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Senegal vs. The Gambia

Introduction

SenegalThe Gambia
Background
A Jolof Empire ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Various European powers, including Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. A slave station on the island of Goree, next to modern Dakar, was used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. Having abolished slavery in 1815, the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland in the second half of the 19th century and made it a French colony. The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed to resolve the conflict but, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party of Senegal, first under President Léopold Sédar SENGHOR, and then President Abdou DIOUF, for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was re-elected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents - the change did not apply to SALL's first term. SALL won his bid for re-election in February 2019; his term will end in 2024. A month after the election, the National Assembly voted to abolish the office of the prime minister. Opposition organizations and civil society have criticized the decision as a further concentration of power in the executive branch at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.
The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965. Geographically surrounded by Senegal, it formed a short-lived Confederation of Senegambia between 1982 and 1989. In 1991, the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty, although tensions flared up intermittently during the regime of Yahya JAMMEH. JAMMEH led a military coup in 1994 that overthrew the president and banned political activity. A new constitution and presidential election in 1996, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, completed a nominal return to civilian rule. JAMMEH was elected president in all subsequent elections including most recently in late 2011. After 22 years of increasingly authoritarian rule, President JAMMEH was defeated in free and fair elections in December 2016. Due to The Gambia’s poor human rights record under JAMMEH, international development partners had distanced themselves, and substantially reduced aid to the country. These channels have now reopened under the administration of President Adama BARROW, who took office in January 2017. The US and The Gambia currently enjoy improved relations. US assistance to the country has supported military education and training programs, as well as various capacity building and democracy strengthening activities.

 

 

Geography

SenegalThe Gambia
Location
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
Geographic coordinates
14 00 N, 14 00 W
13 28 N, 16 34 W
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
total: 11,300 sq km
land: 10,120 sq km
water: 1,180 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana
slightly less than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries
total: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
total: 749 km
border countries (1): Senegal 749 km
Coastline
531 km
80 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: extent not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Terrain
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 69 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m
mean elevation: 34 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 53 m
Natural resources
fish, phosphates, iron ore
fish, clay, silica sand, titanium (rutile and ilmenite), tin, zircon
Land use
agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 56.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 41% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 14.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 43.9% (2011 est.)
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
1,200 sq km (2012)
50 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
droughts
Environment - current issues
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching
deforestation due to slash-and-burn agriculture; desertification; water pollution; water-borne diseases
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the African mainland
Population distribution
the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map
settlements are found scattered along the Gambia River; the largest communities, including the capital of Banjul, and the country's largest city, Serekunda, are found at the mouth of the Gambia River along the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

SenegalThe Gambia
Population
15,736,368 (July 2020 est.)
2,173,999 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 40.38% (male 3,194,454/female 3,160,111)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 1,596,896/female 1,606,084)
25-54 years: 31.95% (male 2,327,424/female 2,700,698)
55-64 years: 4.21% (male 283,480/female 378,932)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 212,332/female 275,957) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 35.96% (male 392,714/female 389,027)
15-24 years: 20.09% (male 216,307/female 220,514)
25-54 years: 35.85% (male 382,138/female 397,324)
55-64 years: 4.4% (male 45,614/female 50,143)
65 years and over: 3.69% (male 36,773/female 43,445) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.4 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 21.8 years
male: 21.5 years
female: 22.2 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.31% (2020 est.)
1.87% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
31.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
27 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 93.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 97.6 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 54.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 63.2 years
male: 61.1 years
female: 65.4 years (2020 est.)
total population: 65.8 years
male: 63.5 years
female: 68.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.21 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.4% (2019 est.)
2% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
noun: Gambian(s)
adjective: Gambian
Ethnic groups
Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)
Mandinka/Jahanka 34%, Fulani/Tukulur/Lorobo 22.4%, Wolof 12.6%, Jola/Karoninka 10.7%, Serahuleh 6.6%, Serer 3.2%, Manjago 2.1%, Bambara 1%, Creole/Aku Marabout 0.7%, other 0.9%, non-Gambian 5.2%, no answer 0.6% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
41,000 (2019 est.)
28,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)
Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no response 0.1% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
1,200 (2019 est.)
1,100 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.9%
male: 64.8%
female: 39.8% (2017)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50.8%
male: 61.8%
female: 41.6% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 8 years
female: 9 years (2019)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2010)
Education expenditures
4.8% of GDP (2017)
2.1% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 48.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 62.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 74.5% of population
total: 83.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.7% of population
rural: 25.5% of population
total: 16.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 80.4% of population
total: 87.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 19.6% of population
total: 12.9% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 91.2% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 68.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.8% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 31.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 80.4% of population
rural: 44.5% of population
total: 66.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.6% of population
rural: 55.5% of population
total: 33.7% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
3.140 million DAKAR (capital) (2020)
451,000 BANJUL (capital) (2020)

note: includes the local government areas of Banjul and Kanifing

Maternal mortality rate
315 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
597 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
13.3% (2019)
10.3% (2018)
Health expenditures
4.1% (2017)
3.3% (2017)
Physicians density
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.8% (2016)
10.3% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
21.9 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

20.9 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.

The Gambia’s youthful age structure – almost 60% of the population is under the age of 25 – is likely to persist because the country’s total fertility rate remains strong at nearly 4 children per woman. The overall literacy rate is around 55%, and is significantly lower for women than for men. At least 70% of the populace are farmers who are reliant on rain-fed agriculture and cannot afford improved seeds and fertilizers. Crop failures caused by droughts between 2011 and 2013 have increased poverty, food shortages, and malnutrition.

The Gambia is a source country for migrants and a transit and destination country for migrants and refugees. Since the 1980s, economic deterioration, drought, and high unemployment, especially among youths, have driven both domestic migration (largely urban) and migration abroad (legal and illegal). Emigrants are largely skilled workers, including doctors and nurses, and provide a significant amount of remittances. The top receiving countries for Gambian emigrants are Spain, the US, Nigeria, Senegal, and the UK. While the Gambia and Spain do not share historic, cultural, or trade ties, rural Gambians have migrated to Spain in large numbers because of its proximity and the availability of jobs in its underground economy (this flow slowed following the onset of Spain’s late 2007 economic crisis).

The Gambia’s role as a host country to refugees is a result of wars in several of its neighboring West African countries. Since 2006, refugees from the Casamance conflict in Senegal have replaced their pattern of flight and return with permanent settlement in The Gambia, often moving in with relatives along the Senegal-Gambia border. The strain of providing for about 7,400 Casamance refugees has increased poverty among Gambian villagers.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
27.8% (2017)
16.8% (2018)
note: percent of women aged 15-50
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 84.2
youth dependency ratio: 78.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 86.9
youth dependency ratio: 82.1
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.1 (2020 est.)

Government

SenegalThe Gambia
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form: The Gambia
etymology: named for the Gambia River that flows through the heart of the country
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists
name: Banjul
geographic coordinates: 13 27 N, 16 34 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: Banjul is located on Saint Mary's Island at the mouth of the Gambia River; the Mandinka used to gather fibrous plants on the island for the manufacture of ropes; "bang julo" is Mandinka for "rope fiber"; mispronunciation over time caused the term became the word Banjul
Administrative divisions
14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
5 regions, 1 city*, and 1 municipality**; Banjul*, Central River, Kanifing**, Lower River, North Bank, Upper River, West Coast
Independence
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
18 February 1965 (from the UK)
National holiday
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Constitution
history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019
history: previous 1965 (Independence Act), 1970; latest adopted 8 April 1996, approved by referendum 8 August 1996, effective 16 January 1997; note - referendum on new constitution planned over the next 2 years
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly membership in each of several readings and approval by the president of the republic; a referendum is required for amendments affecting national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, government structures and authorities, taxation, and public funding; passage by referendum requires participation of at least 50% of eligible voters and approval by at least 75% of votes cast; amended 2001, 2004, 2010
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)
election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%
chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Isatou TOURAY (since 15 March 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Isatou TOURAY (since 15 March 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 1 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Adama BARROW elected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (Coalition 2016) 43.3%, Yahya JAMMEH (APRC) 39.6%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC) 17.1%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9; composition - men 96, women 69, percent of women 41.8%
description: unicameral National Assembly (58 seats; 53 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - UDP 37.5%, GDC 17.4%, APRC 16%, PDOIS 9%, NRP 6.3%, PPP 2.5%, other 1.7%, independent 9.6%; seats by party - UDP 31, APRC 5, GDC 5, NRP 5, PDOIS 4, PPP 2, independent 1; composition - men 52, women 6, percent of women 10.3%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court
highest courts: Supreme Court of The Gambia (consists of the chief justice and 6 justices; court sessions held with 5 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, a 6-member independent body of high-level judicial officials, a presidential appointee, and a National Assembly appointee; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Special Criminal Court; Khadis or Muslim courts; district tribunals; magistrates courts; cadi courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY]
Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
Only Senegal movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or (PASTEF) [Ousmane SONKO]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Fabakary JATTA]
Coalition 2016 [collective leadership] (electoral coalition includes UDP, PDOIS, NRP, GMC, GDC, PPP, and GPDP)
Gambia Democratic Congress or GDC [Mama KANDEH]
Gambia Moral Congress or GMC [Mai FATTY]
Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress or GPDP [Sarja JARJOU]
National Convention Party or NCP [Yaya  SANYANG and Majanko SAMUSA (both claiming leadership)]
National Democratic Action Movement or NDAM [Lamin Yaa JUARA]
National People's Party or NPP [Adama BARROW]
National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat BAH]
People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]
People's Progressive Party or PPP [Yaya CEESAY)]
United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Mansour KANE (since 6 January 2020)
chancery: 2215 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Ambassador Dawda D. FADERA (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 5630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0240
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard "Carl" PASCHALL (since 9 April 2019)
telephone: [220] 439-2856
embassy: Kairaba Avenue, Fajara, P.M.B.19, Banjul
mailing address: P.M.B. 19, Banjul
FAX: [220] 439-2475
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green; red stands for the sun and the savannah, blue represents the Gambia River, and green symbolizes forests and agriculture; the white stripes denote unity and peace
National anthem
name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

name: For The Gambia, Our Homeland
lyrics/music: Virginia Julie HOWE/adapted by Jeremy Frederick HOWE

note: adopted 1965; the music is an adaptation of the traditional Mandinka song "Foday Kaba Dumbuya"

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
lion; national colors: red, blue, green, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SenegalThe Gambia
Economy - overview

Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018.

The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.

The government has invested in the agriculture sector because three-quarters of the population depends on the sector for its livelihood and agriculture provides for about one-third of GDP, making The Gambia largely reliant on sufficient rainfall. The agricultural sector has untapped potential - less than half of arable land is cultivated and agricultural productivity is low. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of cashews, groundnuts, fish, and hides. The Gambia's reexport trade accounts for almost 80% of goods exports and China has been its largest trade partner for both exports and imports for several years.

The Gambia has sparse natural resource deposits. It relies heavily on remittances from workers overseas and tourist receipts. Remittance inflows to The Gambia amount to about one-fifth of the country’s GDP. The Gambia's location on the ocean and proximity to Europe has made it one of the most frequented tourist destinations in West Africa, boosted by private sector investments in eco-tourism and facilities. Tourism normally brings in about 20% of GDP, but it suffered in 2014 from tourists’ fears of Ebola virus in neighboring West African countries. Unemployment and underemployment remain high.

Economic progress depends on sustained bilateral and multilateral aid, on responsible government economic management, and on continued technical assistance from multilateral and bilateral donors. International donors and lenders were concerned about the quality of fiscal management under the administration of former President Yahya JAMMEH, who reportedly stole hundreds of millions of dollars of the country’s funds during his 22 years in power, but anticipate significant improvements under the new administration of President Adama BARROW, who assumed power in early 2017. As of April 2017, the IMF, the World Bank, the European Union, and the African Development Bank were all negotiating with the new government of The Gambia to provide financial support in the coming months to ease the country’s financial crisis.

The country faces a limited availability of foreign exchange, weak agricultural output, a border closure with Senegal, a slowdown in tourism, high inflation, a large fiscal deficit, and a high domestic debt burden that has crowded out private sector investment and driven interest rates to new highs. The government has committed to taking steps to reduce the deficit, including through expenditure caps, debt consolidation, and reform of state-owned enterprises.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$54.8 billion (2017 est.)
$51.15 billion (2016 est.)
$48.15 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$5.556 billion (2017 est.)
$5.314 billion (2016 est.)
$5.292 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
7.2% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.4% (2015 est.)
4.6% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
5.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$3,500 (2017 est.)
$3,300 (2016 est.)
$3,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$2,600 (2017 est.)
$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)
services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 20.4% (2017 est.)
industry: 14.2% (2017 est.)
services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
46.7% (2011 est.)
48.4% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 36.9% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.3% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
8% (2017 est.)
7.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force
6.966 million (2017 est.)
777,100 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 77.5%
industry: 22.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 75%
industry: 19%
services: 6% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate
48% (2007 est.)

NA

Distribution of family income - Gini index
40.3 (2011)
50.2 (1998)
Budget
revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 300.4 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 339 million (2017 est.)
Industries
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
peanuts, fish, hides, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Industrial production growth rate
7.7% (2017 est.)
-0.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
rice, millet, sorghum, peanuts, corn, sesame, cassava (manioc, tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports
$2.362 billion (2017 est.)
$2.498 billion (2016 est.)
$72.9 million (2017 est.)
$106.6 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
Exports - partners
Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
Guinea-Bissau 51.9%, Vietnam 14.6%, Senegal 8.8%, Mali 7.2% (2017)
Imports
$5.217 billion (2017 est.)
$4.966 billion (2016 est.)
$376.9 million (2017 est.)
$310.5 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment
Imports - partners
France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
Cote dIvoire 11.5%, Brazil 10.6%, Spain 10.2%, China 7.8%, Russia 6.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, India 5% (2017)
Debt - external
$8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$586.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$571.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
617.4 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
dalasis (GMD) per US dollar -
49.74 (2017 est.)
43.8846 (2016 est.)
43.8846 (2015 est.)
41.89 (2014 est.)
41.733 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
88% of GDP (2017 est.)
82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$170 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$87.64 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.547 billion (2017 est.)
-$769 million (2016 est.)
-$194 million (2017 est.)
-$85 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$21.11 billion (2017 est.)
$1.482 billion (2017 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

NA

Central bank discount rate
0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
9% (31 December 2009)
11% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
29% (31 December 2017 est.)
30.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$6.695 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.219 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$552.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$499 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$297.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$279.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$297.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$279.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-2.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 8.1%
male: 7.4%
female: 8.9% (2015 est.)
total: 13.1%
male: 9.1%
female: 17.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 90.7% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 19.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -2.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 20.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -40% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
6.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

SenegalThe Gambia
Electricity - production
4.167 billion kWh (2016 est.)
304.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
3.497 billion kWh (2016 est.)
282.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
17,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
977,000 kW (2016 est.)
117,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
48,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
3,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)
42 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)
3,738 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
8.644 million Mt (2017 est.)
607,300 Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 5 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 71% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 94% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2019)
population without electricity: 1 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 49% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 69% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 16% (2019)

Telecommunications

SenegalThe Gambia
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 195,288
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 41,179
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.93 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 16,871,654
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109.72 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,977,068
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 139.53 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.sn
.gm
Internet users
total: 6,909,635
percent of population: 46% (July 2018 est.)
total: 406,918
percent of population: 19.84% (July 2017 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services for 50% of population; growth in the intel market along with economic growth for the country; regulator awards more MVNO licenses, deactivated some 5 million unregistered SIM cards (2020)
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized but still retaining a monopoly with fixed-line service; multiple mobile networks offering effective competition; three licensed ISPs which serve local area without much competition; mobile penetrations above the African average; lack of availability of fixed-line services in many rural areas of the country; govt. started a National Broadband Network program aimed at closing the digital divide but not funded by Parliament in 2018; the Chinese company Huawei helping in the telecommunications sector (2020)
domestic: fixed-line stands at 2 per 100 subscriptions with one dominant company and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, is over 140 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 220; landing point for the ACE submarine cable to West Africa and Europe; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 129,820
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
total: 4,433
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)

1 state-run TV-channel; one privately-owned TV-station; 1 Online TV-station; three state-owned radio station and 31 privately owned radio stations; eight community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available, some via shortwave radio; cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable in some parts of the country 

(2019)

Transportation

SenegalThe Gambia
Roadways
total: 16,665 km (2017)
paved: 6,126 km (includes 241 km of expressways) (2017)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
total: 2,977 km (2011)
paved: 518 km (2011)
unpaved: 2,459 km (2011)
Waterways
1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
390 km (on River Gambia; small oceangoing vessels can reach 190 km) (2010)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Dakar
major seaport(s): Banjul
Merchant marine
total: 32
by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 27 (2019)
total: 8
by type: other 8 (2019)
Airports
total: 20 (2013)
total: 1 (2020)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 9 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 1 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,038 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 40,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 53,735 (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
6V (2016)
C5 (2016)

Military

SenegalThe Gambia
Military branches
Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components) (2020)
Gambia Armed Forces: the Gambian National Army (GNA, includes an air wing); Gambia Navy; Republican National Guard (2020)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2016)
18 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation 6 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018)
1.5% of GDP (2017)
1.6% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
0.8% of GDP (2019)
0.7% of GDP (2018)
1% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2014)
0.8% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

SenegalThe Gambia
Disputes - international

cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts in other west African states

Source: CIA Factbook