arab country to do so after Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Morocco in 2020.

After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afwerki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service – divided between military and civilian service – of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. A subsequent 2007 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) demarcation was rejected by Ethiopia. More than a decade of a tense “no peace, no war” stalemate ended in 2018 after the newly elected Ethiopian prime minister accepted the EEBC’s 2007 ruling, and the two countries signed declarations of peace and friendship. Following the July 2018 peace agreement with Ethiopia, Eritrean leaders engaged in intensive diplomacy around the Horn of Africa, bolstering regional peace, security, and cooperation, as well as brokering rapprochements between governments and opposition groups. In November 2018, the UN Security Council lifted an arms embargo that had been imposed on Eritrea since 2009, after the UN Somalia-Eritrea Monitoring Group reported they had not found evidence of Eritrean support in recent years for Al-Shabaab. The country’s rapprochement with Ethiopia has led to a steady resumption of economic ties, with increased air transport, trade, tourism, and port activities, but the economy remains agriculture-dependent, and Eritrea is still one of Africa’s poorest nations. Despite the country's improved relations with its neighbors, ISAIAS has not let up on repression and conscription and militarization continue.

Geography

SudanEritrea
Locationnorth-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and EritreaEastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 30 00 E15 00 N, 39 00 E
Map referencesAfricaAfrica
Areatotal: 1,861,484 sq km

land: 1,731,671 sq km

water: 129,813 sq km
total: 117,600 sq km

land: 101,000 sq km

water: 16,600 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fifth the size of the USslightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 6,819 km

border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1403 km, Egypt 1276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2158 km

note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
total: 1,840 km

border countries (3): Djibouti 125 km, Ethiopia 1033 km, Sudan 682 km
Coastline853 km2,234 km (mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 18 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climatehot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Terraingenerally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the northdominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Elevation extremeshighest point: Jabal Marrah 3,042 m

lowest point: Red Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 568 m
highest point: Soira 3,018 m

lowest point: near Kulul within the Danakil Depression -75 m

mean elevation: 853 m
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropowergold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
Land useagricultural land: 100% (2018 est.)

arable land: 15.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 84.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 0% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 75.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 68.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 15.1% (2018 est.)

other: 9.8% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land18,900 sq km (2012)210 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdust storms and periodic persistent droughts

frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms

volcanism: Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011

Environment - current issues

water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water scarcity and periodic drought; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; deforestation; loss of biodiversity

 

deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement
Geography - notethe Nile is Sudan's primary water source; its major tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, meet at Khartoum to form the River Nile which flows northward through Egypt to the Mediterranean Seastrategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993
Total renewable water resources37.8 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)7.315 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionwith the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur as shown on this population distribution mapdensity is highest in the center of the country in and around the cities of Asmara (capital) and Keren; smaller settlements exist in the north and south as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

SudanEritrea
Population46,751,152 (July 2021 est.)6,147,398 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.01% (male 9,726,937/female 9,414,988)

15-24 years: 20.94% (male 4,852,903/female 4,687,664)

25-54 years: 29.89% (male 6,633,567/female 6,986,241)

55-64 years: 4.13% (male 956,633/female 923,688)

65 years and over: 3.03% (male 729,214/female 649,721) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 38.23% (male 1,169,456/female 1,155,460)

15-24 years: 20.56% (male 622,172/female 627,858)

25-54 years: 33.42% (male 997,693/female 1,034,550)

55-64 years: 3.8% (male 105,092/female 125,735)

65 years and over: 4% (male 99,231/female 143,949) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.3 years

male: 18.1 years

female: 18.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 20.3 years

male: 19.7 years

female: 20.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.55% (2021 est.)0.98% (2021 est.)
Birth rate33.63 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)27.41 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate6.41 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)6.79 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-1.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-10.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 43.15 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 48.66 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 37.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 42.39 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 49.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 35.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 66.79 years

male: 64.58 years

female: 69.11 years (2021 est.)
total population: 66.51 years

male: 63.92 years

female: 69.18 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate4.66 children born/woman (2021 est.)3.65 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.2% (2020 est.)0.5% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sudanese
noun: Eritrean(s)

adjective: Eritrean
Ethnic groupsunspecified Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, FallataTigrinya 55%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Kunama 2%, Rashaida 2%, Bilen 2%, other (Afar, Beni Amir, Nera) 5% (2010 est.)

