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South Sudan vs. Central African Republic

Demographics

South SudanCentral African Republic
Population10,984,074 (July 2021 est.)5,357,984 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure0-14 years: 41.58% (male 2,238,534/female 2,152,685)

15-24 years: 21.28% (male 1,153,108/female 1,094,568)

25-54 years: 30.67% (male 1,662,409/female 1,577,062)

55-64 years: 3.93% (male 228,875/female 186,571)

65 years and over: 2.53% (male 153,502/female 113,930) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 39.49% (male 1,188,682/female 1,176,958)

15-24 years: 19.89% (male 598,567/female 593,075)

25-54 years: 32.95% (male 988,077/female 986,019)

55-64 years: 4.32% (male 123,895/female 134,829)

65 years and over: 3.35% (male 78,017/female 122,736) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 18.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 20 years

male: 19.7 years

female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate5.05% (2021 est.)1.79% (2021 est.)
Birth rate38.26 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)33.2 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate9.84 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)12.01 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate22.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-3.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.23 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.35 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 64.77 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.75 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 58.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 84.22 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 90.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 77.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 58.6 years

male: 56.92 years

female: 60.36 years (2021 est.)
total population: 55.07 years

male: 53.74 years

female: 56.44 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate5.43 children born/woman (2021 est.)4.09 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.3% (2020 est.)2.9% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: South Sudanese
noun: Central African(s)

adjective: Central African
Ethnic groupsDinka (Jieng) 35.8%, Nuer (Naath) 15.6%, Shilluk (Chollo), Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)Baya 28.8%, Banda 22.9%, Mandjia 9.9%, Sara 7.9%, M'Baka-Bantu 7.9%, Arab-Fulani (Peul) 6%, Mbum 6%, Ngbanki 5.5%, Zande-Nzakara 3%, other Central African Republic ethnic groups 2%, non-Central African Republic ethnic groups .1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS180,000 (2020 est.)88,000 (2020 est.)
Religionsanimist, Christian, MuslimChristian 89%, Muslim 9%, folk religion 1%, unaffiliated 1% (2020 est.)

note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,900 (2020 est.)3,200 (2020 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

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French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 34.5%

male: 40.3%

female: 28.9% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 37.4%

male: 49.5%

female: 25.8% (2018)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
Education expenditures1.5% of GDP (2016)1.2% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 20.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 42.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.32% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 85.2% of population

rural: 71.7% of population

total: 74.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 14.8% of population

rural: 28.3% of population

total: 25.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 89.6% of population

rural: 54.4% of population

total: 68.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 10.4% of population

rural: 45.6% of population

total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 54.1% of population

rural: 10.7% of population

total: 19.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 45.9% of population

rural: 89.3% of population

total: 80.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 43.6% of population

rural: 7.2% of population

total: 21.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 56.4% of population

rural: 92.8% of population

total: 78.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population421,000 JUBA (capital) (2021)910,000 BANGUI (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate1,150 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)829 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.7% (2010)20.5% (2019)
Health expenditures6.4% (2018)11% (2018)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.6% (2014)7.5% (2016)
Demographic profile

South Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.

Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.

Almost 2 million South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in December 2013. Another 1.96 million South Sudanese are internally displaced as of August 2017. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.

The Central African Republic’s (CAR) humanitarian crisis has worsened since a coup in March 2013. CAR’s high mortality rate and low life expectancy are attributed to elevated rates of preventable and treatable diseases (including malaria and malnutrition), an inadequate health care system, precarious food security, and armed conflict. Some of the worst mortality rates are in western CAR’s diamond mining region, which is impoverished because of government attempts to control the diamond trade and the fall in industrial diamond prices. To make matters worse, the government and international donors have reduced health funding in recent years. The CAR’s weak educational system and low literacy rate have also suffered as a result of the country’s ongoing conflict. Schools are closed, qualified teachers are scarce, infrastructure, funding, and supplies are lacking and subject to looting, and many students and teachers are displaced by violence.

Rampant poverty, human rights violations, unemployment, poor infrastructure, and a lack of security and stability have led to forced displacement internally and externally. Since the political crisis that resulted in CAR’s March 2013 coup began in December 2012, approximately 600,000 people have fled to Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and other neighboring countries, while another estimated 600,000 are displaced internally as of October 2019. The UN has urged countries to refrain from repatriating CAR refugees amid the heightened lawlessness.

(2019)

Contraceptive prevalence rate4% (2010)17.8% (2019)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 80.8

youth dependency ratio: 74.7

elderly dependency ratio: 6.1

potential support ratio: 16.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 86.4

youth dependency ratio: 81.1

elderly dependency ratio: 5.2

potential support ratio: 19.2 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook