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Senegal vs. Mauritania

Introduction

SenegalMauritania
BackgroundThe French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict, but an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.
"Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA seized power in a coup in 1984 and ruled Mauritania with a heavy hand for more than two decades. A series of presidential elections that he held were widely seen as flawed. A bloodless coup in August 2005 deposed President TAYA and ushered in a military council that oversaw a transition to democratic rule. Independent candidate Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDALLAHI was inaugurated in April 2007 as Mauritania's first freely and fairly elected president. His term ended prematurely in August 2008 when a military junta led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ deposed him and installed a military council government. AZIZ was subsequently elected president in July 2009 and sworn in the following month. AZIZ sustained injuries from an accidental shooting by his own troops in October 2012 but has continued to maintain his authority. He was reelected in 2014 to a second and final term as president (according to the present constitution). The country continues to experience ethnic tensions among three major groups: Arabic-speaking descendants of slaves (Haratines), Arabic-speaking ""White Moors"" (Bidhan), and members of Sub-Saharan ethnic groups mostly originating in the Senegal River valley (Halpulaar, Soninke, and Wolof). Mauritania confronts a terrorism threat by al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb, which launched successful attacks between 2005 and 2011.

The activities of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), and similar groups, pose a severe security threat to Mauritanians and foreign visitors. AQIM launched a series of attacks in Mauritania between 2005 and 2011, murdering American and foreign tourists and aid workers, attacking diplomatic and government facilities, and ambushing Mauritanian soldiers and gendarmes. A successful strategy against terrorism that combines dialogue with the terrorists and military actions has prevented the country from further terrorist attacks since 2011.
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Geography

SenegalMauritania
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara
Geographic coordinates14 00 N, 14 00 W
20 00 N, 12 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
total: 1,030,700 sq km
land: 1,030,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Dakota
slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
total: 5,002 km
border countries (4): Algeria 460 km, Mali 2,236 km, Senegal 742 km, Western Sahara 1,564 km
Coastline531 km
754 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Terraingenerally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 69 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m
mean elevation: 276 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkhet Te-n-Dghamcha -5 m
highest point: Kediet Ijill 915 m
Natural resourcesfish, phosphates, iron ore
iron ore, gypsum, copper, phosphate, diamonds, gold, oil, fish
Land useagricultural land: 46.8%
arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
forest: 43.8%
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 38.5%
arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 38.1%
forest: 0.2%
other: 61.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,200 sq km (2012)
450 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind primarily in March and April; periodic droughts
Environment - current issueswildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Senegal, which is the only perennial river; locust infestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notewesternmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Mauritania is considered both a part of North Africa's Maghreb region and West Africa's Sahel region; most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country
Population distributionthe population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural
with most of the country being a desert, vast areas of the country, particularly in the central, northern, and eastern areas, are without sizeable population clusters; half the population lives in or around the coastal capital of Nouakchott; smaller clusters are found near the southern border with Mali and Senegal