note: data represent Eritrea's nine recognized ethnic groups
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS49,000 (2020 est.)13,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsSunni Muslim, small Christian minoritySunni Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,300 (2020 est.)<500 (2020 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur

major-language sample(s):
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The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)
Tigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 60.7%

male: 65.4%

female: 56.1% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.6%

male: 84.4%

female: 68.9% (2018)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2015)
total: 8 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2015)
Education expendituresNANA
Urbanizationurban population: 35.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 42% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.67% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 99% of population

rural: 80.7% of population

total: 87% of population

unimproved: urban: 1% of population

rural: 19.3% of population

total: 13% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 73.2% of population

rural: 53.3% of population

total: 57.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 26.8% of population

rural: 46.7% of population

total: 42.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 72.1% of population

rural: 30.6% of population

total: 44.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 27.9% of population

rural: 69.4% of population

total: 55.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 44.5% of population

rural: 7.3% of population

total: 15.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 55.5% of population

rural: 92.7% of population

total: 84.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population5.989 million KHARTOUM (capital), 967,000 Nyala (2021)998,000 ASMARA (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate295 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)480 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight33% (2014)39.4% (2010)
Health expenditures4.5% (2018)4.1% (2018)
Physicians density0.26 physicians/1,000 population (2017)0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)5% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.2% (2014)8.4% (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 76.9

youth dependency ratio: 70.4

elderly dependency ratio: 6.5

potential support ratio: 15.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.9

youth dependency ratio: 75.6

elderly dependency ratio: 8.3

potential support ratio: 12.1 (2020 est.)

Government

SudanEritrea
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of the Sudan

conventional short form: Sudan

local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

local short form: As-Sudan

former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Sudan

etymology: the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the Black [peoples]"
conventional long form: State of Eritrea

conventional short form: Eritrea

local long form: Hagere Ertra

local short form: Ertra

former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

etymology: the country name derives from the ancient Greek appellation "Erythra Thalassa" meaning Red Sea, which is the major water body bordering the country
Government typepresidential republicpresidential republic
Capitalname: Khartoum

geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: several explanations of the name exist; two of the more plausible are that it is derived from Arabic "al-jartum" meaning "elephant's trunk" or "hose," and likely referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles; alternatively, the name could derive from the Dinka words "khar-tuom," indicating a "place where rivers meet"
name: Asmara

geographic coordinates: 15 20 N, 38 56 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name means "they [women] made them unite," which according to Tigrinya oral tradition refers to the women of the four clans in the Asmara area who persuaded their menfolk to unite and defeat their common enemy; the name has also been translated as "live in peace"
Administrative divisions18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile

note: the peace accord signed in October 2020 included a protocol to restructure the country's current 18 provinces/states into eight regions
6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); Anseba, Debub (South), Debubawi K'eyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash Barka, Ma'akel (Central), Semenawi K'eyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)Independence Day, 24 May (1991)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1973, 1998; 2005 (interim constitution, which was suspended in April 2019); latest initial draft completed by Transitional Military Council in May 2019; revised draft known as the "Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period," was signed by the Council and opposition coalition on 4 August 2019

amendments: amended 2020 to incorporate the Juba Agreement for Peace in Sudan
history: ratified by the Constituent Assembly 23 May 1997 (not fully implemented)

amendments: proposed by the president of Eritrea or by assent of at least one half of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least an initial three-quarters majority vote by the Assembly and, after one year, final passage by at least four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law; note - in mid-July 2020, Sudan amended 15 provisions of its 1991 penal codemixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic religious law
Suffrage17 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: president (vacant); note - in August 2019, the ruling military council and civilian opposition alliance signed a power-sharing deal as the "Sovereignty Council," chaired by  General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman and consisting of 6 civilians and 5 generals; the Council is currently led by the military but is intended to transition to civilian leadership in May 2021 until elections can be held; General BURHAN serves as both chief of state and head of government

head of government: president (vacant); note - in August 2019, the ruling military council and civilian opposition alliance signed a power-sharing deal as the "Sovereignty Council," chaired by  General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman and consisting of 6 civilians and 5 generals; the Council is currently led by the military but is intended to transition to civilian leadership in May 2021 until elections can be held (Abd-al-Rahman)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister (2019)

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2022 at the end of the transitional period); prime minister typically appointed by the president; note - the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017; on 21 August 2019, the Forces for Freedom and Change, the civilian opposition alliance, named Abdallah HANDOUK as prime minister of Sudan for the transitional period

election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

head of government: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); the only election was held on 8 June 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next election postponed indefinitely)

election results: ISAIAS Afwerki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS  Afwerki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%
Legislative branchdescription: according to the August 2019 Constitutional Decree, which established Sudan's transitional government, the Transitional Legislative Council (TLC) will serve as the national legislature during the transitional period until elections can be held in 2022; as of early December 2019, the TLC had not been established

elections:

Council of State - last held 1 June 2015
National Assembly - last held on 13-15 April 2015
note - elections for an as yet defined new legislature to be held in 2022 at the expiry of the Transnational Legislative Council



election results:
Council of State - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 35, women 19, percent of women 35.2%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19; composition - men 296 women 130, percent of women 30.5%; note - total National Legislature percent of women 31%

description: unicameral National Assembly (Hagerawi Baito) (150 seats; 75 members indirectly elected by the ruling party and 75 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to form a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely due to the war with Ethiopia, and as of late 2020, there was no sitting legislative body

election results: NA
Judicial branchhighest courts: National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary

judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges selected by the Supreme Judicial Council, which replaced the National Judicial Service Commission upon enactment of the Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
highest courts: High Court (consists of 20 judges and organized into civil, commercial, criminal, labor, administrative, and customary sections)

judge selection and term of office: High Court judges appointed by the president

subordinate courts: regional/zonal courts; community courts; special courts; sharia courts (for issues dealing with Muslim marriage, inheritance, and family); military courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Unionist Party or DUP [Jalal al-DIGAIR]
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Federal Umma Party [Dr. Ahmed Babikir NAHAR]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP (in November 2019, Sudan's transitional government approved a law to "dismantle" the regime of former President Omar al-Bashir, including the dissolution of his political party, the NCP)
National Umma Party or NUP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Reform Movement Now [Dr. Ghazi Salahuddin al-ATABANI]Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party or SCoP [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
Umma Party for Reform and Development
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afwerki] (the only party recognized by the government)
International organization participationABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Nureldin Mohamed Hamed SATTI (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

email address and website:
consular@sudanembassy.org

https://www.sudanembassy.org/
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires BERHANE Gebrehiwet Solomon (since 15 March 2011)

chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991

FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

email address and website:
embassyeritrea@embassyeritrea.org

https://us.embassyeritrea.org/
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brian SHUKAN (since October 2019)

embassy: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum

mailing address: 2200 Khartoum Place, Washington DC  20521-2200

telephone: [249] 187-0-22000

email address and website:
ACSKhartoum@state.gov

https://sd.usembassy.gov/
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven C. WALKER (since December 2019)

embassy: 179 Alaa Street, Asmara

mailing address: 7170 Asmara Place, Washington DC  20521-7170

telephone: [291] (1) 12-00-04

FAX: [291] (1) 12-75-84

email address and website:
consularasmara@state.gov

https://er.usembassy.gov/
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperityred isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country

note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, and Vanuatu
National anthemname: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)

lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN

note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
name: "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra" (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)

lyrics/music: SOLOMON Tsehaye Beraki/Isaac Abraham MEHAREZGI and ARON Tekle Tesfatsion

note: adopted 1993; upon independence from Ethiopia
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, greencamel; national colors: green, red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years

Economy

SudanEritrea
Economy - overview

Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict and the loss of three quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan was subject to comprehensive US sanctions, which were lifted in October 2017. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining and agriculture, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but fell to about 35% per year in 2017.

(2017)

Since formal independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced many economic problems, including lack of financial resources and chronic drought. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% in Eritrea - is engaged in subsistence agriculture, but the sector only produces a small share of the country's total output. Mining accounts for the lion's share of output.

The government has strictly controlled the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability; new regulations in 2013 aimed at relaxing currency controls have had little economic effect. Few large private enterprises exist in Eritrea and most operate in conjunction with government partners, including a number of large international mining ventures, which began production in 2013. In late 2015, the Government of Eritrea introduced a new currency, retaining the name nakfa, and restricted the amount of hard currency individuals could withdraw from banks per month. The changeover has resulted in exchange fluctuations and the scarcity of hard currency available in the market.

While reliable statistics on Eritrea are difficult to obtain, erratic rainfall and the large percentage of the labor force tied up in military service continue to interfere with agricultural production and economic development. Eritrea's harvests generally cannot meet the food needs of the country without supplemental grain purchases. Copper, potash, and gold production are likely to continue to drive limited economic growth and government revenue over the next few years, but military spending will continue to compete with development and investment plans.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$168.28 billion (2019 est.)

$172.601 billion (2018 est.)

$176.646 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$9.702 billion (2017 est.)

$8.953 billion (2016 est.)

$8.791 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.4% (2017 est.)

3% (2016 est.)

1.3% (2015 est.)
5% (2017 est.)

1.9% (2016 est.)

2.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,958 (2019 est.)

$4,161 (2018 est.)

$4,363 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$1,600 (2017 est.)

$1,500 (2016 est.)

$1,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 39.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 2.6% (2017 est.)

services: 57.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 11.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.6% (2017 est.)

services: 58.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line46.5% (2009 est.)50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices)50.2% (2019 est.)

62.8% (2018 est.)

32.5% (2017 est.)
9% (2017 est.)

9% (2016 est.)
Labor force11.92 million (2007 est.)2.71 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 80%

industry: 7%

services: 13% (1998 est.)
agriculture: 80%

industry: 20% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate19.6% (2017 est.)

20.6% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2017 est.)

10% (2016 est.)
Budgetrevenues: 8.48 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 13.36 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 2.029 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.601 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesoil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, millingfood processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement
Industrial production growth rate4.5% (2017 est.)5.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productssugar cane, sorghum, milk, groundnuts, onions, sesame seed, goat milk, millet, bananas, wheatsorghum, milk, vegetables, barley, cereals, pulses nes, roots/tubers nes, wheat, millet, beef
Exports$4.1 billion (2017 est.)

$3.094 billion (2016 est.)
$624.3 million (2017 est.)

$485.4 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, crude petroleum, sesame seeds, sheep, goats, cotton, ground nuts (2019)gold and other minerals, livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small industry manufactures
Exports - partnersUnited Arab Emirates 31%, China 19%, Saudi Arabia 14%, India 12%, Egypt 5% (2019)China 62%, South Korea 28.3% (2017)
Imports$8.22 billion (2017 est.)

$7.48 billion (2016 est.)
$1.127 billion (2017 est.)

$1.048 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesraw sugar, wheat, packaged medicines, jewelry, tires, cars and vehicle parts (2019)machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Imports - partnersChina 31%, India 14%, United Arab Emirates 11%, Egypt 6% (2019)UAE 14.5%, China 13.2%, Saudi Arabia 13.2%, Italy 12.9%, Turkey 5.6%, South Africa 4.6% (2017)
Debt - external$56.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$51.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$792.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$875.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesSudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -

6.72 (2017 est.)

6.14 (2016 est.)

6.14 (2015 est.)

6.03 (2014 est.)

5.74 (2013 est.)
nakfa (ERN) per US dollar -

15.38 (2017 est.)

15.375 (2016 est.)

15.375 (2015 est.)

15.375 (2014 est.)

15.375 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt121.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

99.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
131.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

132.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$198 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$168.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$236.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$218.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.811 billion (2017 est.)

-$4.213 billion (2016 est.)
-$137 million (2017 est.)

-$105 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$24.918 billion (2019 est.)$5.813 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)34.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-10.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-9.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 77.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 9.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -11.8% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 80.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 6.4% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 10.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving43.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

29.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

12.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
5.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

6% of GDP (2016 est.)

6.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

SudanEritrea
Electricity - production13.99 billion kWh (2016 est.)415.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption12.12 billion kWh (2016 est.)353.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production95,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports9,440 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports19,540 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.437 million kW (2016 est.)160,700 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels44% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)99% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants51% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production94,830 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption112,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)4,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports8,541 bbl/day (2015 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports24,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)3,897 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 47% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 71% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 35% (2019)
electrification - total population: 47% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 95% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 13% (2019)

Telecommunications

SudanEritrea
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 137,842

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 116,882

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.94 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 33,014,160

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74.46 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,226,660

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20.36 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.sd.er
Internet userstotal: 13,311,404

percent of population: 30.87% (July 2018 est.)
total: 78,215

percent of population: 1.31% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

well-equipped system by regional standards with ongoing upgrades; despite economic challenges, government continues to boost mobile infrastructure through build-out of fiber-broadband network across country; economic climate has not encouraged client growth in telecom, but some investment has been made to build mobile towers and expand LTE services; growth of e-money services; 2020 launch of Chinese-based satellite to develop space technology sector; interim constitution safeguards rights and freedoms, though some Internet users continue to face harassment for activities; importer of broadcasting equipment from UAE and China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; teledensity fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 77 telephones per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 249; landing points for the EASSy, FALCON and SAS-1,-2, fiber-optic submarine cable systems linking Africa, the Middle East, Indian Ocean Islands and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment: least developed telecommunications market in Africa, largely due to restrictions of state-owned telecom monopoly; most fixed-line telephones are in Asmara; cell phone use is limited by government control of SIM card issuance; low penetration of computer use and Internet; market ripe for competition and investment; direct phone service between Eritrea and Ethiopia restored in September 2018; government operator working on roll-out of 3G network (2020) (2020)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership is less than 2 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 20 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 291 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments
Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 32,762

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
total: 600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
Broadcast mediathe Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2019)government controls broadcast media with private ownership prohibited; 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio operates 2 networks; purchases of satellite dishes and subscriptions to international broadcast media are permitted (2019)

Transportation

SudanEritrea
Railwaystotal: 7,251 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations
total: 306 km (2018)

narrow gauge: 306 km 0.950-m gauge (2018)
Roadwaystotal: 31,000 km (2019)

paved: 8,000 km (2019)

unpaved: 23,000 km (2019)

urban: 1,000 km (2019)
total: 16,000 km (2018)

paved: 1,600 km (2000)

unpaved: 14,400 km (2000)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Port Sudanmajor seaport(s): Assab, Massawa
Merchant marinetotal: 15

by type: other 15 (2020)
total: 9

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 4 (2020)
Airportstotal: 67 (2020)total: 13 (2020)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17 (2020)

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1
total: 4 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 50 (2020)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 24

under 914 m: 9
total: 9 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports7 (2020)1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 269,958 (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,729 (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixSTE3

Military

SudanEritrea
Military branchesSudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Ground Force, Navy, Sudanese Air Force; Rapid Support Forces (RSF, paramilitary); Reserve Department (formerly the paramilitary Popular Defense Forces) (2020)

the RSF is an autonomous paramilitary force formed in 2013 to fight armed rebel groups in Sudan, with Mohammed Hamdan DAGALLO (aka Hemeti) as its commander (he is also Deputy Chairman of the Sovereignty Council), from the remnants of the Janjaweed militia that participated in suppressing the Darfur rebellion; it was initially placed under the National Intelligence and Security Service, then came under the direct command of former president Omar al-BASHIR, who boosted the RSF as his own personal security force; the RSF has been accused of committing rights abuses against civilians; it is also reportedly involved in business enterprises, such as gold mining; in late 2019, Sovereignty Council Chairman and SAF Commander-in-Chief General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN said the RSF would be fully integrated into the SAF, but did not give a timeline
Eritrean Defense Forces: Eritrean Ground Forces, Eritrean Navy, Eritrean Air Force (includes Air Defense Force) (2021)
Military service age and obligation18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation (2019)18-40 years of age for male and female voluntary and compulsory military service (18-27 for female conscription); 18-month conscript service obligation, which includes 6 months of military training and one-year of military or other national service (military service is most common); note - in practice, military service reportedly is often extended indefinitely (2020)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.6% of GDP (2019)

2.3% of GDP (2018)

3.5% of GDP (2017)

2.9% of GDP (2016)

2.4% of GDP (2015)
5.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

5.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

5.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

5.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

5% of GDP (2013 est.)

Transnational Issues

SudanEritrea
Disputes - international

the effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia; as of early 2019, more than 590,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting more than 975,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including more than 845,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan

Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea

Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; traffickers exploit homeless children and unaccompanied migrant children from West and Central Africa in forced labor for begging, public transportation, large markets, and in sex trafficking; business owners, informal mining operators, community members, and farmers exploit children in brick-making factories, gold mining, collecting medical waste, street vending, and agriculture; children are exposed to threats, physical and sexual abuse, and hazardous working conditions; criminal groups exploit Sudanese women and girls from rural areas in domestic work and in sex trafficking; Sudanese Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces, a semi-autonomous paramilitary branch of the government, recruited child soldiers; Eritrean, Ethiopian, and other Africans refugees at government encampments risk exploitation

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Sudan does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; authorities prosecuted more suspected traffickers and launched an awareness campaign; the government streamlined its national anti-trafficking mechanism and focused resources on the National Committee to Combat Human Trafficking; a national action plan was drafted, finalized, and approved; Sudanese Armed Forces officials launched a unit for child protection efforts in conflict areas and trained more than 5,000 members of its military on child protection issues; however, the Rapid Support Forces, a semi-autonomous paramilitary branch of the government, recruited child soldiers; the government has not developed a system to identify, demobilize, and rehabilitate victims; officials’ denial of trafficking, smuggling, and kidnapping for ransom impeded anti-trafficking efforts; investigations and convictions of trafficking crimes decreased; Sudan was granted a waiver per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3; Sudan remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year (2020)
current situation: human traffickers export domestic victims in Eritrea or abroad; National Service is mandatory at age 18 and may take a variety of forms, including military service and physical labor but also government office jobs and teaching; Eritreans who flee the country, usually with the aim of reaching Europe, seek the help of paid smugglers and are vulnerable to trafficking when they cross the border clandestinely into Sudan, Ethiopia, and to a lesser extent Djibouti; Eritreans are subject to forced labor and sex trafficking mainly in Sudan, Ethiopia, and Libya

tier rating: Tier 3 — Eritrea does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government engaged in critical bilateral and multilateral partnerships to build its capacity for anti-trafficking initiatives; officials participated in a UN-sponsored regional anti-trafficking workshop and committed to produce a regional plan of action to combat trafficking; however, a government policy or pattern of forced labor existed; the government continued to subject its nationals to forced labor in its compulsory national service and citizen militia by forcing them to serve indefinitely or for arbitrary periods; authorities did not report any trafficking investigations, prosecutions, or convictions, including complicit government employees, nor did they report identifying victims and referring them to care; the government has no action plan to combat human trafficking (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook