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South Sudan vs. Kenya

Demographics

South SudanKenya
Population10,984,074 (July 2021 est.)54,685,051 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure0-14 years: 41.58% (male 2,238,534/female 2,152,685)

15-24 years: 21.28% (male 1,153,108/female 1,094,568)

25-54 years: 30.67% (male 1,662,409/female 1,577,062)

55-64 years: 3.93% (male 228,875/female 186,571)

65 years and over: 2.53% (male 153,502/female 113,930) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 38.71% (male 10,412,321/female 10,310,908)

15-24 years: 20.45% (male 5,486,641/female 5,460,372)

25-54 years: 33.75% (male 9,046,946/female 9,021,207)

55-64 years: 4.01% (male 1,053,202/female 1,093,305)

65 years and over: 3.07% (male 750,988/female 892,046) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 18.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 20 years

male: 19.9 years

female: 20.1 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate5.05% (2021 est.)2.15% (2021 est.)
Birth rate38.26 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)26.78 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate9.84 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate22.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.23 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.35 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 64.77 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.75 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 58.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 28.81 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 31.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 25.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 58.6 years

male: 56.92 years

female: 60.36 years (2021 est.)
total population: 69.32 years

male: 67.65 years

female: 71.03 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate5.43 children born/woman (2021 est.)3.36 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.3% (2020 est.)4.2% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: South Sudanese
noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groupsDinka (Jieng) 35.8%, Nuer (Naath) 15.6%, Shilluk (Chollo), Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)Kikuyu 17.1%, Luhya 14.3%, Kalenjin 13.4%, Luo 10.7%, Kamba 9.8%, Somali 5.8%, Kisii 5.7%, Mijikenda 5.2%, Meru 4.2%, Maasai 2.5%, Turkana 2.1%, non-Kenyan 1%, other 8.2% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS180,000 (2020 est.)1.4 million (2020 est.)
Religionsanimist, Christian, MuslimChristian 85.5% (Protestant 33.4%, Catholic 20.6%, Evangelical 20.4%, African Instituted Churches 7%, other Christian 4.1%), Muslim 10.9%, other 1.8%, none 1.6%, don't know/no answer 0.2% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,900 (2020 est.)29,000 (2020 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

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English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

The World Factbook, Chanzo cha Lazima Kuhusu Habari ya Msingi. (Kiswahili)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 34.5%

male: 40.3%

female: 28.9% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.5%

male: 85%

female: 78.2% (2018)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies
Education expenditures1.5% of GDP (2016)5.3% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 20.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 28.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.09% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 85.2% of population

rural: 71.7% of population

total: 74.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.8% of population

rural: 28.3% of population

total: 25.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 89% of population

rural: 60.4% of population

total: 68% of population

unimproved: urban: 11% of population

rural: 39.6% of population

total: 32% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 54.1% of population

rural: 10.7% of population

total: 19.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 45.9% of population

rural: 89.3% of population

total: 80.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 78.8% of population

rural: 41.2% of population

total: 51.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 21.2% of population

rural: 58.8% of population

total: 48.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population421,000 JUBA (capital) (2021)4.922 million NAIROBI (capital), 1.341 million Mombassa (2021)
Maternal mortality rate1,150 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)342 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.7% (2010)11.2% (2014)
Health expenditures6.4% (2018)5.2% (2018)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)7.1% (2016)
Demographic profile

South Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.

Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.

Almost 2 million South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in December 2013. Another 1.96 million South Sudanese are internally displaced as of August 2017. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.

Kenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first Sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.

Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya shelters more than 300,000 Somali refugees as of April 2017.

Contraceptive prevalence rate4% (2010)59.7% (2019)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 80.8

youth dependency ratio: 74.7

elderly dependency ratio: 6.1

potential support ratio: 16.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 69.8

youth dependency ratio: 65.5

elderly dependency ratio: 4.3

potential support ratio: 23.5 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook