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Russia vs. France

Introduction

RussiaFrance
Background

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Devastating defeats and food shortages in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the ROMANOV Dynasty. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin's rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 led to the dissolution of the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent states.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-7, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

Geography

RussiaFrance
Location
North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean

metropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain;

French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname;

Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico;

Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago;

Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique;

Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates
60 00 N, 100 00 E

metropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E;

French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W;

Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W;

Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W;

Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E;

Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references
Asia

metropolitan France: Europe;

French Guiana: South America;

Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean;

Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean;

Mayotte: Africa;

Reunion: World

Area
total: 17,098,242 sq km
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500 sq km
total: 643,801 sq km
land: 640,427 sq km
water: 3,374 sq km
551,500 sq km (metropolitan France) 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France) 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)

note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion

Area - comparative
approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
slightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total: 22,408 km
border countries (15): Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1312 km, China (southeast) 4133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Ukraine 1944 km
border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km
metropolitan France - total: 2751
French Guiana - total: 1205
Coastline
37,653 km
4,853 km
metropolitan France: 3,427 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral;

French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation;

Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average;

Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November);

Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)

Terrain
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east;

French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains;

Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin;

Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano;

Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks;

Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 600 m
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Gora El'brus (highest point in Europe) 5,642 m
mean elevation: 375 m
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,810
note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit
Natural resources
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, bauxite, reserves of rare earth elements, timber, note, formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
metropolitan France, coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish, French Guiana, gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
Land use
agricultural land: 13.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 7.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 5.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 49.4% (2011 est.)
other: 37.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 52.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 33.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 17.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 29.2% (2011 est.)
other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
43,000 sq km (2012)
26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km (2012)
metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean;

overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding;

volcanism: Montagne Pelee (1,394 m) on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc, it last erupted in 1932; a catastrophic eruption in May 1902 destroyed the city of St. Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people;; La Soufriere (1,467 m) on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean last erupted from July 1976 to March 1977;; these volcanoes are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

Environment - current issues
air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; nuclear waste disposal; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note

note 1: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

note 2: Russia's far east, particularly the Kamchatka Peninsula, lies along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh surface water

note 4: Kaliningrad oblast is an exclave annexed from Germany following World War II (it was formerly part of East Prussia); its capital city of Kaliningrad - formerly Koenigsberg - is the only Baltic port in Russia that remains ice free in the winter

largest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea
Population distribution
population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south
much of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second

Demographics

RussiaFrance
Population
142,122,776 (July 2018 est.)
67,364,357 (July 2018 est.)

note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233

Age structure
0-14 years: 17.21% (male 12,566,314 /female 11,896,416)
15-24 years: 9.41% (male 6,840,759 /female 6,530,991)
25-54 years: 44.21% (male 30,868,831 /female 31,960,407)
55-64 years: 14.51% (male 8,907,031 /female 11,709,921)
65 years and over: 14.66% (male 6,565,308 /female 14,276,798) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 18.48% (male 6,366,789 /female 6,082,729)
15-24 years: 11.8% (male 4,065,780 /female 3,884,488)
25-54 years: 37.48% (male 12,731,825 /female 12,515,501)
55-64 years: 12.42% (male 4,035,073 /female 4,331,751)
65 years and over: 19.82% (male 5,781,410 /female 7,569,011) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 39.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 36.9 years
female: 42.7 years
total: 41.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 39.7 years
female: 43.2 years
Population growth rate
-0.11% (2018 est.)
0.37% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 65.6 years
female: 77.3 years
total population: 82 years (2018 est.)
male: 78.9 years
female: 85.3 years
Total fertility rate
1.61 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.06 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.2% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups
Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% (2010 est.)

note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census

Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

note: overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1 million (2017 est.)
180,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of official atheism under Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as the country's traditional religions

Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28% (2015 est.)

note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state

HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<500 (2018 est.)
Languages
Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1% (2010 est.)

note: data represent native language spoken

French (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard)

note: overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2016)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2016)
Education expenditures
3.8% of GDP (2015)
5.5% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 75.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 80.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.72% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 96.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 77% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 58.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 72.2% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 23% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 27.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 98.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 98.7% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
12.476 million MOSCOW (capital), 5.427 million Saint Petersburg, 1.65 million Novosibirsk, 1.493 million Yekaterinburg, 1.261 million Nizhniy Novgorod, 1.167 million Samara (2019)
10.958 million PARIS (capital), 1.705 million Lyon, 1.603 million Marseille-Aix-en-Provence, 1.058 million Lille, 1.011 million Toulouse, 957,000 Bordeaux (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
5.6% (2015)
11.1% (2015)
Physicians density
4.01 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
3.23 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
8.2 beds/1,000 population (2013)
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
23.1% (2016)
21.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
24.6 years (2009 est.)
28.1 years (2010 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
68% (2011)

note: percent of women aged 15-44

78.4% (2010/11)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 24.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 59.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 29.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 30.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)

Government

RussiaFrance
Country name
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
etymology: Russian lands were generally referred to as Muscovy until PETER I officially declared the Russian Empire in 1721; the new name sought to invoke the patrimony of the medieval eastern European Rus state centered on Kyiv in present-day Ukraine; the Rus were a Varangian (eastern Viking) elite that imposed their rule and eventually their name on their Slavic subjects
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique francaise
local short form: France
etymology: name derives from the Latin "Francia" meaning "Land of the Franks"; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
Government type
semi-presidential federation
semi-presidential republic
Capital
name: Moscow
geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

note: Russia has 11 time zones, the largest number of contiguous time zones of any country in the world; in 2014, two time zones were added and DST dropped

etymology: named after the Moskva River; the origin of the river's name is obscure but may derive from the appellation "Mustajoki" given to the river by the Finno-Ugric people who originally inhabited the area and whose meaning may have been "dark" or "turbid"

name: Paris
geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to metropolitan France only; for its overseas regions the time difference is UTC-4 for Guadeloupe and Martinique, UTC-3 for French Guiana, UTC+3 for Mayotte, and UTC+4 for Reunion

etymology:
name derives from the Parisii, a Celtic tribe that inhabited the area from the 3rd century B.C., but who were conquered by the Romans in the 1st century B.C.; the Celtic settlement became the Roman town of Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parisii); over subsequent centuries it became Parisium and then just Paris


Administrative divisions

46 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respubliki, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnyye okrugi, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (kraya, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl';

republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk);

autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi-Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard);

krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk [Transbaikal] (Chita);

federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg];

autonomous oblast: Yevreyskaya [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

note: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the "Republic of Crimea" and the "Federal City of Sevastopol"

18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion

note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the "collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)

Independence
25 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union; Russian SFSR renamed Russian Federation); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
National holiday
Russia Day, 12 June (1990); note - commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR)
Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
Constitution
history: several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet era); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993
amendments: proposed by the president of the Russian Federation, by either house of the Federal Assembly, by the government of the Russian Federation, or by legislative (representative) bodies of the Federation's constituent entities; proposals to amend the government’s constitutional system, human and civil rights and freedoms, and procedures for amending or drafting a new constitution require formation of a Constitutional Assembly; passage of such amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of its total membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of valid votes; approval of proposed amendments to the government structure, authorities, and procedures requires approval by the legislative bodies of at least two thirds of the Russian Federation's constituent entities; amended 2008, 2014 (2017)
history: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008; note - in May 2018, the prime minister submitted a bill to the National Assembly to amend several provisions of the constitution (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Anton Germanovich SILUANOV (since 18 May 2018); Deputy Premiers Maksim Alekseyevich AKIMOV (since 18 May 2018), Yuriy Ivanovich BORISOV (since 18 May 2018), Konstantin Anatolyevich CHUYCHENKO (since 18 May 2018), Tatyana Alekseyevna GOLIKOVA (since 18 May 2018), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksey Vasilevich GORDEYEV (since 18 May 2018), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Vitaliy Leontyevich MUTKO (since 19 October 2016); Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2024); note - term length extended to 6 years from 4 years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Vladimir PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (independent) 77.5%, Pavel GRUDININ (CPRF) 11.9%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 5.7%, other 5.8%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) reapproved as premier by Duma on 8 May 2018; vote - 374 to 56

note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard PHILIPPE (since 15 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April with a runoff on 7 May 2017 (next to be held in April 2022); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emmanuel MACRON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24.%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20.%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%, LE PEN 33.9%
Legislative branch
description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of:
Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (170 seats; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units (see note below) - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms)
State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats (see note below); as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election, in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections:
State Duma - last held on 18 September 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
election results:
Federation Council (members appointed); composition - men 145, women 25, percent of women 14.7%

State Duma - United Russia 54.2%, CPRF 13.3%, LDPR 13.1%, A Just Russia 6.2%, Rodina 1.5%, CP 0.2%, other minor parties 11.5%; seats by party - United Russia 343, CPRF 42, LDPR 39, A Just Russia 23, Rodina 1, CP 1, independent 1
note 1: the State Duma now includes 3 representatives from the "Republic of Crimea," while the Federation Council includes 2 each from the "Republic of Crimea" and the "Federal City of Sevastopol," both regions that Russia occupied and attempted to annex from Ukraine and that the US does not recognize as part of Russia

note 2: seats by party as of December 2018 - United Russia 341, CPRF 43, LDPR 39, A Just Russia 23, independent 2, vacant 2; composition as of October 2018 - men 393, women 57, percent of women 12.7%; note - total Federal Assembly percent of women 13.2%
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held on 24 September 2020)
National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (next to be held in June 2022)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by political caucus (party or group of parties)  - LR 144, PS 73, UC 51. LREM 23, RDSE 22, CRCE 16, RTLI 13, other 6; composition - men 246, women 102, percent of women 29.3%
National Assembly - percent of vote by party first round - LREM 28.2%, LR 15.8%. FN 13.2%, FI 11%, PS 7.4%, other 24.4%; percent of vote by party second round - LREM 43.1%, LR 22.2%, FN 8.8%, MoDEM 6.1%, PS 5.7%. FI 4.9%, other 9.2%; seats by political caucus (party or group of parties) - LREM 306, LR 104, MoDEM 46, UDI/Agir 29, PS 29, UDI 18, FI 17, Liberties and Territories 16, PCF 16, other 14; composition - men 349, women 228, percent of women 39.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 35.7%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 170 members organized into the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Judicial Panel for Criminal Affairs, and the Military Panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); note - in February 2014, Russia’s Superior Court of Arbitration was abolished and its former authorities transferred to the Supreme Court, which in addition is the country’s highest judicial authority for appeals, civil, criminal, administrative, and military cases, and the disciplinary judicial board, which has jurisdiction over economic disputes
judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's 3 highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all 3 courts appointed for life
subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 21 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions
highest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance; administrative courts

note: in April 2018, the French Government announced its intention to reform the country's judicial system

Political parties and leaders
A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
Civic Platform or CP [Rifat SHAYKHUTDINOV]
Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
Rodina [Aleksei ZHURAVLYOV]
United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]

note: 64 political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of September 2018), but only four parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature

Presidential majority Parties [Edouard PHILIPPE]
     La Republique en Marche! or REM [Richard FERRAND]
     Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU]
     Movement of Progressives or MDP  Robert HUE]
Parliamentary right Parties [Francois BAROIN]
     The Republicans or LR [Annie GENEVARD]
     Union of Democrats and Independents or UDI [Jean-Christophe CAMBADELIS]
      Hunting, Fishing, Nature and Tradition or (CPNT) [Eddie PUYJAION]
     CE
Parliamentary left Parties [Bernard CAZENEUVE]
     Sociatlist Party or PS [Jean-Christophe CAMBADEMAND]
     Radical Party of the Left or PRG [Sylvia PINEL]
     Citizen and Republican Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
     Martinican Progressive Party or PPM [Aiem CESAIRE]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]
La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHONLIS]
Europe Ecologists - the Greens or EELV [David CORMAND]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
Debout la France or DLF [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
International organization participation
APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Anatoliy Ivanovich ANTONOV (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, Seattle
Ambassador Philippe ETIENNE (since 8 July 2019)
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Jon M. HUNTSMAN, Jr. (since 3 October 2017)
telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721
FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
chief of mission: Ambassador Jamie D. McCOURT (since 18 December 2017); note - also accredited to Monaco
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
consulate(s): Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired several other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas

note: the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands

National anthem
name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)
lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV

note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

name: "La Marseillaise" (The Song of Marseille)
lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle

note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as "Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
bear, double-headed eagle; national colors: white, blue, red
Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

RussiaFrance
Economy - overview

Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a centrally planned economy towards a more market-based system. Both economic growth and reform have stalled in recent years, however, and Russia remains a predominantly statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy, transportation, banking, and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak, and the state continues to interfere in the free operation of the private sector.

Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia is heavily dependent on the movement of world commodity prices as reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during the 1998-2008 period as oil prices rose rapidly, has seen diminishing growth rates since then due to the exhaustion of Russia’s commodity-based growth model.

A combination of falling oil prices, international sanctions, and structural limitations pushed Russia into a deep recession in 2015, with GDP falling by close to 2.8%. The downturn continued through 2016, with GDP contracting another 0.2%, but was reversed in 2017 as world demand picked up. Government support for import substitution has increased recently in an effort to diversify the economy away from extractive industries.

The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. France is the most visited country in the world with 89 million foreign tourists in 2017. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality.

France's real GDP grew by 1.9% in 2017, up from 1.2% the year before. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2015, before falling to 9.0% in 2017. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from 24.6% in the fourth quarter of 2014 to 20.6% in the fourth quarter of 2017.

France’s public finances have historically been strained by high spending and low growth. In 2017, the budget deficit improved to 2.7% of GDP, bringing it in compliance with the EU-mandated 3% deficit target. Meanwhile, France's public debt rose from 89.5% of GDP in 2012 to 97% in 2017.

Since entering office in May 2017, President Emmanuel MACRON launched a series of economic reforms to improve competitiveness and boost economic growth. President MACRON campaigned on reforming France’s labor code and in late 2017 implemented a range of reforms to increase flexibility in the labor market by making it easier for firms to hire and fire and simplifying negotiations between employers and employees. In addition to labor reforms, President MACRON’s 2018 budget cuts public spending, taxes, and social security contributions to spur private investment and increase purchasing power. The government plans to gradually reduce corporate tax rate for businesses from 33.3% to 25% by 2022.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$4.016 trillion (2017 est.)
$3.955 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.963 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$2.856 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.791 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.761 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1.5% (2017 est.)
-0.2% (2016 est.)
-2.5% (2015 est.)
2.3% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$27,900 (2017 est.)
$27,500 (2016 est.)
$27,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$44,100 (2017 est.)
$43,200 (2016 est.)
$42,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 4.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 32.4% (2017 est.)
services: 62.3% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
services: 78.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
13.3% (2015 est.)
14.2% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2012 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.7% (2017 est.)
7.1% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force
76.53 million (2017 est.)
30.68 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 27.6%
services: 63% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.8% (2016 est.)
industry: 20% (2016 est.)
services: 77.2% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate
5.2% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
9.4% (2017 est.)
10.1% (2016 est.)

note: includes overseas territories

Distribution of family income - Gini index
41.2 (2015)
41.9 (2013)
29.3 (2016)
29.2 (2015)
Budget
revenues: 258.6 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 281.4 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 1.392 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.459 trillion (2017 est.)
Industries
complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate
-1% (2017 est.)
2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
Exports
$353 billion (2017 est.)
$281.9 billion (2016 est.)
$549.9 billion (2017 est.)
$507 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Exports - partners
China 10.9%, Netherlands 10%, Germany 7.1%, Belarus 5.1%, Turkey 4.9% (2017)
Germany 14.8%, Spain 7.7%, Italy 7.5%, US 7.2%, Belgium 7%, UK 6.7% (2017)
Imports
$238 billion (2017 est.)
$191.6 billion (2016 est.)
$601.7 billion (2017 est.)
$536.7 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Imports - partners
China 21.2%, Germany 10.7%, US 5.6%, Belarus 5%, Italy 4.5%, France 4.2% (2017)
Germany 18.5%, Belgium 10.2%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 7.9%, Spain 7.1%, UK 5.3%, US 5.2%, China 5.1% (2017)
Debt - external
$539.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$434.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.36 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.25 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rates
Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
58.39 (2017 est.)
67.056 (2016 est.)
67.056 (2015 est.)
60.938 (2014 est.)
38.378 (2013 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
15.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

96.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
96.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$432.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$377.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$156.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance
$35.44 billion (2017 est.)
$24.4 billion (2016 est.)
-$14.83 billion (2017 est.)
-$18.55 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$1.578 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.588 trillion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$535.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$461.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$858.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$807.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$470.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$418 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.429 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.259 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$635.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$393.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$385.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.591 trillion (31 March 2017 est.)
$2.088 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.086 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate
10% (31 December 2016 est.)
11% (3 August 2015)

note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes

0% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate
10.55% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.59% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.29% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$940.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$827.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.334 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.646 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$255.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.465 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money
$255.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.465 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
16.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
53.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-2.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 16.3%
male: 15.7%
female: 17% (2017 est.)
total: 22.3%
male: 23.1%
female: 21.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 52.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 18% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 2.3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 26.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -20.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 54.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 23.6% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.9% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -32% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
26.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

RussiaFrance
Electricity - production
1.031 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
529.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
909.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
450.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
13.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
61.41 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
3.194 billion kWh (2016 est.)
19.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
10.759 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
76,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.147 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
4.921 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
80 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
65.97 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
8.41 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
665.6 billion cu m (2017 est.)
16.99 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
467.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)
41.88 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
210.2 billion cu m (2017 est.)
6.031 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
15.77 billion cu m (2017 est.)
48.59 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
244.9 million kW (2016 est.)
130.8 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
68% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
21% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
15% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
50% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
6.076 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.311 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
3.65 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.705 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
2.671 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
440,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
41,920 bbl/day (2015 est.)
886,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
1.847 billion Mt (2017 est.)
341.2 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

RussiaFrance
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 31,190,855
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 38.687 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 227,341,873
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 160 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 69.017 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: telecom sector impacted by sanctions related to the annexations in Ukraine; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to 255 million in 2016; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains; Russia is one of Europe's fastest growing markets for fibre-based broadband; 5G trials; FttP/FttB, DSL, cable and LTE services (2018)
domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density; 22 per 100 for fixed-line and mobile-cellular 160 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 7; landing points for the Far East Submarine Cable System, HSCS, Sakhalin-Kuril Island Cable, RSCN, BCS North-Phase 2, Kerch Strait Cable and the Georgia-Russian submarine cable system connecting Russia, Japan, Finland, Georgia and Ukraine; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2019)
general assessment: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system; highly developed; 3rd largest in Europe; broadband subscriber rate remains strong at 4% (2018)
domestic: 58 per 100 persons for fixed-line and 103 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 33; landing points for Circe South, TAT-14, INGRID, FLAG Atlantic-1, Apollo, HUGO, IFC-1, ACE, SeaMeWe-3 & 4, Dunant, Africa-1, AAE-1, Atlas Offshore, Hawk, IMEWE, Med Cable, PEACE Cable, and TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medex submarine cables providing links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries (2019)
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; landing points for Ella Link, Kanawa, Americas II to South America, Europe, Caribbean and US; Guadeloupe - 590; landing points for GCN, Southern Caribbean Fiber, and ECFS around the Caribbean and US; Martinique - 596; landing points for Ameicas II, ECFS, and Southern Caribbean Fiber to South America, US and around the Caribbean;  Mayotte - 262; landing points for FLY-LION3 and LION2 to East Africa and East African Islands in Indian Ocean; Reunion - 262; landing points for SAFE, METISS, and LION submarine cables to Asia, South and East Africa, Southeast Asia and nearby Indian Ocean Island countries of Mauritius, and Madagascar  (2019)
Internet country code
.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
Internet users
total: 108,772,470
percent of population: 76.4% (July 2016 est.)
total: 57,226,585
percent of population: 85.6% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
13 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in 2 of the national channels; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while a sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian military, respectively, own 2 additional national channels; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations
a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks

Transportation

RussiaFrance
Railways
total: 87,157 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island) (2014)
broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified) (2014)

note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries

total: 29,640 km (2014)
standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways
total: 1,283,387 km (2012)
paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways) (2012)
unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)
total: 1,053,215 km (2011)
urban: 654,201 km (2011)
non-urban: 399,014 km (2011)
Waterways
102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
metropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
Pipelines
177700 km gas, 54800 km oil, 19300 km refined products (2016)
15322 km gas, 2939 km oil, 5084 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy
oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (1,848,700) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Sakhalin Island
river port(s): Saint Petersburg (Neva River)
major seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
container port(s) (TEUs): Le Havre (2,870,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne
river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine)
cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre
Strasbourg (Rhine) Bordeaux (Garronne)
Merchant marine
total: 2,625
by type: bulk carrier 15, container ship 13, general cargo 879, oil tanker 411, other 1307 (2018)
total: 555
by type: container ship 24, general cargo 73, oil tanker 29, other 429 (2018)

note: includes Monaco

Airports
total: 1,218 (2013)
total: 464 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 594 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 54 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 197 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 95 (2017)
under 914 m: 125 (2017)
total: 294 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 97 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 83 (2017)
under 914 m: 75 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 624 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 69 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 81 (2013)
under 914 m: 457 (2013)
total: 170 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 64 (2013)
under 914 m: 105 (2013)
Heliports
49 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 32 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 661 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 76,846,126 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,761,047,070 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 30 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 65,039,503 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,098,310,000 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
RA (2016)
F (2016)

Military

RussiaFrance
Military branches
Armed Forces of the Russian Federation:  Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Aerospace Forces (Vozdushno-Kosmicheskiye Sily, VKS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV) and Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches

Federal National Guard Troops Service of the Russian Federation (National Guard, Russian Guard, or Rosgvardiya): created in 2016 as an independent agency for internal/regime security, combating terrorism and narcotics trafficking, protecting important state facilities and government personnel, and supporting border security; forces include Interior Troops that formerly belong to the Interior Ministry, special police units, rapid response units, and other air, ground, maritime, and police forces

Federal Security Service (FSB) Border Guard Service: Coast Guard (2019)
Army (Armee de Terre; includes Foreign Legion), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense), National Guard (Reserves), National Gendarmerie (paramilitary police force that is a branch of the Armed Forces but under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior; also has additional duties to the Ministry of Defense) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; one-year service obligation (Russia offers the option of serving on a two-year contract instead of completing a one-year conscription period); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces (2019)

note: In April of 2019, the Russian government pledged its intent to end conscription. 

18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
3.93% of GDP (2018)
4.23% of GDP (2017)
5.45% of GDP (2016)
4.86% of GDP (2015)
4.1% of GDP (2014)
1.82% of GDP (2018)
1.79% of GDP (2017)
1.79% of GDP (2016)
1.79% of GDP (2015)
1.82% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

RussiaFrance
Disputes - international

Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia

Illicit drugs
limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates

metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics;

French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe;

Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 75,941 (Ukraine) (2019)
stateless persons: 75,679 (2018); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants
refugees (country of origin): 23,918 (Sri Lanka), 18,534 (Afghanistan), 16,484 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 15,898 (Russia), 15,822 (Syria), 14,700 (Sudan), 13,778 (Serbia and Kosovo), 11,196 (Turkey), 11,193 (Cambodia), 9,264 (Guinea), 8,131 (Iraq), 7,821 (Vietnam), 6,617 (Laos), 5,419 (Mauritania) (2018)
stateless persons: 1,493 (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook