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Senegal vs. Guinea-Bissau

Introduction

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Background
A Jolof Empire ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Various European powers, including Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. A slave station on the island of Goree, next to modern Dakar, was used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. Having abolished slavery in 1815, the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland in the second half of the 19th century and made it a French colony. The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed to resolve the conflict but, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party of Senegal, first under President Léopold Sédar SENGHOR, and then President Abdou DIOUF, for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was re-elected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents - the change did not apply to SALL's first term. SALL won his bid for re-election in February 2019; his term will end in 2024. A month after the election, the National Assembly voted to abolish the office of the prime minister. Opposition organizations and civil society have criticized the decision as a further concentration of power in the executive branch at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.
Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian General Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite eventually setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free, multiparty election. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was reelected, pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from a long-term illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place. Following mediation by the Economic Community of Western African States, a civilian transitional government assumed power in 2012 and remained until Jose Mario VAZ won a free and fair election in 2014. Beginning in 2015, a political dispute between factions in the ruling PAIGC party brought government gridlock. It was not until April 2018 that a consensus prime minister could be appointed, the national legislature reopened (having been closed for two years), and a new government formed under Prime Minister Aristides GOMES. In March 2019, the government held legislative elections, voting in the PAIGC as the ruling party; however, President VAZ continues to perpetuate a political stalemate by refusing to name PAICG President Domingos SIMOES PEREIRA Prime Minister.

Geography

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Location
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Geographic coordinates
14 00 N, 14 00 W
12 00 N, 15 00 W
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
total: 36,125 sq km
land: 28,120 sq km
water: 8,005 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana
slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries
total: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
total: 762 km
border countries (2): Guinea 421 km, Senegal 341 km
Coastline
531 km
350 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
mostly low-lying coastal plain with a deeply indented estuarine coastline rising to savanna in east; numerous off-shore islands including the Arquipelago Dos Bijagos consisting of 18 main islands and many small islets
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 69 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m
mean elevation: 70 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 m
Natural resources
fish, phosphates, iron ore
fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Land use
agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 44.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 8.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 6.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 55.2% (2011 est.)
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
1,200 sq km (2012)
250 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Environment - current issues
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching
deforestation (rampant felling of trees for timber and agricultural purposes); soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland
Population distribution
the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map
approximately one-fifth of the population lives in the capital city of Bissau along the Atlantic coast; the remainder is distributed among the eight other, mainly rural, regions as shown in this population distribution map

Demographics

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Population
15,736,368 (July 2020 est.)
1,927,104 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 40.38% (male 3,194,454/female 3,160,111)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 1,596,896/female 1,606,084)
25-54 years: 31.95% (male 2,327,424/female 2,700,698)
55-64 years: 4.21% (male 283,480/female 378,932)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 212,332/female 275,957) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 43.17% (male 417,810/female 414,105)
15-24 years: 20.38% (male 192,451/female 200,370)
25-54 years: 30.24% (male 275,416/female 307,387)
55-64 years: 3.12% (male 29,549/female 30,661)
65 years and over: 3.08% (male 25,291/female 34,064) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 19.4 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 18 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 18.6 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.31% (2020 est.)
2.51% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
31.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
36.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 93.8 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 95.3 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 51.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 63.2 years
male: 61.1 years
female: 65.4 years (2020 est.)
total population: 62.8 years
male: 60.6 years
female: 65.1 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
4.75 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.4% (2019 est.)
3.4% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)
adjective: Bissau-Guinean
Ethnic groups
Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)
Fulani 28.5%, Balanta 22.5%, Mandinga 14.7%, Papel 9.1%, Manjaco 8.3%, Beafada 3.5%, Mancanha 3.1%, Bijago 2.1%, Felupe 1.7%, Mansoanca 1.4%, Balanta Mane 1%, other 1.8%, none 2.2% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
41,000 (2019 est.)
40,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)
Muslim 45.1%, Christian 22.1%, animist 14.9%, none 2%, unspecified 15.9% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
1,200 (2019 est.)
1,500 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
Crioulo (lingua franca), Portuguese (official; largely used as a second or third language), Pular (a Fula language), Mandingo
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.9%
male: 64.8%
female: 39.8% (2017)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.9%
male: 71.8%
female: 48.3% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
Education expenditures
4.8% of GDP (2017)
2.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanization
urban population: 48.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 44.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 74.5% of population
total: 83.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 6.7% of population
rural: 25.5% of population
total: 16.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 91.2% of population
rural: 60.3% of population
total: 73.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.5% of population
rural: 39.7% of population
total: 26.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 91.2% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 68.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.8% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 31.6% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 66.5% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 36.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 33.5% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 63.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
3.140 million DAKAR (capital) (2020)
600,000 BISSAU (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
315 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
667 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
13.3% (2019)
17% (2014)
Health expenditures
4.1% (2017)
7.2% (2017)
Physicians density
0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.13 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.8% (2016)
9.5% (2016)
Demographic profile

Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.

Guinea-Bissau’s young and growing population is sustained by high fertility; approximately 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Its large reproductive-age population and total fertility rate of more than 4 children per woman offsets the country’s high infant and maternal mortality rates. The latter is among the world’s highest because of the prevalence of early childbearing, a lack of birth spacing, the high percentage of births outside of health care facilities, and a shortage of medicines and supplies.

Guinea-Bissau’s history of political instability, a civil war, and several coups (the latest in 2012) have resulted in a fragile state with a weak economy, high unemployment, rampant corruption, widespread poverty, and thriving drug and child trafficking. With the country lacking educational infrastructure, school funding and materials, and qualified teachers, and with the cultural emphasis placed on religious education, parents frequently send boys to study in residential Koranic schools (daaras) in Senegal and The Gambia. They often are extremely deprived and are forced into street begging or agricultural work by marabouts (Muslim religious teachers), who enrich themselves at the expense of the children. Boys who leave their marabouts often end up on the streets of Dakar or other large Senegalese towns and are vulnerable to even worse abuse.

Some young men lacking in education and job prospects become involved in the flourishing international drug trade. Local drug use and associated violent crime are growing.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
27.8% (2017)
16% (2014)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 84.2
youth dependency ratio: 78.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 81.2
youth dependency ratio: 76
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2
potential support ratio: 19.1 (202 est.)

Government

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; "Bissau," the name of the capital city, distinguishes the country from neighboring Guinea
Government type
presidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capital
name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists
name: Bissau
geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the meaning of Bissau is uncertain, it might be an alternative name for the Papel people who live in the area of the city of Bissau
Administrative divisions
14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama/Bijagos, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali
Independence
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holiday
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Constitution
history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019
history: promulgated 16 May 1984; note - constitution suspended following military coup in April 2012 and restored in 2014
amendments: proposed by the National People’s Assembly if supported by at least one third of its members, by the Council of State (a presidential consultant body), or by the government; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government and national sovereignty cannot be amended; amended 1991, 1993, 1996
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)
election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%
chief of state: President Umaro Cissoko EMBALO (since 27 February 2020); note - President EMBALO was declared winner of the 29 December 2019 runoff presidential election by the electoral commission; however, on 28 February 2020, Cipriano CASSAMA was appointed as interim president by the parliament until the Supreme Court rules on the legitimacy of the elections due to alleged irregularities in voting; CASSAMA resigned the following day stating he had received death threats
head of government: Prime Minister Nuno NABIAM (since 27 February 2020)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 24 November 2019 with a runoff on 29 December 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People's Assembly; note - the president cannot apply for a third consecutive term, nor during the 5 years following the end of the second term
election results: Umaro Sissoco EMBALO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Domingos Simoes PEREIRA (PAIGC) 40.1%, Umaro Sissoco EMBALO (Madem G15) 27.7%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (APU-PDGB) 13.2%, Jose Mario VAZ (independent) 12.4%, other 6.6%; percent of vote in second round - Umaro Sissoco EMBALO 53.6%, Domingos Simoes PEREIRA 46.5%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9; composition - men 96, women 69, percent of women 41.8%
description: unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (102 seats; 100 members directly elected in 27 multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote and 2 elected in single-seat constituencies for citizens living abroad (1 for Africa, 1 for Europe); all members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2023)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 35.2%, Madem G-15 21.1%, PRS 21.1%, other 22.6%; seats by party - PAIGC 47, Madem G-15 27, PRS 21, other 7; composition - men 88, women 14, percent of women 13.7%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court
highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers); note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdiction
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and judiciary discipline; judges appointed by the president for life
subordinate courts: Appeals Court; regional (first instance) courts; military court
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY]
Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
Only Senegal movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or (PASTEF) [Ousmane SONKO]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cabo Verde or PAIGC [Domingos SIMOES PEREIRA]
Democratic Convergence Party or PCD [Vicente FERNANDES]
Movement for Democratic Alternation Group of 15 or MADEM-G15 [Braima CAMARA]
National People’s Assembly – Democratic Party of Guinea Bissau or APU-PDGB [Nuno Gomes NABIAM]
New Democracy Party or PND [Mamadu Iaia DJALO]
Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Alberto NAMBEIA]
Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
Union for Change or UM [Agnelo REGALA]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Mansour KANE (since 6 January 2020)
chancery: 2215 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
embassy: the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; yellow symbolizes the sun; green denotes hope; red represents blood shed during the struggle for independence; the black star stands for African unity

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the flag design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flag

National anthem
name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

name: "Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada" (This Is Our Beloved Country)
lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He

note: adopted 1974; a delegation from then Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRAL, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)
lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
black star; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Economy - overview

Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018.

The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.

Guinea-Bissau is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture, cashew nut exports, and foreign assistance. Two out of three Bissau-Guineans remain below the absolute poverty line. The legal economy is based on cashews and fishing. Illegal logging and trafficking in narcotics also play significant roles. The combination of limited economic prospects, weak institutions, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe.

Guinea-Bissau has substantial potential for development of mineral resources, including phosphates, bauxite, and mineral sands. Offshore oil and gas exploration has begun. The country’s climate and soil make it feasible to grow a wide range of cash crops, fruit, vegetables, and tubers; however, cashews generate more than 80% of export receipts and are the main source of income for many rural communities.

The government was deposed in August 2015, and since then, a political stalemate has resulted in weak governance and reduced donor support.

The country is participating in a three-year, IMF extended credit facility program that was suspended because of a planned bank bailout. The program was renewed in 2017, but the major donors of direct budget support (the EU, World Bank, and African Development Bank) have halted their programs indefinitely. Diversification of the economy remains a key policy goal, but Guinea-Bissau’s poor infrastructure and business climate will constrain this effort.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$54.8 billion (2017 est.)
$51.15 billion (2016 est.)
$48.15 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$3.171 billion (2017 est.)
$2.994 billion (2016 est.)
$2.817 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
7.2% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
6.4% (2015 est.)
5.9% (2017 est.)
6.3% (2016 est.)
6.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$3,500 (2017 est.)
$3,300 (2016 est.)
$3,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$1,900 (2017 est.)
$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)
services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 50% (2017 est.)
industry: 13.1% (2017 est.)
services: 36.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
46.7% (2011 est.)
67% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28% (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.3% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force
6.966 million (2017 est.)
731,300 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 77.5%
industry: 22.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 82%
industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate
48% (2007 est.)

NA

Budget
revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 246.2 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 263.5 million (2017 est.)
Industries
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Industrial production growth rate
7.7% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
rice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Exports
$2.362 billion (2017 est.)
$2.498 billion (2016 est.)
$328.1 million (2017 est.)
$278.6 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
fish, shrimp; cashews, peanuts, palm kernels, raw and sawn lumber
Exports - partners
Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
India 67.1%, Vietnam 21.1% (2017)
Imports
$5.217 billion (2017 est.)
$4.966 billion (2016 est.)
$283.5 million (2017 est.)
$136.5 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Imports - partners
France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
Portugal 47.8%, Senegal 12.1%, China 10.4%, Netherlands 8.1%, Pakistan 5.4% (2017)
Debt - external
$8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)
Exchange rates
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
617.4 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
53.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
57.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$356.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$349.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.547 billion (2017 est.)
-$769 million (2016 est.)
-$27 million (2017 est.)
$16 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$21.11 billion (2017 est.)
$1.35 billion (2017 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

NA

Central bank discount rate
0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$6.695 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.219 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$250.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$232.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$583.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$489.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$583.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$489.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
18.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 83.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 4.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 26.4% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -26.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
8.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Electricity - production
4.167 billion kWh (2016 est.)
39 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
3.497 billion kWh (2016 est.)
36.27 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
17,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
977,000 kW (2016 est.)
28,300 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
99% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
48,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2,625 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
8.644 million Mt (2017 est.)
397,900 Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 5 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 71% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 94% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2019)
population without electricity: 1 million (2019)
electrification - total population: 28% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 56% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2019)

Telecommunications

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 195,288
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.27 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 0
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 16,871,654
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109.72 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,555,961
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82.79 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.sn
.gw
Internet users
total: 6,909,635
percent of population: 46% (July 2018 est.)
total: 72,047
percent of population: 3.93% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services for 50% of population; growth in the intel market along with economic growth for the country; regulator awards more MVNO licenses, deactivated some 5 million unregistered SIM cards (2020)
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile cellular communications; 2 mobile network operators; one of the poorest countries in the world and this is reflected in the countries telecommunications development; radio is the most important source of information for the public (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile cellular teledensity is roughly 83 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 245; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea-Bissau with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 129,820
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
total: 1,204
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)
1 state-owned TV station, Televisao da Guine-Bissau (TGB) and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)

Transportation

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Roadways
total: 16,665 km (2017)
paved: 6,126 km (includes 241 km of expressways) (2017)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
total: 4,400 km (2018)
paved: 453 km (2018)
unpaved: 3,947 km (2018)
Waterways
1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
(rivers are partially navigable; many inlets and creeks provide shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Dakar
major seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
Merchant marine
total: 32
by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 27 (2019)
total: 8
by type: general cargo 5, other 3 (2019)
Airports
total: 20 (2013)
total: 8 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 9 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 2 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 11 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 6 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
6V (2016)
J5 (2016)

Military

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Military branches
Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components) (2020)
People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Guard Nacional (Ministry of Internal Administration) (2020)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2016)
18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018)
1.5% of GDP (2017)
1.6% of GDP (2016)
1.2% of GDP (2015)
1.4% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.6% of GDP (2015)
2% of GDP (2014)
2.1% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

SenegalGuinea-Bissau
Disputes - international

cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

a longstanding low-grade conflict continues in parts ofCasamance, in Senegal across the border; some rebels use Guinea-Bissau as a safe haven

Illicit drugs
transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations due to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography near the capital facilitates drug smuggling
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 14,114 (Mauritania) (2020)
IDPs: 8,400 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region in the 1990s and early 2000s) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 7,696 (Senegal) (2020)

Source: CIA Factbook