Singapore vs. Lithuania


BackgroundA Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The settlement changed hands several times in the ensuing centuries and was eventually burned in the 17th century and fell into obscurity. The British founded Singapore as a trading colony on the site in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone.


LocationSoutheastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus
Geographic coordinates1 22 N, 103 48 E
56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Areatotal: 719.2 sq km
land: 709.2 sq km
water: 10 sq km
total: 65,300 sq km
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries0 km
total: 1,549 km
border countries (4): Belarus 640 km, Latvia 544 km, Poland 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km
Coastline193 km
90 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrainlowlying, gently undulating central plateau
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
mean elevation: 110 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Aukstojas 294 m
Natural resourcesfish, deepwater ports
peat, arable land, amber
Land useagricultural land: 1%
arable land 0.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 3.3%
other: 95.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 44.8%
arable land 34.9%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 9.4%
forest: 34.6%
other: 20.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land0 sq km (2012)
44 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflash floods
occasional floods, droughts
Environment - current issuesindustrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notefocal point for Southeast Asian sea routes; consists of about 60 islands, by far the largest of which is Pulau Ujong; land reclamation has removed many former islands and created a number of new ones
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Population distributionmost of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas
fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda


Population5,888,926 (July 2017 est.)
2,823,859 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 12.82% (male 386,139/female 368,874)
15-24 years: 16.56% (male 479,683/female 495,649)
25-54 years: 50.53% (male 1,448,463/female 1,527,038)
55-64 years: 10.46% (male 308,477/female 307,557)
65 years and over: 9.63% (male 258,597/female 308,449) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 15.01% (male 217,438/female 206,533)
15-24 years: 11.09% (male 161,965/female 151,197)
25-54 years: 40.05% (male 557,504/female 573,364)
55-64 years: 14.17% (male 177,157/female 223,110)
65 years and over: 19.67% (male 187,859/female 367,732) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 34.6 years
male: 34.5 years
female: 34.7 years (2017 est.)
total: 43.7 years
male: 39.7 years
female: 47.1 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.82% (2017 est.)
-1.08% (2017 est.)
Birth rate8.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate3.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
14.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate13.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 85.2 years
male: 82.6 years
female: 88.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 75 years
male: 69.7 years
female: 80.7 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate0.83 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.59 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.2% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groupsChinese 74.3%, Malay 13.4%, Indian 9.1% (includes Sri Lankan), other 3.2% (2016 est.)
Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
2,900 (2016 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 33.9%, Muslim 14.3%, Taoist 11.3%, Catholic 7.1%, Hindu 5.2%, other Christian 11%, other 0.7%, none 16.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
LanguagesMandarin (official) 36.3%, English (official) 29.8%, Malay (official) 11.9%, Hokkien 8.1%, Cantonese 4.1%, Tamil (official) 3.2%, Teochew 3.2%, other Indian languages 1.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.1%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98.7%
female: 98.2% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesnote: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2009)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Education expenditures2.9% of GDP (2013)
4.6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 100% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 66.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 90.4% of population
total: 96.6% of population
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 9.6% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 82.8% of population
total: 92.4% of population
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 17.2% of population
total: 7.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSINGAPORE (capital) 5.619 million (2015)
VILNIUS (capital) 517,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures4.9% of GDP (2014)
6.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.91 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
4.33 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.1% (2016)
26.3% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth30.5 years
median age (2015 est.)
27 years (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 37.3
youth dependency ratio: 21.3
elderly dependency ratio: 16
potential support ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.9
elderly dependency ratio: 28
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
local long form: Republic of Singapore
local short form: Singapore
etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words ""singa"" (lion) and ""pura"" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol
"conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: meaning of the name ""Lietuva"" remains unclear; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania
Government typeparliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Singapore
geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisionsnone
60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstono, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarijos, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavo, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai
Independence9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
11 March 1990 (declared independence from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date); 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created); 16 February 1918 (independence from Soviet Russia)
National holidayNational Day, 9 August (1965)
Independence Day (or National Day), 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992
amendments: proposed by at least one-fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended 1996, 2003, 2006 (2016)
Legal systemEnglish common law
civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the Constitutional Court
Suffrage21 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Halimah YACOB (since 14 September 2017); note - President TAN's term ended on 31 August 2017; YACOB is Singapore's first female president; the head of the Council of Presidential Advisors, J.Y. PILLAY, served as acting president until YACOB was sworn in as president on 14 September 2017
head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 13 September 2017 (next to be held in 2023); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Halimah YACOB was declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate; Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president in the previous contested election on 27 August 2011; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (PP) 4.9%
chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Saulius SKVERNELIS (since 13 December 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 and 25 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE reelected president in second reound; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 57.9%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (LSDP) 40.1%, invalid 2%; Saulius SKVERNELIS (LVZS) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 90 to 4
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 89 members directly elected by popular vote, 9 nominated by the president, and up to 9 - but currently 3 - non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 69.9%, WP 12.5%, other 17.6%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 6
description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 and 23 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - LVLS 22.5%, TS-LKD 22.6%, LSDP 15%, LS 9.5%, LCP-LPP 6.3%, LLRA 5.7%, TT 5.6%, DP 4.9%, LZP 2%, Lithuanian List 1.8%, other 4.1%; seats by party - LVLS 54, TS-LKD 31, LSDP 17, LS 14, LLRA 8, TT 8, DP 2, LCP-LPP 1, LZP 1, Lithuanian List 1, independent 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president or chief justice and 16 justices and is organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court)
judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Seimas from nominations - three each by the president of the republic, by the Seimas chairperson, and by the Supreme Court president; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts
Political parties and leadersNational Solidarity Party or NSP
People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. CHEE Soon Juan]
Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang]
Anti-Corruption Coalition or LCP-LPP [Naglis PUTEIKIS and Kristupas KRIVICKAS]
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]
Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]
Labor Party or DP [Valentinas MAZURONIS]
Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS (vacant)
Lithuanian Center Party or LCP [Naglis PUTEIKIS]
Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Linas BALSYS]
Lithuanian List [Darius KUOLYS]
Lithuanian Pensioners Party or LPP [Kristupas KRIVICKAS]
Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS]
Order and Justice Party or TT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS]
Peasant and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS] (formerly LVLS)
Way of Courage or DK [Jonas VARKALA]
International organization participationADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (non-permanent), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI (since 30 July 2012)
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
consulate(s): New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Rolandas KRISCIUNAS (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie SYPTAK-RAMNATH (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone: [65] 6476-9100
FAX: [65] 6476-9340
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne HALL (since 7 October 2016)
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland
National anthem"name: ""Majulah Singapura"" (Onward Singapore)
lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said
note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay
"name: ""Tautiska giesme"" (The National Song)
lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA
note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white
mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


