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South Sudan vs. Uganda

Demographics

South SudanUganda
Population10,984,074 (July 2021 est.)44,712,143 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure0-14 years: 41.58% (male 2,238,534/female 2,152,685)

15-24 years: 21.28% (male 1,153,108/female 1,094,568)

25-54 years: 30.67% (male 1,662,409/female 1,577,062)

55-64 years: 3.93% (male 228,875/female 186,571)

65 years and over: 2.53% (male 153,502/female 113,930) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 48.21% (male 10,548,913/female 10,304,876)

15-24 years: 20.25% (male 4,236,231/female 4,521,698)

25-54 years: 26.24% (male 5,202,570/female 6,147,304)

55-64 years: 2.91% (male 579,110/female 681,052)

65 years and over: 2.38% (male 442,159/female 589,053) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 18.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 15.7 years

male: 14.9 years

female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate5.05% (2021 est.)3.31% (2021 est.)
Birth rate38.26 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)41.6 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate9.84 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)5.17 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate22.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-3.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.23 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.35 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 64.77 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.75 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 58.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 31.49 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 34.98 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 27.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 58.6 years

male: 56.92 years

female: 60.36 years (2021 est.)
total population: 68.58 years

male: 66.34 years

female: 70.9 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate5.43 children born/woman (2021 est.)5.45 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.3% (2020 est.)5.4% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: South Sudanese
noun: Ugandan(s)

adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groupsDinka (Jieng) 35.8%, Nuer (Naath) 15.6%, Shilluk (Chollo), Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS180,000 (2020 est.)1.4 million (2020 est.)
Religionsanimist, Christian, MuslimProtestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,900 (2020 est.)22,000 (2020 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

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English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 34.5%

male: 40.3%

female: 28.9% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.5%

male: 82.7%

female: 70.8% (2018)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies
Education expenditures1.5% of GDP (2016)2.1% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 20.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 25.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 5.41% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 85.2% of population

rural: 71.7% of population

total: 74.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.8% of population

rural: 28.3% of population

total: 25.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 92.9% of population

rural: 77.2% of population

total: 80.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.1% of population

rural: 22.8% of population

total: 19.2% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 54.1% of population

rural: 10.7% of population

total: 19.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 45.9% of population

rural: 89.3% of population

total: 80.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 67.8% of population

rural: 26.6% of population

total: 36.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 32.2% of population

rural: 73.4% of population

total: 63.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population421,000 JUBA (capital) (2021)3.470 million KAMPALA (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate1,150 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)375 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.7% (2010)10.4% (2016)
Health expenditures6.4% (2018)6.5% (2018)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)5.3% (2016)
Demographic profile

South Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.

Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.

Almost 2 million South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in December 2013. Another 1.96 million South Sudanese are internally displaced as of August 2017. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.

Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.

Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.

Contraceptive prevalence rate4% (2010)41.8% (2018)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 80.8

youth dependency ratio: 74.7

elderly dependency ratio: 6.1

potential support ratio: 16.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 92.3

youth dependency ratio: 88.5

elderly dependency ratio: 3.8

potential support ratio: 26.2 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook