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Poland vs. Ukraine

Introduction

PolandUkraine
BackgroundPoland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.

Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.

A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, a failed political deal, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office in June 2014; he was succeeded by Volodymyr ZELENSKY in May 2019.

Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula falsely claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the "referendum" as baseless and invalid and confirming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. In mid-2014, Russia began supplying proxies in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel driving an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government that continues to this day. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized Russian proxy republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting or find a political solution. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on Package of Measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, the unrecognized Russian proxy republics, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 13,000 civilians have been killed or wounded as a result of the Russian intervention in eastern Ukraine.

 

 

Geography

PolandUkraine
LocationCentral Europe, east of GermanyEastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Geographic coordinates52 00 N, 20 00 E49 00 N, 32 00 E
Map referencesEuropeAsiaEurope
Areatotal: 312,685 sq km

land: 304,255 sq km

water: 8,430 sq km
total: 603,550 sq km

land: 579,330 sq km

water: 24,220 sq km

note: approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine's area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Crimea and about one-third of both Luhans'k and Donets'k oblasts
Area - comparativeabout twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexicoalmost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,865 km

border countries (7): Belarus 375 km, Czechia 699 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 100 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 209 km, Slovakia 517 km, Ukraine 498 km
total: 5,581 km

border countries (7): Belarus 1111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1202 km, Poland 498 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1944 km, Slovakia 97 km
Coastline440 km2,782 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowerstemperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Terrainmostly flat plain; mountains along southern bordermostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula
Elevation extremeshighest point: Rysy 2,499 m

lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m

mean elevation: 173 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 175 m
Natural resourcescoal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable landiron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 36.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 30.6% (2018 est.)

other: 21.2% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 71.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 56.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 13.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 16.8% (2018 est.)

other: 12% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land970 sq km (2012)21,670 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfloodingoccasional floods; occasional droughts
Environment - current issuesdecreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from burning low-quality coals in homes and from coal-fired power plants; the resulting acid rain causes forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastesair and water pollution; land degradation; solid waste management; biodiversity loss; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic- Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic- Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography - notehistorically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plainstrategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe after Russia
Total renewable water resources60.5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)175.28 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionpopulation concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdanskdensest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovs'k, and Odesa

Demographics

PolandUkraine
Population38,185,913 (July 2021 est.)43,745,640 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.83% (male 2,918,518/female 2,756,968)

15-24 years: 9.8% (male 1,928,637/female 1,823,894)

25-54 years: 43.33% (male 8,384,017/female 8,203,646)

55-64 years: 13.32% (male 2,424,638/female 2,675,351)

65 years and over: 18.72% (male 2,867,315/female 4,299,341) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 16.16% (male 3,658,127/female 3,438,887)

15-24 years: 9.28% (male 2,087,185/female 1,987,758)

25-54 years: 43.66% (male 9,456,905/female 9,718,758)

55-64 years: 13.87% (male 2,630,329/female 3,463,851)

65 years and over: 17.03% (male 2,523,600/female 4,957,539) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.9 years

male: 40.3 years

female: 43.6 years (2020 est.)
total: 41.2 years

male: 38.2 years

female: 44.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate-0.23% (2021 est.)-0.49% (2021 est.)
Birth rate8.69 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)9.23 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate10.68 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)13.9 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.64 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 7.44 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.38 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.53 years

male: 74.76 years

female: 82.51 years (2021 est.)
total population: 73.18 years

male: 68.51 years

female: 78.15 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.39 children born/woman (2021 est.)1.56 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA1% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pole(s)

adjective: Polish
noun: Ukrainian(s)

adjective: Ukrainian
Ethnic groupsPolish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% (2011 est.)

note: represents ethnicity declared first
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA260,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsCatholic 85.9% (includes Roman Catholic 85.6% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 12.1% (2017 est.)Orthodox (includes the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU), Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and the Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish (2013 est.)

