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Senegal vs. Guinea

Introduction

SenegalGuinea
BackgroundThe French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict, but an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.
Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that peaked in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people. In early December 2009, CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy. The country held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions.

Geography

SenegalGuinea
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Geographic coordinates14 00 N, 14 00 W
11 00 N, 10 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Dakota
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 2,684 km
border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
total: 4,046 km
border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
Coastline531 km
320 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terraingenerally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 69 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m
mean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resourcesfish, phosphates, iron ore
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
Land useagricultural land: 46.8%
arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
forest: 43.8%
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.1%
arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 2.8%; permanent pasture 43.5%
forest: 26.5%
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,200 sq km (2012)
950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Environment - current issueswildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notewesternmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
Population distributionthe population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural
areas of highest density are in the west and south; interior is sparsely populated

Demographics

SenegalGuinea
Population14,668,522 (July 2017 est.)
12,413,867 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.51% (male 3,060,118/female 3,028,975)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 1,486,393/female 1,496,393)
25-54 years: 31.19% (male 2,102,757/female 2,472,683)
55-64 years: 3.98% (male 251,673/female 332,113)
65 years and over: 2.98% (male 194,491/female 242,926) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 41.52% (male 2,603,506/female 2,550,714)
15-24 years: 19.73% (male 1,236,092/female 1,212,936)
25-54 years: 30.59% (male 1,905,249/female 1,892,638)
55-64 years: 4.48% (male 266,848/female 289,697)
65 years and over: 3.67% (male 201,598/female 254,589) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.8 years
male: 18 years
female: 19.7 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 19.1 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.39% (2017 est.)
2.61% (2017 est.)
Birth rate33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
35.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 49.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 50 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.1 years
male: 60 years
female: 64.3 years (2017 est.)
total population: 61 years
male: 59.5 years
female: 62.6 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate4.28 children born/woman (2017 est.)
4.77 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groupsWolof 38.6%, Pular 26.6%, Serer 14.9%, Mandinka 4.6%, Jola 4.1%, Soninke 2.3%, other 8.9% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
Fulani (Peul) 32.1%, Malinke 29.8%, Susu 19.8%, Guerze 6.2%, Kissi 4.7%, Toma 2.8%, other/no answer 4.6% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS41,000 (2016 est.)
120,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 95.3% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.3% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
Muslim 86.2%, Christian 9.7%, animist/other/none 4.1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,900 (2016 est.)
5,800 (2016 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
French (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 69.7%
female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Education expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
3.2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 44.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.53% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 38.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.7% of population
rural: 67.4% of population
total: 76.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 32.6% of population
total: 23.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 65.4% of population
rural: 33.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population
rural: 66.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 34.1% of population
rural: 11.8% of population
total: 20.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 65.9% of population
rural: 88.2% of population
total: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
CONAKRY (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
679 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.5% (2015)
18.7% (2012)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.8% (2016)
7.7% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 657,216
percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
total number: 571,774
percentage: 25% (2003 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2016 est.)
18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Demographic profileSenegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.
Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).
Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.
Guinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.
Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile “Parrot’s Beak” region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence.
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.3% (2015)
5.6% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 85.4
youth dependency ratio: 79.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 84.2
youth dependency ratio: 78.6
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)

Government

SenegalGuinea
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from ""Azenegue,"" the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
"
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
Independence4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
2 October 1958 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 4 April (1960)
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the prime minister through the president, or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
history: previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; consideration of proposals requires approval by simple majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval in referendum; the president can opt to submit amendments directly to the Assembly, in which case approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
civil law system based on the French model
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Macky SALL elected president in second round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Mamady YOULA (since 26 December 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 October 2015 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 57.8%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 31.4%, other 10.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9
description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other parties 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court; note - in early 2013, the Extraordinary African Chambers were established by agreement of the African Union and the Government of Senegal to try cases of high-level officials involved in crimes committed in Chad during the period 1982-1990
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, at least 4 councillors, the solicitor general, and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: includes Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Manko Taxawu Senegaal or MTS [Khalifa SALL] (coalition includes BGC, Du Nakk, FSD/BJ, GP, MCRN/Bes, Rewmi)
National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Winning Coalition Wattu Senegal or CGWS [Abdoulaye WADE] (includes AJ/PADS, AJ/PADS-A, Bokk Gis Gis, PDS, Tekki Movement)
Bloc Liberal or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Political pressure groups and leadersCatholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamady CONDE (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since December 2015)
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, across from the Radio Television de Guinee
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
National anthem"name: ""Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
"
"name: ""Liberte"" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
elephant; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: na

Economy

SenegalGuinea
Economy - overviewSenegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 6.5% in 2015 and surpassed that in 2016-17, due in part to a buoyant performance in agriculture because of higher rainfall and productivity in the sector.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF during 2015-17 under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s second review mission in March 2016. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.

The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue the structural transformation of the economy. These 19 projects include the Thies-Touba Highway, including the new airport- Mbour-Thies Highway. Senegal increased the national family allowances program and the community development emergency program in 2016. Electricity supply is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a program led by USAID and OPIC, plans to increase the current 500 MW of generating capacity to over 1,000 mW in the next three to five years. Recent gas discoveries on the Senegal-Mauritanian border, as well as just south of Dakar, will help alleviate some of the energy shortages.
Guinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea also complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts and was found to be compliant. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, and low international commodity prices. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in the 2014-15 period and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 6.6% in 2016 and 6.7% in 2017, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The 240-megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency, combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment boosted economic growth, while the mining sector continued to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$43.07 billion (2017 est.)
$40.33 billion (2016 est.)
$37.78 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$26.45 billion (2017 est.)
$24.8 billion (2016 est.)
$23.26 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.8% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2017 est.)
6.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,700 (2017 est.)
$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$2,000 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 16.9%
industry: 24.3%
services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 19.5%
industry: 38.4%
services: 42.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line46.7% (2011 est.)
47% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.1% (2017 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2017 est.)
8.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force6.966 million (2017 est.)
5.558 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate48% (2007 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index40.3 (2011)
39.4 (2007)
40.3 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $3.863 billion
expenditures: $4.474 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $1.559 billion
expenditures: $1.868 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesagricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate8.4% (2017 est.)
8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productspeanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
rice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
Exports$2.546 billion (2017 est.)
$2.498 billion (2016 est.)
$2.115 billion (2017 est.)
$1.954 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
Exports - partnersMali 18.2%, Switzerland 10.6%, India 8.2%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, China 5% (2016)
China 24.6%, Ghana 17.9%, Switzerland 10.1%, UAE 7.7%, France 5.2%, Spain 4.3%, India 4.1% (2016)
Imports$5.227 billion (2017 est.)
$4.993 billion (2016 est.)
$2.475 billion (2017 est.)
$2.109 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood and beverages, capital goods, fuels
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
Imports - partnersFrance 15.9%, China 10.3%, Nigeria 7.8%, India 7.6%, Netherlands 5.3%, Spain 4.9% (2016)
Netherlands 14.6%, China 13.5%, India 12.4%, Belgium 8.6%, France 6.9%, UAE 5.4%, Singapore 4.9% (2016)
Debt - external$6.745 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.462 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
617.4 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
9,230 (2017 est.)
9,085 (2016 est.)
9,085 (2015 est.)
7,485.5 (2014 est.)
7,014.1 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
58.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
56% of GDP (2016 est.)
54.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$151.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$416.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$383.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$817 million (2017 est.)
-$783 million (2016 est.)
-$2.297 billion (2017 est.)
-$2.706 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$16.06 billion (2016 est.)
$9.183 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
22.25% (31 December 2005)
Commercial bank prime lending rate16.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
21.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
21.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.55 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.808 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.931 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.305 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.736 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.771 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$8.035 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.244 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.315 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.12 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
17% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 12.7%
male: 8.3%
female: 19% (2011 est.)
total: 1%
male: 1.5%
female: 0.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 76.5%
government consumption: 16.1%
investment in fixed capital: 26.2%
investment in inventories: -2%
exports of goods and services: 28.9%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 106.1%
government consumption: 7.6%
investment in fixed capital: 13.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 33.3%
imports of goods and services: -60.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving22% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
-1.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
-6.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

SenegalGuinea
Electricity - production3.673 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.014 billion kWh (2015 est.)
930 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports18,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2012 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production62 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption497 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity965,000 kW (2015 est.)
740,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels88.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
50% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants7.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
49.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources8.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production16,850 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption44,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,892 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports30,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,130 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 6,400,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 28% (2013)
population without electricity: 8,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 11% (2013)

Telecommunications

SenegalGuinea
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 285,933
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 0
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 15,186,485
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2016 est.)
total: 10.8 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas
international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: huge improvement over the last 10 years; the capital and the regional administrative centers have 3G access
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now approaches 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Internet country code.sn
.gn
Internet userstotal: 3,675,209
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,185,148
percent of population: 9.8% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2017)
government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)

Transportation

SenegalGuinea
Railwaystotal: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017)
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
total: 1,086 km
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 16,496 km
paved: 5,957 km (includes 72 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
total: 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
Waterways1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dakar
major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
Merchant marinetotal: 26
by type: general cargo 3, oil tanker 1, other 22 (2017)
total: 1
by type: other 1 (2017)
Airports20 (2013)
16 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix6V (2016)
3X (2016)

Military

SenegalGuinea
Military branchesSenegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
no compulsory military service (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.89% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.73% of GDP (2016)
1.58% of GDP (2015)
1.57% of GDP (2014)
1.6% of GDP (2013)
2.49% of GDP (2016)
3.31% of GDP (2015)
2.97% of GDP (2014)
3.16% of GDP (2013)
2.98% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

SenegalGuinea
Disputes - internationalcross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Source: CIA Factbook