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Romania vs. Hungary

Introduction

RomaniaHungary
Background
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.

Geography

RomaniaHungary
Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates
46 00 N, 25 00 E
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references
Europe
Europe
Area
total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
total: 93,028 sq km
land: 89,608 sq km
water: 3,420 sq km
Area - comparative
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
Land boundaries
total: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
total: 2,106 km
border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
Coastline
225 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climate
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 414 m
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
mean elevation: 143 m
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 60.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 39.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 28.7% (2011 est.)
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 58.9% (2011 est.)
arable land: 48.5% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 8.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 22.5% (2011 est.)
other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
31,490 sq km (2012)
1,721 sq km (2012)
Environment - current issues
soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
air and water pollution are some of Hungary's most serious environmental problems; water quality in the Hungarian part of the Danube has improved but is still plagued by pollutants from industry and large-scale agriculture; soil pollution
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Population distribution
urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Demographics

RomaniaHungary
Population
21,302,893 (July 2020 est.)
9,771,827 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 14.12% (male 1,545,196/female 1,463,700)
15-24 years: 10.31% (male 1,126,997/female 1,068,817)
25-54 years: 46.26% (male 4,993,886/female 4,860,408)
55-64 years: 11.73% (male 1,176,814/female 1,322,048)
65 years and over: 17.58% (male 1,516,472/female 2,228,555) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 14.54% (male 731,542/female 689,739)
15-24 years: 10.43% (male 526,933/female 492,388)
25-54 years: 42.17% (male 2,075,763/female 2,044,664)
55-64 years: 12.17% (male 552,876/female 636,107)
65 years and over: 20.69% (male 773,157/female 1,248,658) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 42.5 years
male: 41 years
female: 44 years (2020 est.)
total: 43.6 years
male: 41.5 years
female: 45.5 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
-0.37% (2020 est.)
-0.28% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
8.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
12 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
12.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 94.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 91.2 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 76 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 79.7 years (2020 est.)
total population: 76.7 years
male: 73 years
female: 80.6 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.38 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.47 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.1% (2019 est.)
<.1% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups
Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population

Hungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
190,000 (2019 est.)
3,700 (2018 est.)
Religions
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, no response 27.2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<500 (2019 est.)
<100 (2018 est.)
Languages
Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2% (2011 est.)

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.6% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2018)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2018)
Education expenditures
3.1% of GDP (2015)
4.7% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 54.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: -0.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 71.9% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 95.3% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 84.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.7% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 15.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.803 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2020)
1.768 million BUDAPEST (capital) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
12 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
5.2% (2017)
6.9% (2017)
Physicians density
2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
3.34 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)
7 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
22.5% (2016)
26.4% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
27.1 years (2017 est.)
28.6 years (2017 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 53.3
youth dependency ratio: 23.8
elderly dependency ratio: 29.5
potential support ratio: 3.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 46.9
youth dependency ratio: 22
elderly dependency ratio: 30.8
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2020 est.)

Government

RomaniaHungary
Country name
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
former: Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungarian Republic
etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the "Oungroi," a name that was later Latinized to "Ungri" and which became "Hungari"; the name originally meant an "[alliance of] ten tribes"; the Hungarian name "Magyarorszag" means "Country of the Magyars"; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer
Government type
semi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capital
name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"
name: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the Hungarian capital city was formed in 1873 from the merger of three cities on opposite banks of the Danube: Buda and Obuda (Old Buda) on the western shore and Pest on the eastern; the origins of the original names are obscure, but according to the second century A.D. geographer, Ptolemy, the settlement that would become Pest was called "Pession" in ancient times; "Buda" may derive from either a Slavic or Turkic personal name
Administrative divisions
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg

capital city: Budapest

Independence
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
National holiday
Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his canonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms, cannot be amended; amended 2003
history: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2018
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age, 16 if married and marriage is registered in Hungary; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Ludovic ORBAN (since 4 November 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Raluca TURCAN (since 4 November 2019); note - Prime Minister ORBAN lost a no-confidence vote on 5 February 2020; President IOHANNIS asked ORBAN to form a new government on 6 February 2020; Prime Minister ORBAN announced an unchanged government on 10 February 2020; on 24 February, the Constitutional Court rules that the president must nominate for Prime Minister someone who can get enough support in parliament to assume office, not a Prime Minister-designate who has been previously ousted in a no-confidence vote; on 13 March President IOHANNIS again asked ORBAN to form a new government; Prime Minister ORBAN's unchanged cabinet was approved by parliament on 14 March 2020
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%; Ludovic ORBAN approved as prime minister with 240 votes
chief of state: President Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held on 10 May 2018 (next to be held by spring 2022)
election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) reelected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 134 to 28
Legislative branch
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held on 6 December 2020)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held on 6 December 2020)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; composition - men 116, women 20, percent of women 14.7%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.4%, other 8.4%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17; composition men 261, women 68, percent of women 20.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 20.7%
description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 April 2018 (next to be held in April 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party list - Fidesz-KDNP 49.3%, Jobbik 19.1%, MSZP-PM 11.9%, LMP 7.1%, DK 5.4%, Momentum Movement 3.1%, Together 0.7%, LdU 0.5%, other 2.9%; seats by party - Fidesz 117, Jobbik 26, KDNP 16, MSZP 15,  DK 9, LMP 8, PM 5, Together 1, LdU 1, independent 1; composition - men 174, women 25, percent of women 12.6%
Judicial branch
highest courts: High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
highest courts: Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, department heads, and approximately 91 judges and is organized into civil, criminal, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement at age 62; Constitutional Court judges, including the president of the court, elected by the National Assembly; court vice president elected by the court itself; members serve 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 62
subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative-labor courts; 111 district or local courts
Political parties and leaders
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Ioana CONSTANTIN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Ludovic ORBAN]
New Romania Party or PNR [Sebastian POPESCU]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or Partidul USR [Dan BARNA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU, interim leader]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]
Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary (Parbeszed) or PM [Gergely KARACSONY, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Bertalan TOTH]
Momentum Movement (Momentum Mozgalom) [Andras FEKETE-GYOR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Tamas SNEIDER]
National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary or LdU [Olivia SCHUBERT]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Marta DEMETER, Laszlo LORANT-KERESZTES]
Together (Egyutt)
International organization participation
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Charge d'Affaires Dora ZOMBORI (since 14 April 2020)
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian ZUCKERMAN (since 17 December 2019)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
chief of mission: Ambassador David B. CORNSTEIN (since 25 June 2018)
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
National anthem
name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

name: "Himnusz" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL

note: adopted 1844

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICC jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Economy

RomaniaHungary
Economy - overview

Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-17 period, driven by strong industrial exports, excellent agricultural harvests, and, more recently, expansionary fiscal policies in 2016-2017 that nearly quadrupled Bucharest’s annual fiscal deficit, from +0.8% of GDP in 2015 to -3% of GDP in 2016 and an estimated -3.4% in 2017. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was the major driver, due to tax cuts and large wage increases that began last year and are set to continue in 2018.

An aging population, emigration of skilled labor, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package compromise Romania’s long-term growth and economic stability and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.

Hungary has transitioned from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy with a per capita income approximately two thirds of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

 

Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. Despite these reforms, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004. Hungary has not yet joined the euro-zone. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

 

Since 2010, the government has backpedaled on many economic reforms and taken a more populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries and government-linked businesses through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds, which squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 74.5% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Real GDP growth has been robust in the past few years due to increased EU funding, higher EU demand for Hungarian exports, and a rebound in domestic household consumption. To further boost household consumption ahead of the 2018 election, the government embarked on a six-year phased increase to minimum wages and public sector salaries, decreased taxes on foodstuffs and services, cut the personal income tax from 16% to 15%, and implemented a uniform 9% business tax for small and medium-sized enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical decrease in EU funding, but increased to 3.8% in 2017 as the government pre-financed EU funded projects ahead of the 2018 election.

 

Systemic economic challenges include pervasive corruption, labor shortages driven by demographic declines and migration, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$483.4 billion (2017 est.)
$452 billion (2016 est.)
$431.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$289.6 billion (2017 est.)
$278.5 billion (2016 est.)
$272.5 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.2% (2019 est.)
4.54% (2018 est.)
7.11% (2017 est.)
4.58% (2019 est.)
5.44% (2018 est.)
4.45% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$24,600 (2017 est.)
$22,900 (2016 est.)
$21,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$29,600 (2017 est.)
$28,300 (2016 est.)
$27,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)
services: 62.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 3.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 31.3% (2017 est.)
services: 64.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
22.4% (2012 est.)
14.9% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.3% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force
4.889 million (2020 est.)
4.414 million (2020 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
agriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.5% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate
3.06% (2019 est.)
3.56% (2018 est.)
3.45% (2019 est.)
3.71% (2018 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)
28.2 (2015 est.)
28.6 (2014)
Budget
revenues: 62.14 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 68.13 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 61.98 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 64.7 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate
5.5% (2017 est.)
7.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Exports
$64.58 billion (2017 est.)
$57.72 billion (2016 est.)
$98.74 billion (2017 est.)
$91.6 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
machinery and equipment (55.8%), other manufactures (32.7%), food products (6.8%), raw materials (2.4%), fuels and electricity (2.3%) (2017 est.)
Exports - partners
Germany 23%, Italy 11.2%, France 6.8%, Hungary 4.7%, UK 4.1% (2017)
Germany 27.7%, Romania 5.4%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 5%, Slovakia 4.8%, France 4.4%, Czech Republic 4.4%, Poland 4.3% (2017)
Imports
$78.12 billion (2017 est.)
$68 billion (2016 est.)
$96.3 billion (2017 est.)
$83.5 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
machinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
Imports - partners
Germany 20%, Italy 10%, Hungary 7.5%, Poland 5.5%, France 5.3%, China 5%, Netherlands 4% (2017)
Germany 26.2%, Austria 6.3%, China 5.9%, Poland 5.5%, Slovakia 5.3%, Netherlands 5%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Italy 4.7%, France 4% (2017)
Debt - external
$95.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$93.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$138.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$131.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
lei (RON) per US dollar -
4.077 (2017 est.)
4.0592 (2016 est.)
4.0592 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
forints (HUF) per US dollar -
279.5 (2017 est.)
281.52 (2016 est.)
281.52 (2015 est.)
279.33 (2014 est.)
232.6 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
76% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and national, state, and local government and social security funds.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$44.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$40 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$11.389 billion (2019 est.)
-$10.78 billion (2018 est.)
-$392 million (2019 est.)
$510 million (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$211.9 billion (2017 est.)
$139.2 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$76.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$290 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$298.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$6.822 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.963 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$212 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$222.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$42.24 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$34.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$27.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$22.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Central bank discount rate
1.75% (31 December 2017)
1.75% (31 December 2016)
0.9% (31 December 2017)
0.9% (31 December 2016)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
5.57% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.71% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.48% (31 December 2017 est.)
2.09% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$72.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$60.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$69.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$54.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$74.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$55.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$54.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$74.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$55.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
29.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
44.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012, the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 16.2%
male: 16.3%
female: 16.2% (2018 est.)
total: 10.2%
male: 9.8%
female: 10.7% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 49.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 90.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -82.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
21.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
25.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

RomaniaHungary
Electricity - production
61.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
30.22 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
49.64 billion kWh (2016 est.)
39.37 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
11.22 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
4.177 billion kWh (2016 est.)
17.95 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
70,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
16,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
145,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
121,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
2,076 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2,713 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
600 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
24 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
6.598 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
10.87 billion cu m (2017 est.)
1.812 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
11.58 billion cu m (2017 est.)
10.39 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
22.65 million cu m (2017 est.)
3.52 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
1.218 billion cu m (2017 est.)
13.37 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
23.94 million kW (2016 est.)
8.639 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
47% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
13% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
232,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
152,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
198,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
167,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
103,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
58,720 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
49,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
82,110 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
72.07 million Mt (2017 est.)
51.28 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

RomaniaHungary
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 3,731,047
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17.45 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,084,836
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31.48 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 25,033,292
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117.08 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 10,394,172
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106.07 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.ro
.hu
Internet users
total: 15,165,890
percent of population: 70.68% (July 2018 est.)
total: 7,474,413
percent of population: 76.07% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services; competition among a number of telecoms; LTE and 5G services; 1Gb/FttP offering; govt. secures EU funding to extend broadband to areas of the country not yet connected and does away with SIM card registration; operators invest in networks capacity upgrades (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 17 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by four mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 117 telephones per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: telephone system is digital and highly automated; broadband penetration is the highest in Eastern Europe; replacement of all copper infrastructure with fiber nationally; govt. expands e-payment systems; regulator makes preparations for 5G service (2020)
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones, and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections, 31 per 100 persons, while mobile-cellular is 106 per 100 (2019)
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 (very small aperture terminal) VSAT system of ground terminals
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 5.083 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2018 est.)
total: 3,079,549
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting
mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media

Transportation

RomaniaHungary
Railways
total: 11,268 km (2014)
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge (2014)
total: 8,049 km (2014)
standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 84,185 km (2012)
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways) (2012)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
total: 203,601 km (2014)
paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways) (2014)
unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)
Waterways
1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
Pipelines
3726 km gas, 2451 km oil (2013)
5874 km gas (high-pressure transmission system), 83732 km gas (low-pressure distribution network), 850 km oil, 1200 km refined products (2016)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
river port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
Airports
total: 45 (2013)
total: 41 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 26 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
total: 20 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 19 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
total: 21 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2013)
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Heliports
2 (2013)
3 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 145
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 31,226,848 (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
YR (2016)
HA (2016)

Military

RomaniaHungary
Military branches
Romanian Armed Forces: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Romanian Gendarmerie (2019)
Hungarian Defense Forces: Ground Forces and Hungarian Air Force (2019)
note: the Hungarian Defense Forces are organized into a joint force structure with ground, air, and logistic components
Military service age and obligation
conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.04% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.82% of GDP (2018)
1.72% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.21% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.15% of GDP (2018)
1.05% of GDP (2017)
1.02% of GDP (2016)
0.92% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

RomaniaHungary
Disputes - international

the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Illicit drugs
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons: 192 (2019)
note: 6,038 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-November 2020)
refugees (country of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 76 (2019)

note: 432,744 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-December 2018); Hungary is predominantly a transit country and hosts 137 migrants and asylum seekers as of the end of June 2018; 1,626 migrant arrivals in 2017

Source: CIA Factbook