note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the OCU and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA3,100 (2020 est.)
LanguagesPolish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%; note - data represent the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Ksiega Faktów Swiata, niezbedne zródlo podstawowych informacji. (Polish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Romanian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.); note - in February 2018, the Constitutional Court ruled that 2012 language legislation entitling a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of "regional language" - allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions - was unconstitutional, thus making the law invalid; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language

major-language sample(s):
??i???? ????? ????i? – ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????. (Ukrainian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.7% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.7% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2018)
total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2017)5.4% of GDP (2017)
Urbanizationurban population: 60.1% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: -0.16% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 69.8% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: -0.27% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 99.4% of population

rural: 96.3% of population

total: 98.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population

rural: 3.7% of population

total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population1.790 million WARSAW (capital), 769,000 Krakow (2021)3.001 million KYIV (capital), 1.426 million Kharkiv, 1.009 million Odesa, 952,000 Dnipropetrovsk, 899,000 Donetsk (2021)
Maternal mortality rate2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures6.3% (2018)7.7% (2018)
Physicians density2.38 physicians/1,000 population (2017)2.99 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)7.5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.1% (2016)24.1% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.6 years (2019 est.)26.2 years (2019 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate62.3% (2014)65.4% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.4

youth dependency ratio: 23

elderly dependency ratio: 28.4

potential support ratio: 3.5 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.1

youth dependency ratio: 23.8

elderly dependency ratio: 25.3

potential support ratio: 4 (2020 est.)

note: data include Crimea

Government

PolandUkraine
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Poland

conventional short form: Poland

local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska

local short form: Polska

former: Polish People's Republic

etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a west Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic "pole" (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country
conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Ukraine

local long form: none

local short form: Ukraina

former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: name derives from the Old East Slavic word "ukraina" meaning "borderland or march (militarized border region)" and began to be used extensively in the 19th century; originally Ukrainians referred to themselves as Rusyny (Rusyns, Ruthenians, or Ruthenes), an endonym derived from the medieval Rus state (Kyivan Rus)
Government typeparliamentary republicsemi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Warsaw

geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the origin of the name is unknown; the Polish designation "Warszawa" was the name of a fishing village and several legends/traditions link the city's founding to a man named Wars or Warsz
name: Kyiv (Kiev)

geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: pronounced KAY-yiv

etymology: the name is associated with that of Kyi, who along with his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and their sister Lybid, are the legendary founders of the medieval city of Kyiv; Kyi being the eldest brother, the city was named after him
Administrative divisions16 voivodships [provinces] (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities** (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol), Dnipropetrovsk (Dnipro), Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnytskyi, Kirovohrad (Kropyvnytskyi), Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhansk, Lviv, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol**, Sumy, Ternopil, Vinnytsia, Volyn (Lutsk), Zakarpattia (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhia, Zhytomyr

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); plans include the eventual renaming of Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but because these names are mentioned in the Constitution of Ukraine, the change will require a constitutional amendment

note: the US Government does not recognize Russia's illegal annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the "Republic of Crimea" and the "Federal City of Sevastopol"
Independence11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 14 April 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus); 1199 (Principality (later Kingdom) of Ruthenia formed; 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate); 22 January 1918 (from Soviet Russia)
National holidayConstitution Day, 3 May (1791)Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence from Soviet Russia, and the date the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997

amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009
history: several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996

amendments: proposed by the president of Ukraine or by at least one third of the Supreme Council members; adoption requires simple majority vote by the Council and at least two-thirds majority vote in its next regular session; adoption of proposals relating to general constitutional principles, elections, and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote by the Council and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on personal rights and freedoms, national independence, and territorial integrity cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2019
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are finalcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state:  President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 11 December 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Piotr GLINSKI and Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), Jacek SASIN (since 4 June 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 June 2020 with a second round on 12 July 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm

election results: Andrzej DUDA reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51%, Rafal TRZASKOWSKI (KO) 49%
chief of state: President Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (since 20 May 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Denys SHMYHAL (since 4 March 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada 

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 March and 21 April 2019 (next to be held in March 2024); prime minister selected by the Verkhovna Rada

election results: first round results: percent of vote - Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (Servant of the People) 30.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP-Solidarity) 15.6%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 13.4%, Yuriy BOYKO (Opposition Platform-For Life) 11.7%, 35 other candidates 29.1%; second round results: percent of vote - Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (Servant of the People) 73.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP-Solidarity) 24.5%; Denys SHMYHAL (independent) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote - 291-59

note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral legislature consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
Sejm (460 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote with 5% threshold of total votes needed for parties and 8% for coalitions to gain seats; minorities exempt from threshold; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last held on 13 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)
Sejm - last held on 13 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 48, KO 43, PSL 3, SLD 2, independent 4; composition - men 87, women 13, percent of women 13%
Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 43.6%, KO 27.4%, SLD 12.6%, PSL 8.5% Confederation 6.8%, other 1.1%; seats by party - PiS 235, KO 134, SLD 49, PSL 30, KWiN 11, MN 1; men 334, women 126, percent of women 27.4%; note - total legislature percent of women 24.8%

note: the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the 2 houses meet jointly
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 21 July 2019 (next to be held in July 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - Servant of the People 43.2%, Opposition Platform-For Life 13.1%, Batkivshchyna 8.2%, European Solidarity 8.1%, Voice 5.8%, other 21.6%; seats by party (preliminary) - Servant of the People 254, Oposition Platform for Life 43, Batkivshchyna 26, European Solidarity 25, Voice 20, Opposition Bloc 6, Samopomich 1, Svoboda 1, other parties 2, independent 46; note - voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 26 seats vacant; although this brings the total to 424 elected members (of 450 potential), article 83 of the constitution mandates that a parliamentary majority consists of 226 seats
Judicial branchhighest courts: Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the first president of the Supreme Court and 120 justices organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and extraordinary appeals and public affairs and disciplinary chambers); Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)

judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judicial Council and appointed by the president of Poland; judges serve until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended; Constitutional Tribunal judges chosen by the Sejm for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: administrative courts; military courts; local, regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
highest courts: Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 100 judges, organized into civil, criminal, commercial and administrative chambers, and a grand chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices); High Anti-Corruption Court (consists of 39 judges, including 12 in the Appeals Chamber)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges recommended by the High Qualification Commission of Judges (a 16-member state body responsible for judicial candidate testing and assessment and judicial administration), submitted to the High Council of Justice, a 21-member independent body of judicial officials responsible for judicial self-governance and administration, and appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; High Anti-Corruption Court judges are selected by the same process as Supreme Court justices, with one addition – a majority of a combined High Qualification Commission of Judges and a 6-member Public Council of International Experts must vote in favor of potential judges in order to recommend their nomination to the High Council of Justice; this majority must include at least 3 members of the Public Council of International Experts; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 6 each by the president, by the Congress of Judges, and by the Verkhovna Rada; judges serve 9-year nonrenewable terms

 



subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; district courts

note: specialized courts were abolished as part of Ukraine's judicial reform program; in November 2019, President ZELENSKYY signed a bill on legal reforms

Political parties and leadersCivic Coalition or KO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA]
Confederation Liberty and Independence or KWiN [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE, Robert WINNICKI, Grzegorz BRAUN]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY]
German Minority or MN [Ryszard GALLA]
Kukiz 15 or K15 [Pawel KUKIZ]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]
TERAZ! (NOW!) [Ryszard PETRU]
Nowoczesna (Modern) or N [Katarzyna LUBNAUER]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ]
Razem (Together) [collective leadership]
Wiosna (Spring) [Robert BIEDRON]
Batkivshchyna (Fatherland) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
European Solidarity (BPP-Solidarity) [Petro POROSHENKO]
Holos (Voice) [Sviatoslav VAKARCHUK]
Opposition Bloc or OB [Evgeny MURAYEV]
Opposition Platform-For Life [Yuriy BOYKO, Vadim RABINOVICH]
Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
Samopomich (Self Reliance) [Andriy SADOVYY]
Servant of the People [Oleksandr KORNIENKO]
Svoboda (Freedom) [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
International organization participationArctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCAustralia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Piotr Antoni WILCZEK (since 18 January 2017)

chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700

FAX: [1] (202) 328-2152

email address and website:
washington.amb.sekretariat@msz.gov.pl

https://www.gov.pl/web/usa-en/embassy-washington

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Oksana Serhiyivna MARKAROVA (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 349-2963

FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817

email address and website:
emb_us@mfa.gov.ua; consul_us@mfa.gov.ua

https://usa.mfa.gov.ua/en

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires B. Bix ALIU (since January 2021)

embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, 00-540 Warsaw

mailing address: 5010 Warsaw Place, Washington, DC 20521-5010

telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000

FAX: [48] (22) 504-2088

email address and website:
acswarsaw@state.gov

https://pl.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Krakow
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kristina KVIEN (since January 2020)

embassy: 4 A. I. Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv

mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850

telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000

FAX: [380] (44) 521-5544

email address and website:
kyivacs@state.gov

https://ua.usembassy.gov/
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field

note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow; although the colors date back to medieval heraldry, in modern times they are sometimes claimed to represent grain fields under a blue sky
National anthemname: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)

lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional

note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied
name: "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)

lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI

note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)white crowned eagle; national colors: white, redtryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PolandUkraine
Economy - overview

Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term Poland is the largest recipient of EU development funds and their cyclical allocation can significantly impact the rate of economic growth.

The Polish economy performed well during the 2014-17 period, with the real GDP growth rate generally exceeding 3%, in part because of increases in government social spending that have helped to accelerate consumer-driven growth. However, since 2015, Poland has implemented new business restrictions and taxes on foreign-dominated economic sectors, including banking and insurance, energy, and healthcare, that have dampened investor sentiment and has increased the government’s ownership of some firms. The government reduced the retirement age in 2016 and has had mixed success in introducing new taxes and boosting tax compliance to offset the increased costs of social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland during the next few years is at risk of exceeding the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds. Poland’s economy is projected to perform well in the next few years in part because of an anticipated cyclical increase in the use of its EU development funds and continued, robust household spending.

Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.

After Russia, the Ukrainian Republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil accounted for more than one fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment such as large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.

 

Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

 

Ukraine’s oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013 but remained behind peers in the region and among Europe’s poorest. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, Ukraine’s economy fell into crisis because of Russia’s annexation of Crimea, military conflict in the eastern part of the country, and a trade war with Russia, resulting in a 17% decline in GDP, inflation at nearly 60%, and dwindling foreign currency reserves. The international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent, including creation of a national anti-corruption agency, overhaul of the banking sector, establishment of a transparent VAT refund system, and increased transparency in government procurement. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, improving the business environment to attract foreign investment, privatizing state-owned enterprises, and land reform. The fifth tranche of the IMF program, valued at $1.9 billion, was delayed in mid-2017 due to lack of progress on outstanding reforms, including adjustment of gas tariffs to import parity levels and adoption of legislation establishing an independent anti-corruption court.

 

Russia’s occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and ongoing Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine’s heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, the economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 9.8% in 2015, but it returned to low growth in in 2016 and 2017, reaching 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, as key reforms took hold. Ukraine also redirected trade activity towards the EU following the implementation of a bilateral Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, displacing Russia as its largest trading partner. A prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories in early 2017 has not impacted Ukraine’s key industrial sectors as much as expected, largely because of favorable external conditions. Ukraine returned to international debt markets in September 2017, issuing a $3 billion sovereign bond.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$1,261,433,000,000 (2019 est.)

$1,206,640,000,000 (2018 est.)

$1,145,323,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$538.388 billion (2019 est.)

$521.524 billion (2018 est.)

$504.35 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4.55% (2019 est.)

5.36% (2018 est.)

4.83% (2017 est.)
3.24% (2019 est.)

3.41% (2018 est.)

2.48% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$33,221 (2019 est.)

$31,775 (2018 est.)

$30,160 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$12,810 (2019 est.)

$12,338 (2018 est.)

$11,871 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)

industry: 40.2% (2017 est.)

services: 57.4% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 12.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.6% (2017 est.)

services: 60% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line15.4% (2018 est.)1.1% (2019 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 21.6% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.1% (2019 est.)

1.7% (2018 est.)

2% (2017 est.)
7.9% (2019 est.)

11% (2018 est.)

14.4% (2017 est.)

note: Excluding the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone
Labor force9.561 million (2020 est.)16.033 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11.5%

industry: 30.4%

services: 57.6% (2015)
agriculture: 5.8%

industry: 26.5%

services: 67.8% (2014)
Unemployment rate5.43% (2019 est.)

6.08% (2018 est.)
8.89% (2019 est.)

9.42% (2018 est.)

note: officially registered workers; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers
Distribution of family income - Gini index29.7 (2017 est.)

33.7 (2008)
26.1 (2018 est.)

28.2 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: 207.5 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 216.2 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 29.82 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 31.55 billion (2017 est.)

note: this is the planned, consolidated budget
Industriesmachine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textilescoal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
Industrial production growth rate7.5% (2017 est.)3.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsmilk, sugar beet, wheat, potatoes, triticale, maize, barley, apples, mixed grains, ryemaize, wheat, potatoes, sunflower seed, sugar beet, milk, barley, soybeans, rapeseed, tomatoes
Exports$394.848 billion (2019 est.)

$375.525 billion (2018 est.)

$351.125 billion (2017 est.)
$161.231 billion (2019 est.)

$151.075 billion (2018 est.)

$153.046 billion (2017 est.)
Exports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, seats, furniture, computers, video displays (2019)corn, sunflower seed oils, iron and iron products, wheat, insulated wiring, rapeseed (2019)
Exports - partnersGermany 27%, Czechia 6%, United Kingdom 6%, France 6%, Italy 5% (2019)Russia 9%, China 8%, Germany 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)
Imports$364.993 billion (2019 est.)

$353.423 billion (2018 est.)

$328.919 billion (2017 est.)
$207.335 billion (2019 est.)

$195.071 billion (2018 est.)

$189.402 billion (2017 est.)
Imports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum,  packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, office machinery/parts (2019)refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, coal, natural gas (2019)
Imports - partnersGermany 25%, China 10%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)China 13%, Russia 12%, Germany 10%, Poland 9%, Belarus 7% (2019)
Debt - external$351.77 billion (2019 est.)

$373.721 billion (2018 est.)
$117.41 billion (2019 est.)

$114.449 billion (2018 est.)
Exchange rateszlotych (PLN) per US dollar -

3.6684 (2020 est.)

3.8697 (2019 est.)

3.76615 (2018 est.)

3.7721 (2014 est.)

3.1538 (2013 est.)
hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -

28.10001 (2020 est.)

23.7 (2019 est.)

27.80499 (2018 est.)

21.8447 (2014 est.)

11.8867 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt50.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

54.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
71% of GDP (2017 est.)

81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$113.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$114.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.81 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$2.92 billion (2019 est.)

-$7.52 billion (2018 est.)
-$4.124 billion (2019 est.)

-$6.432 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$595.72 billion (2019 est.)$155.082 billion (2019 est.)
Taxes and other revenues39.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)26.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 9.9%

male: 9.6%

female: 10.3% (2019 est.)
total: 15.4%

male: 15.5%

female: 15.3% (2019 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 17.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -49.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 66.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20.4% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 4.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 47.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -55.6% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving20.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

19.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

19.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
12.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

15.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

17.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

Energy

PolandUkraine
Electricity - production156.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)153.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption149.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)133.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports12.02 billion kWh (2016)3.591 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports14.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)77 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production21,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)32,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports493,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)4,720 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports4,451 bbl/day (2017 est.)413 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves126 million bbl (1 January 2018)395 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves79.79 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production5.748 billion cu m (2017 est.)19.73 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption20.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)30.92 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports1.246 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports15.72 billion cu m (2017 est.)12.97 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity38.11 million kW (2016 est.)57.28 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels79% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)65% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production554,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)63,670 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption649,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)233,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports104,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)1,828 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports222,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)167,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Telecommunications

PolandUkraine
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 6,824,896

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17.8 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,182,994

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9.52 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 48,392,944

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126.2 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 54,842,940

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 124.78 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.pl.ua
Internet userstotal: 29,791,401

percent of population: 77.54% (July 2018 est.)
total: 25,883,509

percent of population: 58.89% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

liberalized telecom market supported by market competition in broadband and mobile sectors ensuring access to cable and fiber infrastructure; rapid extension of LTE networks and development of mobile data service; mobile penetration is above European average; fixed broadband benefits from DSL infrastructure and investment in fiber through EU support; major importer of broadcasting equipment and accessories from Germany (2021)

(2020)

domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line 18 per 100 service lags in rural areas, mobile-cellular 138 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 48; landing points for the Baltica and the Denmark-Poland2 submarine cables connecting Poland, Denmark and Sweden; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment:

Ukraine’s telecom market continues to face challenges resulting from the annexation of Crimea by Russia and unrest in eastern regions; developing telecom market has attracted international investors from Russia, Turkey, and Azerbaijan; government plan emphasizes improvement of domestic trunk lines, international connections, and a national mobile-cellular system; operators moving from 3G services to 4G, but some areas still use 2G; LTE services available in cities; FttP networks taking over DSL platforms; government approved plan in 2020 for 5G migration and operator is developing IoT capabilities; improvement of licensing requirements for operators and positive reforms for users; importer of broadcasting equipment from China (2021)

(2020)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 10 per 100; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now 131 mobile phones per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 380; landing point for the Kerch Strait Cable connecting Ukraine to Russia; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic TAE system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic TEL project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 7,783,887

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20.3 (2019 est.)
total: 6,784,185

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.44 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2019)

Ukraine’s media landscape is dominated by oligarch-owned news outlets, which are often politically motivated and at odds with one another and/or the government; while polls suggest most Ukrainians still receive news from traditional media sources, social media is a crucial component of information dissemination in Ukraine; almost all Ukrainian politicians and opinion leaders communicate with the public via social media and maintain at least one social media page, if not more; this allows them direct communication with audiences, and news often breaks on Facebook or Twitter before being picked up by traditional news outlets

Ukraine television serves as the principal source of news; the largest national networks are controlled by oligarchs: TRK Ukraina is owned by Rinat Akhmetov; Studio 1+1 is owned by Ihor Kolomoyskyy; Inter is owned by Dmytro Firtash and Serhiy Lyovochkin; and StarlightMedia channels (ICTV, STB, and Novyi Kanal) are owned by Victor Pinchuk;  a set of 24-hour news channels also have clear political affiliations: 112-Ukraine and NewsOne tacitly support pro-Russian opposition and are believed to be controlled by political and business tycoon Viktor Medvedchuk; pro-Ukrainian government Channel 5 and Pryamyi are linked to President Petro Poroshenko; 24 and ZIK are owned by opposition, but not pro-Russian, politicians; UA: Suspilne is a public television station under the umbrella of the National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine; while it is often praised by media experts for balanced coverage, it lags in popularity; Ukrainian Radio, institutionally linked to UA: Suspilne, is one of only two national talk radio networks, with the other being the privately owned Radio NV

(2019)

Transportation

PolandUkraine
Railwaystotal: 19,231 km (2016)

standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,874 km electrified) (2016)

broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge (2016)
total: 21,733 km (2014)

standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)

broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 420,000 km (2016)

paved: 291,000 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways, 1,559 of motorways) (2016)

unpaved: 129,000 km (2016)
total: 169,694 km (2012)

paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways) (2012)

unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)
Waterways3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)
Pipelines14198 km gas, 1374 km oil, 2483 km refined products (2016)36720 km gas, 4514 km oil, 4363 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie

container port(s) (TEUs): Gdansk (2,073,215) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie

river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
major seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Chornomosk (Illichivsk), Mariupol, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy
Merchant marinetotal: 142

by type: general cargo 6, oil tanker 7, other 129 (2020)
total: 409

by type: container ship 1, general cargo 85, oil tanker 15, other 308 (2020)
Airportstotal: 126 (2013)total: 187 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 87 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 30 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 36 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2017)

under 914 m: 6 (2017)
total: 108 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 13 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 42 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 22 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

under 914 m: 28 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 39 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 17 (2013)

under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 79 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)

under 914 m: 69 (2013)
Heliports6 (2013)9 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 169

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 9,277,538 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 271.49 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 14 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 126

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,854,842 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 75.26 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixSPUR

Military

PolandUkraine
Military branchesPolish Armed Forces: Land Forces (Wojska Ladowe), Navy (Marynarka Wojenna), Air Force (Sily Powietrzne), Special Forces (Wojska Specjalne), Territorial Defense Force (Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej); Ministry of the Interior: Border Guard (includes coast guard duties) (2021)

note: the Polish Armed Forces are organized into a General Staff, an Armed Forces General Command, an Armed Forces Operational Command, Territorial Defense Forces, Military Police, and the Warsaw Garrison Command
Armed Forces of Ukraine (Zbroyni Syly Ukrayiny, ZSU): Ground Forces (Sukhoputni Viys’ka), Naval Forces (Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly, VMS), Air Forces (Povitryani Syly, PS), Air Assault Forces (Desantno-shturmovi Viyska, DShV), Ukrainian Special Operations Forces (UASOF), Territorial Defense Forces (Reserves);  Ministry of Internal Affairs: National Guard of Ukraine, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (includes Maritime Border Guard) (2021)
Military service age and obligation18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; professional soldiers serve on a permanent basis (for an unspecified period of time) or on a contract basis (for a specified period of time); initial contract period is 24 months; women serve in the military on the same terms as men (2019)conscription abolished in 2012, but reintroduced in 2014; 20-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.2% of GDP (2021 est.)

2.31% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.98% of GDP (2019)

2.02% of GDP (2018)

1.89% of GDP (2017)
3% of GDP (2020 est.)

3.9% of GDP (2019)

3.7% of GDP (2018)

3.1% of GDP (2017)

3.6% of GDP (2016)
Military - notePoland joined NATO in 1999; Czechia, Hungary, and Poland were invited to begin accession talks at NATO's Madrid Summit in 1997, and in March 1999 they became the first former members of the Warsaw Pact to join the Alliancethe Ukrainian military’s primary concern is Russia’s material support for armed separatist forces in the eastern provinces of Donetsk and Luhansk where the conflict has become stalemated along a 250-mile front known as the line of contact; since the cease-fire of October 2019, Ukrainian military casualties along the front line have fallen significantly despite continued sporadic exchanges of fire through 2020 and into 2021

Transnational Issues

PolandUkraine
Disputes - international

as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine

1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Illicit drugsdespite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europelimited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 9,870 (Russia) (2019)

stateless persons: 1,390 (2020)
IDPs: 734,000 (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2020)

stateless persons: 35,875 (2020); note - citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine's independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiring Ukrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtaining Ukrainian citizenship

Source: CIA Factbook