Demographics

SenegalMauritania
Population14,668,522 (July 2017 est.)
3,758,571 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.51% (male 3,060,118/female 3,028,975)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 1,486,393/female 1,496,393)
25-54 years: 31.19% (male 2,102,757/female 2,472,683)
55-64 years: 3.98% (male 251,673/female 332,113)
65 years and over: 2.98% (male 194,491/female 242,926) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 38.56% (male 727,855/female 721,508)
15-24 years: 19.81% (male 364,570/female 379,866)
25-54 years: 33.21% (male 578,422/female 669,628)
55-64 years: 4.67% (male 79,162/female 96,297)
65 years and over: 3.76% (male 59,928/female 81,335) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.8 years
male: 18 years
female: 19.7 years (2017 est.)
total: 20.5 years
male: 19.5 years
female: 21.4 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.39% (2017 est.)
2.17% (2017 est.)
Birth rate33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
30.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 49.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 51.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.1 years
male: 60 years
female: 64.3 years (2017 est.)
total population: 63.4 years
male: 61.1 years
female: 65.8 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate4.28 children born/woman (2017 est.)
3.86 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian
Ethnic groupsWolof 38.6%, Pular 26.6%, Serer 14.9%, Mandinka 4.6%, Jola 4.1%, Soninke 2.3%, other 8.9% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
black Moors (Haratines - Arab-speaking slaves, former slaves, and their descendants of African origin, enslaved by white Moors) 40%, white Moors (of Arab-Berber descent, known as Bidhan) 30%, Sub-Saharan Mauritanians (non-Arabic speaking, Halpulaar, Soninke, Wolof, and Bamara ethnic groups) 30%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS41,000 (2016 est.)
11,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 95.3% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.3% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
Muslim (official) 100%
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,900 (2016 est.)
<1000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
Arabic (official and national), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French
note: the spoken Arabic in Mauritania differs considerably from the modern standard Arabic used for official written purposes or in the media; the Mauritanian dialect, which incorporates many Berber words, is referred to as Hassaniya
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 69.7%
female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52.1%
male: 62.6%
female: 41.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)
Education expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
2.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 44.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.53% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 61% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.2% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 58.4% of population
rural: 57.1% of population
total: 57.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 41.6% of population
rural: 42.9% of population
total: 42.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 65.4% of population
rural: 33.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population
rural: 66.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 57.5% of population
rural: 13.8% of population
total: 40% of population
unimproved:
urban: 42.5% of population
rural: 86.2% of population
total: 60% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
NOUAKCHOTT (capital) 968,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
602 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.5% (2015)
24.9% (2015)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
3.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
0.13 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.8% (2016)
12.7% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 657,216
percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
total number: 127,251
percentage: 16% (2007 est.)
Demographic profileSenegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.
Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).
Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.
With a sustained total fertility rate of about 4 children per woman and almost 60% of the population under the age of 25, Mauritania’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future. Mauritania’s large youth cohort is vital to its development prospects, but available schooling does not adequately prepare students for the workplace. Girls continue to be underrepresented in the classroom, educational quality remains poor, and the dropout rate is high. The literacy rate is only about 50%, even though access to primary education has improved since the mid-2000s. Women’s restricted access to education and discriminatory laws maintain gender inequality – worsened by early and forced marriages and female genital cutting.
The denial of education to black Moors also helps to perpetuate slavery. Although Mauritania abolished slavery in 1981 (the last country in the world to do so) and made it a criminal offense in 2007, the millenniums-old practice persists largely because anti-slavery laws are rarely enforced and the custom is so ingrained. Up to 20% of Mauritania’s population is estimated to be enslaved, the highest rate worldwide.
Drought, poverty, and unemployment have driven outmigration from Mauritania since the 1970s. Early flows were directed toward other West African countries, including Senegal, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, and Gambia. The 1989 Mauritania-Senegal conflict forced thousands of black Mauritanians to take refuge in Senegal and pushed labor migrants toward the Gulf, Libya, and Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Mauritania has accepted migrants from neighboring countries to fill labor shortages since its independence in 1960 and more recently has received refugees escaping civil wars, including tens of thousands of Tuaregs who fled Mali in 2012.
Mauritania was an important transit point for sub-Saharan migrants moving illegally to North Africa and Europe. In the mid-2000s, as border patrols increased in the Strait of Gibraltar, security increased around Spain’s North African enclaves (Ceuta and Melilla), and Moroccan border controls intensified, illegal migration flows shifted from the Western Mediterranean to Spain’s Canary Islands. In 2006, departure points moved southward along the West African coast from Morocco and Western Sahara to Mauritania’s two key ports (Nouadhibou and the capital Nouakchott), and illegal migration to the Canaries peaked at almost 32,000. The numbers fell dramatically in the following years because of joint patrolling off the West African coast by Frontex (the EU’s border protection agency), Spain, Mauritania, and Senegal; the expansion of Spain’s border surveillance system; and the 2008 European economic downturn.
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.3% (2015)
17.8% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 85.4
youth dependency ratio: 79.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 76.5
youth dependency ratio: 71
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.3 (2015 est.)

Government

SenegalMauritania
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from ""Azenegue,"" the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
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conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form: Mauritania
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form: Muritaniyah
etymology: named for the ancient kingdom of Mauretania (3rd century B.C. to 1st century A.D.), which existed further north in present-day Morocco; the name derives from the Mauri (Moors), the Berber-speaking peoples of northwest Africa
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Nouakchott
geographic coordinates: 18 04 N, 15 58 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
15 regions (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Nouakchott Nord, Nouakchott Ouest, Nouakchott Sud, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
Independence4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
28 November 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 4 April (1960)
Independence Day, 28 November (1960)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the prime minister through the president, or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1964; latest adopted 12 July 1991
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by either house of Parliament; consideration of amendments by Parliament requires approval of at least one-third of the membership of either house; a referendum is held only if it is approved by two-thirds majority vote in both houses; passage by referendum requires simple majority vote by eligible voters; passage of amendments proposed by the president can bypass a referendum if approved by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament in joint session; amended 2004, 2006, 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
mixed legal system of Islamic and French civil law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Macky SALL elected president in second round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
chief of state: President Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ (since 5 August 2009); note - AZIZ deposed President Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDELLAHI in a coup and installed himself as president in August 2008; he subsequently retired from the military, stepped down from the appropriated presidency in April 2009 to run for the legitimate presidency; he was elected president in July 2009 and reelected in June 2014
head of government: Prime Minister Yahya Ould HADEMINE (since 21 August 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 June 2014 (next to be held by 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ elected president in first round; percent of vote - Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ (UPR) 81.9%, Biram Dah ABEID (IRA) 8.7%, Boidiel Ould HOUMEIT (El Wiam) 4.5%, Ibrahima Moctar SARR (SJD/MR) 4.4%, other 0.5%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9
description: unicameral Parliament or Barlamane consists of the National Assembly or Al Jamiya Al Wataniya (147 seats; 107 members directly elected in single- and two-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed and 40 directly elected in constituencies with 3 or more seats by proportional representation vote; members serve a 5-year term); note - a referendum held in August 2017 approved a constitutional amendment to change the Parliament structure from bicameral to unicameral by abolishing the Senate
elections: Senate - last held on 23 November 2013 (next election scheduled for 2015 but delayed because of opposition party threats to boycott election); National Assembly - first round last held on 23 November and second round on 21 December 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UPR 75, RNRD-TAWASSOUL 16, El Wiam 10, APP 7, El Karama Party 6, UDP 6, AJD/MR 4, Burst of Youth for the Nation 4, El Vadila Party 3, PRDR 3, PUD 3, Ravah Party 3, other 6; note - parties winning fewer than 3 seats sit as independents unless they join a coalition
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court; note - in early 2013, the Extraordinary African Chambers were established by agreement of the African Union and the Government of Senegal to try cases of high-level officials involved in crimes committed in Chad during the period 1982-1990
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (subdivided into 1 criminal and 2 civil chambers, each with a president and 5 counselors); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic to serve a 5-year renewable term; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 1 by the president of the Senate; members serve single, 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (cases involving treason and criminal acts of high government officials, including the president); courts of appeal; wilaya (regional) courts (located at the headquarters of each of the 13 regions); commercial and labor courts; criminal courts; moughataa (district) courts; informal/customary courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Manko Taxawu Senegaal or MTS [Khalifa SALL] (coalition includes BGC, Du Nakk, FSD/BJ, GP, MCRN/Bes, Rewmi)
National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Winning Coalition Wattu Senegal or CGWS [Abdoulaye WADE] (includes AJ/PADS, AJ/PADS-A, Bokk Gis Gis, PDS, Tekki Movement)
Alliance for Justice and Democracy/Movement for Renewal or AJD/MR [Ibrahima Moctar SARR]
Burst of Youth for the Nation [Lalla CHERIVA]
Coalition for Pacific Alternation or CAP (coalition of opposition parties, including APP, El Wiam)
Coalition of Majority Parties or CPM (includes UPR, UDP)
Coordination of Democratic Opposition or COD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH] (coalition includes RNRD-TAWASSOUL)
El Karama Party [Cheikhna Ould Mohamed Ould HAJBOU]
El Vadila Party [Ethmane Ould Ahmed ABOULMAALY]
El Wiam [Boidiel Ould HOUMEIT]
Initiative for the Resurgence of the Abolitionist Movement [Biram Dah ABEID]
National Rally for Reform and Development or RNRD-TAWASSOUL [Mohamed Mahmoud Ould SEYIDI]
Party for Liberty, Equality and Justice [Ba ALASSANE]
Party of Unity and Development or PUD [Mohamed BARO]
Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messaoud Ould BOULKHEIR]
Ravah Party
Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal or PRDR [Sidi Mohamed Ould Mohamed VALL]
Union for Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]
Union for Progress [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD]
Union for the Republic or UPR [Sidi Mohamed Ould MAHAM]
Political pressure groups and leadersCatholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
Association of Women Heads of Household [Aminetou Mint ElMOCTAR]
General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED]
Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM and El Hor [Samory Ould BEYE] (civil society organization, anti-slavery)
Initiative for Resurgent Abolitionist Movement or IRA-Mauritania [Biram Dah ABEID] (US-based, anti-slavery group)
Mauritanian Human Rights Association or AMDH [Fatimata M'BAYE]
Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM]
National Forum for Democracy and Unity [Mohamed Jamil Ould MANSOUR]
SOS-Esclaves [Boubacar Ould MESSAOUD] (anti-slavery)
other: Arab nationalists; Ba'athists; Islamists; Nasserists
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU (candidate), EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MIUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamedoun DADDAH (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700 through 5701
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2623
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
chief of mission: Ambassador Larry Edward ANDRE, Jr. (since 3 November 2014)
embassy: 288, rue 42-100 (rue Abdallaye), Nouakchott
mailing address: B.P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone: [222] 4525-2660 or [222] 2660-2663
FAX: [222] 4525-1592
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; green also represents hope for a bright future; the yellow color stands for the sands of the Sahara
National anthem"name: ""Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
"
"name: ""Hymne National de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie"" (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania)
lyrics/music: Baba Ould CHEIKH/traditional, arranged by Tolia NIKIPROWETZKY
note: adopted 1960; the unique rhythm of the Mauritanian anthem makes it particularly challenging to sing
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
star and crescent; national colors: green, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mauritania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SenegalMauritania
Economy - overviewSenegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2015 and surpassed that in 2016-17, due in part to a buoyant performance in agriculture because of higher rainfall and productivity in the sector.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF during 2015-17 under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s second review mission in March 2016. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.