Economy - overviewSingapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of consumer electronics, information technology products, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on its vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors.

The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010. Growth in 2014-17 was slower than during the previous decade, at under 3% annually, largely a result of soft demand for exports amid a sluggish global economy and weak growth in Singapore’s manufacturing sector.

The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy by weaning its dependence on foreign labor, addressing weak productivity growth, and increasing Singaporean wages. Singapore has attracted major investments in advanced manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and technology hub. Singapore is a member of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership negotiations with the nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and New Zealand. In 2015, Singapore formed, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.
After the country declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1990, Lithuania faced an initial dislocation that is typical during transitions from a planned economy to a free-market economy. Macroeconomic stabilization policies, including privatization of most state-owned enterprises, and a strong commitment to a currency board arrangement led to an open and rapidly growing economy and rising consumer demand. Foreign investment and EU funding aided in the transition. Lithuania joined the WTO in May 2001, the EU in May 2004, and the euro zone in January 2015, and is now working to complete the OECD accession roadmap it received in July 2015. In 2017, joined the OECD Working Group on Bribery, an important step in the OECD accession process.

The Lithuanian economy was severely hit by the 2008-09 global financial crisis, but it has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing in the EU. Increases in exports, investment, and wage growth that supported consumption helped the economy grow by 3.6% in 2017. In 2015, Russia was Lithuania’s largest trading partner, followed by Poland, Germany, and Latvia; goods and services trade between the US and Lithuania totaled $2.2 billion. Lithuania opened a self-financed liquefied natural gas terminal in January 2015, providing the first non-Russian supply of natural gas to the Baltic States and reducing Lithuania’s dependence on Russian gas from 100% to approximately 30% in 2016.

Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on improving the business environment, especially by liberalizing labor laws, and improving competitiveness and export growth, the latter hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. In addition, a steady outflow of young and highly educated people is causing a shortage of skilled labor, which, combined with a rapidly aging population, could stress public finances and constrain long-term growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$513.7 billion (2017 est.)
$501.1 billion (2016 est.)
$491.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$90.63 billion (2017 est.)
$87.55 billion (2016 est.)
$85.58 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.5% (2017 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$90,500 (2017 est.)
$89,400 (2016 est.)
$88,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$31,900 (2017 est.)
$30,500 (2016 est.)
$29,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0%
industry: 26%
services: 74% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 28.5%
services: 68.3% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
22.2% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 26% (2016)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 28.8% (2015)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.9% (2017 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force3.668 million
note: excludes non-residents (2017 est.)
1.467 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 0.96%
industry: 15.5%
services: 83.5%
note: excludes non-residents (2016)
agriculture: 9.1%
industry: 25.2%
services: 65.8% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate2.2% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
7% (2017 est.)
7.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.8 (2016)
46.3 (2015)
37.9 (2015)
35 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $53.4 billion
expenditures: $56.49 billion
note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2017 est.)
revenues: $16.18 billion
expenditures: $16.63 billion (2017 est.)
Industrieselectronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate3% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsorchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish
Exports$396.4 billion (2017 est.)
$361.6 billion (2016 est.)
$26.38 billion (2017 est.)
$24.23 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages
refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics
Exports - partnersChina 12.8%, Hong Kong 12.6%, Malaysia 10.5%, Indonesia 7.8%, US 6.8%, Japan 4.5%, South Korea 4.4% (2016)
Russia 13.5%, Latvia 9.9%, Poland 9.1%, Germany 7.7%, Estonia 5.3%, US 5.2%, Sweden 4.8%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Imports$309.7 billion (2017 est.)
$278.8 billion (2016 est.)
$30.39 billion (2017 est.)
$26.35 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partnersChina 14.3%, Malaysia 11.4%, US 10.8%, Japan 7%, South Korea 6.1%, Indonesia 4.8% (2016)
Russia 14.4%, Germany 12.1%, Poland 10.8%, Latvia 8%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 4.8%, Sweden 4.4% (2016)
Debt - external$482.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$504.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$34.48 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$31.6 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSingapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
1.392 (2017 est.)
1.3815 (2016 est.)
1.3815 (2015 est.)
1.3748 (2014 est.)
1.2671 (2013 est.)
litai (LTL) per US dollar -
0.884 (2017 est.)
0.9037 (2016 est.)
0.9037 (2015 est.)
0.9012 (2014 est.)
0.7525 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
calendar year
Public debt114.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
112.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt
38.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
40.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$266.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$246.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.602 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.697 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$59.79 billion (2017 est.)
$56.5 billion (2016 est.)
-$747 million (2017 est.)
-$379 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$305.8 billion (2016 est.)
$46.67 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.158 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.096 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.57 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.87 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$725.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$682.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$654.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$640 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$752.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.799 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.127 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate1.17% (2016 est.)
1.21% (2015 est.)
0% (31 December 2016 est.)
0.05% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
2.83% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$455.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$383.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$34.78 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$28.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$134.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$119.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.73 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$437.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$388.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$24.87 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
34.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 6.6%
male: 5.6%
female: 7.7% (2015 est.)
total: 16.3%
male: 16%
female: 16.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 34.7%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.9%
exports of goods and services: 179.2%
imports of goods and services: -150.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 17.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18.8%
investment in inventories: -0.5%
exports of goods and services: 75.9%
imports of goods and services: -78.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving45% of GDP (2017 est.)
44.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
16% of GDP (2017 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)


Electricity - production47.48 billion kWh (2015 est.)
3.433 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption46.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
9.848 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
730 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
7.938 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports831,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
160,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports11,460 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1,238 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
12 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2015 es)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption19.73 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.93 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports250 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports12.37 billion cu m (2015 est.)
2.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity13.28 million kW (2015 est.)
3.641 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels98.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
59.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
3.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
18.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production955,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
174,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.34 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
53,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports1.718 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
145,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports2.153 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
27,520 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy205 million Mt (2015 est.)
11.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,003,200
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 530,871
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 8,399,700
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2016 est.)
total: 4,204,692
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 147 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: excellent service
domestic: excellent domestic facilities; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity more than 180 telephones per 100 persons; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity
international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2016)
general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 145 per 100 persons
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2016)
Internet country code.sg
Internet userstotal: 4,683,200
percent of population: 81.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 2,122,884
percent of population: 74.4% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate controls broadcast media; 8 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV service available; a total of 18 domestic radio stations broadcasting with MediaCorp operating more than a dozen and another 4 stations are closely linked to the ruling party or controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association; many Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available
public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007)


Roadwaystotal: 3,425 km
paved: 3,425 km (includes 161 km of expressways) (2012)
total: 84,166 km
paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)
Pipelinesgas 122 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
gas 1,921 km; refined products 121 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Singapore
container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (30,922,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore
major seaport(s): Klaipeda
oil terminal(s): Butinge oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda
Merchant marinetotal: 3,558
by type: bulk carrier 592, container ship 504, general cargo 134, oil tanker 722, other 1,606 (2017)
total: 60
by type: container ship 2, general cargo 27, oil tanker 2, other 29 (2017)
Airports9 (2013)
61 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2017)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 197
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 33,290,544
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,154,365,275 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 52
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,363,950
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 565,642 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix9V (2016)
LY (2016)


Military branchesSingapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)
Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos) (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2012)
18 years of age for military service; 9-month service obligation; in 2015, Lithuania reinstated conscription after having converted to a professional military in the fall of 2008 (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.35% of GDP (2016)
3.16% of GDP (2015)
3.11% of GDP (2014)
3.09% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)
1.49% of GDP (2016)
1.14% of GDP (2015)
0.88% of GDP (2014)
0.76% of GDP (2013)
0.77% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationaldisputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
Illicit drugsdrug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering
transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

Source: CIA Factbook