The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue the structural transformation of the economy. These 19 projects include the Thies-Touba Highway, including the new airport- Mbour-Thies Highway. Senegal increased the national family allowances program and the community development emergency program in 2016. Electricity supply is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a program led by USAID and OPIC, plans to increase the current 500 MW of generating capacity to over 1,000 mW in the next three to five years. Recent gas discoveries on the Senegal-Mauritanian border, as well as just south of Dakar, will help alleviate some of the energy shortages.
Mauritania's economy is dominated by extractive industries (oil and mines), fisheries and agriculture. Half the population still depends on farming and raising livestock, even though many nomads and subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s, 1980s and 2000s. Recently, GDP growth has been driven largely by foreign investment in the mining and oil sectors.

Mauritania's extensive mineral resources include iron ore, gold, copper, gypsum, and phosphate rock, and exploration is ongoing for tantalum, uranium, crude oil, and natural gas. Extractive commodities make up about three-quarters of Mauritania's total exports, subjecting the economy to price swings in world commodity markets. Mining is also a growing source of government revenue, rising from 13% to 30% of total revenue from 2006 to 2016. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, and fishing accounts for about 20% of budget revenues, 45% of foreign currency earnings. Mauritania processes a total of 1,800,000 tons of fish per year, but overexploitation by foreign and national fleets threaten the sustainability of this key source of revenue.

The economy is highly sensitive to international food and extractive commodity prices. Other risks to Mauritania's economy include its recurring droughts, dependence on foreign aid and investment, and insecurity in neighboring Mali, as well as significant shortages of infrastructure, institutional capacity, and human capital. Mauritania has sought additional IMF support by focusing efforts on poverty reduction. Investment in agriculture and infrastructure are the largest components of the country’s public expenditures.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$43.07 billion (2017 est.)
$40.33 billion (2016 est.)
$37.78 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$17.37 billion (2017 est.)
$16.74 billion (2016 est.)
$16.45 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.8% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
3.8% (2017 est.)
1.7% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,700 (2017 est.)
$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$4,500 (2017 est.)
$4,400 (2016 est.)
$4,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.9%
industry: 24.3%
services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 22.5%
industry: 37.8%
services: 39.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line46.7% (2011 est.)
31% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.1% (2017 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force6.966 million (2017 est.)
1.437 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 50%
industry: 1.9%
services: 48.1% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate48% (2007 est.)
11.7% (2016 est.)
11.7% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.3 (2011)
37 (2014)
39 (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $3.863 billion
expenditures: $4.474 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.248 billion
expenditures: $1.301 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesagricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
fish processing, oil production, mining (iron ore, gold, copper)
note: gypsum deposits have never been exploited
Industrial production growth rate8.4% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productspeanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
dates, millet, sorghum, rice, corn; cattle, camel and sheep
Exports$2.546 billion (2017 est.)
$2.498 billion (2016 est.)
$1.606 billion (2017 est.)
$1.401 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
iron ore, fish and fish products, livestock, gold, copper, crude oil
Exports - partnersMali 18.2%, Switzerland 10.6%, India 8.2%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, China 5% (2016)
China 36.9%, Switzerland 13.5%, Spain 8.9%, Japan 7.5%, Russia 4.8%, Nigeria 4.1%, Italy 4.1% (2016)
Imports$5.227 billion (2017 est.)
$4.993 billion (2016 est.)
$2.097 billion (2017 est.)
$1.9 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood and beverages, capital goods, fuels
machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partnersFrance 15.9%, China 10.3%, Nigeria 7.8%, India 7.6%, Netherlands 5.3%, Spain 4.9% (2016)
US 13.4%, UAE 11.9%, Belgium 9.2%, China 8.9%, Netherlands 7.1%, France 6.6%, Morocco 6.3%, Vanuatu 5% (2016)
Debt - external$6.745 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.117 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.899 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
617.4 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
ouguiyas (MRO) per US dollar -
363.6 (2017 est.)
352.37 (2016 est.)
352.37 (2015 est.)
319.7 (2014 est.)
299.5 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
99.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
98.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$817 million (2017 est.)
-$783 million (2016 est.)
-$709 million (2017 est.)
-$707 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$16.06 billion (2016 est.)
$4.985 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
9% (31 December 2009)
12% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
17% (31 December 2017 est.)
17% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.55 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.451 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
25% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-1.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 76.5%
government consumption: 16.1%
investment in fixed capital: 26.2%
investment in inventories: -2%
exports of goods and services: 28.9%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 56.9%
government consumption: 19.1%
investment in fixed capital: 48.6%
investment in inventories: 21.7%
exports of goods and services: 30.1%
imports of goods and services: -76.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving22% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

SenegalMauritania
Electricity - production3.673 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.191 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.014 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.108 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
5,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports18,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,750 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
20 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production62 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption497 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity965,000 kW (2015 est.)
412,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels88.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
63.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants7.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
23.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources8.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
16.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production16,850 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption44,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,892 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports30,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,390 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
2.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 6,400,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 28% (2013)
population without electricity: 2,800,000
electrification - total population: 28%
electrification - urban areas: 47%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)

Telecommunications

SenegalMauritania
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 285,933
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 53,191
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 15,186,485
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2016 est.)
total: 3,614,172
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas
international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidly
domestic: fixed-line teledensity 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas with a teledensity of roughly 100 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals
international: country code - 222; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean, 2 Arabsat); fiber-optic and asymmetric digital subscriber line cables for Internet access (2016)
Internet country code.sn
.mr
Internet userstotal: 3,675,209
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 661,913
percent of population: 18.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2017)
1 state-run TV (Television de Mauritanie) and one state-run radio network (Radio de Mauritanie); Television de Mauritanie has three channels, Al Mahadra station (for Islamic content) and Channels 1 and 2, which cover news, sports, and other programming; Radio de Mauritanie runs 12 regional stations, as well as a radio station for youth and the Holy Quran station; five private TV channels and five private radio stations also broadcast from Mauritania; six private international radio stations broadcast in Mauritania on the FM band; with satellite connections, Mauritanians also have access to hundreds of foreign TV channels (2013)

Transportation

SenegalMauritania
Railwaystotal: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017)
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
total: 728 km
standard gauge: 728 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 16,496 km
paved: 5,957 km (includes 72 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
total: 10,628 km
paved: 3,158 km
unpaved: 7,470 km (2010)
Waterways1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
(some navigation possible on the Senegal River) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dakar
major seaport(s): Nouadhibou, Nouakchott
Merchant marinetotal: 26
by type: general cargo 3, oil tanker 1, other 22 (2017)
total: 6
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 2, other 3 (2017)
Airports20 (2013)
30 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers:
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers:
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,355
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,095,523 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 248,158
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix6V (2016)
5T (2016)

Military

SenegalMauritania
Military branchesSenegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
Mauritanian Armed Forces: Army, Mauritanian Navy (Marine Mauritanienne; includes naval infantry), Islamic Republic of Mauritania Air Group (Groupement Aerienne Islamique de Mauritanie, GAIM) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.89% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.73% of GDP (2016)
1.58% of GDP (2015)
1.57% of GDP (2014)
1.6% of GDP (2013)
2.97% of GDP (2016)
2.75% of GDP (2015)
2.7% of GDP (2014)
2.56% of GDP (2013)
2.72% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

SenegalMauritania
Disputes - internationalcross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
Mauritanian claims to Western Sahara remain dormant
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,683 (Mauritania) (2017)
IDPs: 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 26,001 (Western Saharan - Sahrawis) (2016); 52,591 (Mali) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook