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Poland vs. Czech Republic

Introduction

PolandCzech Republic
Background
Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country added the short-form name Czechia in 2016, while continuing to use the full form name, Czech Republic.

Geography

PolandCzech Republic
Location
Central Europe, east of Germany
Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
Geographic coordinates
52 00 N, 20 00 E
49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map references
Europe
Europe
Area
total: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
total: 78,867 sq km
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km
Area - comparative
about twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
about two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries
total: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
total: 2,143 km
border countries (4): Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km
Coastline
440 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
none (landlocked)
Climate
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 173 m
lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
mean elevation: 433 m
lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 48.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 36.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 10.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 30.6% (2011 est.)
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 41% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 12.8% (2011 est.)
forest: 34.4% (2011 est.)
other: 10.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
970 sq km (2012)
320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
flooding
flooding
Environment - current issues
decreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from burning low-quality coals in homes and from coal-fired power plants; the resulting acid rain causes forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; land pollution caused by industry, mining, and agriculture
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
note 1: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

note 2: the Hranice Abyss in Czechia is the world's deepest surveyed underwater cave at 404 m (1,325 ft); its survey is not complete and it could end up being some 800-1,200 m deep
Population distribution
population concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations

Demographics

PolandCzech Republic
Population
38,420,687 (July 2018 est.)
10,686,269 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 14.8% (male 2,924,077 /female 2,762,634)
15-24 years: 10.34% (male 2,040,043 /female 1,932,009)
25-54 years: 43.44% (male 8,431,045 /female 8,260,124)
55-64 years: 13.95% (male 2,538,566 /female 2,819,544)
65 years and over: 17.47% (male 2,663,364 /female 4,049,281) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 15.21% (male 834,800 /female 790,128)
15-24 years: 9.34% (male 514,728 /female 483,546)
25-54 years: 43.79% (male 2,404,724 /female 2,275,309)
55-64 years: 12.24% (male 638,130 /female 669,959)
65 years and over: 19.42% (male 865,455 /female 1,209,490) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 41.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 39.4 years
female: 42.8 years
total: 42.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.8 years
Population growth rate
-0.16% (2018 est.)
0.1% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
9.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
9.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 74.1 years
female: 82 years
total population: 78.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 76 years
female: 82.1 years
Total fertility rate
1.36 children born/woman (2018 est.)
1.46 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
NA
<.1% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groups
Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% (2011 est.)

note: represents ethnicity declared first

Czech 64.3%, Moravian 5%, Slovak 1.4%, other 1.8%, unspecified 27.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
NA
4,400 (2018 est.)
Religions
Catholic 85.9% (includes Roman Catholic 85.6% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 12.1% (2017 est.)
Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
NA
<100 (2018 est.)
Languages
Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)

note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages

Czech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2016)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2016)
Education expenditures
4.8% of GDP (2015)
5.8% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 60% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: -0.25% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 73.9% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.21% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 98.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 96.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.2% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 3.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.1% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.776 million WARSAW (capital), 768,000 Krakow (2019)
1.299 million PRAGUE (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2015)
7.1% (2016)
Physicians density
2.4 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
23.1% (2016)
26% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
27.4 years (2014 est.)
28.1 years (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
62.3% (2014)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 22.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 26.9 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.7 (2015 est.)

Government

PolandCzech Republic
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska
former: Polish People's Republic
etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a west Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic "pole" (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czechia
local long form: Ceska republika
local short form: Cesko
etymology: name derives from the Czechs, a West Slavic tribe who rose to prominence in the late 9th century A.D.
Government type
parliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capital
name: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the origin of the name is unknown; the Polish designation "Warszawa" was the name of a fishing village and several legends/traditions link the city's founding to a man named Wars or Warsz
name: Prague
geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the name likely derives from an old Slavic root "praga" or "prah", meaning "ford", and refers to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava (Moldau) River
Administrative divisions
16 voivodships [provinces] (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)
Independence
11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
National holiday
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997
amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009 (2019)
history: previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993
amendments: passage requires at least three-fifths concurrence of members present in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2013 (2017)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 11 December 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Piotr GLINSKI and Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), Jacek SASIN (since 4 June 2019)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 May 2015 with a second round on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2020); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Andrzej DUDA elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%
chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrej BABIS (since 13 December 2017); First Deputy Prime Minister Jan HAMACEK (since 27 June 2018), Deputy Prime Minister Alena SCHILLEROVA (since 30 April 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 12-13 January 2018 with a runoff on 26-27 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2023); prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term
election results: Milos ZEMAN reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 51.4%, Jiri DRAHOS (independent) 48.6%
Legislative branch
description: bicameral legislature consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
Sejm (460 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote with 5% threshold of total votes needed for parties and 8% for coalitions to gain seats; minorities exempt from threshold; members serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 13 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)
Sejm - last held on 13 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 48, KO 43, PSL 3, SLD 2, independent 4; composition - men 87, women 13, percent of women 13%
Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 43.6%, KO 27.4%, SLD 12.6%, PSL 8.5% Confederation 6.8%, other 1.1%; seats by party - PiS 235, KO 134, SLD 49, PSL 30, KWiN 11, MN 1; men 334, women 126, percent of women 27.4%; note - total legislature percent of women 24.8%
note: the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the 2 houses meet jointly
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held in 2 rounds on 5-6 and 12-13 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2020)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20-21 October 2017 (next to be held by October 2021)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 16, KDU-CSL 16, CSSD 13, STAN 10, ANO 7, SEN 21 6, TOP 09 3, SZ 1, Movement for Prague 1, Pirates 1, SsCR 1, independent 6; composition men 69, women 12, percent of women 14.8%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ANO 29.6%, ODS 11.3%, Pirates 10.8%, SPD 10.6%, KSCM 7.8%, CSSD 7.3%, KDU-CSL 5.8%, TOP 09 5.3%, STAN 5.2%, other 6.3%; seats by party - ANO 78, ODS 25, Pirates 22, SPD 22, CSSD 15, KSCM 15, KDU-CSL 10, TOP 09 7, STAN 6; composition - men 156, women 44, percent of women 22%; note - total Parliament percent of women 19.9%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the first president of the Supreme Court and 120 justices organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and extraordinary appeals and public affairs and disciplinary chambers); Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judicial Council and appointed by the president of Poland; judges serve until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended; Constitutional Tribunal judges chosen by the Sejm for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: administrative courts; military courts; local, regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 36 judges, including the court president and vice president, and organized into 6-, 7-, and 9-member chambers)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; unlimited terms
subordinate courts: High Court; regional and district courts
Political parties and leaders
Civic Coalition or KO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA]
Confederation Liberty and Independence or KWiN [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE, Robert WINNICKI, Grzegorz BRAUN]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY]
German Minority or MN [Ryszard GALLA]
Kukiz 15 or K15 [Pawel KUKIZ]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]
TERAZ! (NOW!) [Ryszard PETRU]
Nowoczesna (Modern) or N [Katarzyna LUBNAUER]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ]
Razem (Together) [collective leadership]
Wiosna (Spring) [Robert BIEDRON]
Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]
Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]
Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jan HAMACEK]
Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
Green Party or SZ [Petr STEPANEK]
Mayors and Independents or STAN [Petr GAZDIK]
Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Lubomir NECAS]
Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Jiri POSPISIL]
International organization participation
Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Piotr Antoni WILCZEK (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Ambassador Hynek KMONICEK (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Georgette MOSBACHER (since 6 September 2018)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2226
consulate(s) general: Krakow
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen B. KING (since 6 December 2017)
telephone: [420] 257 022 000
embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 - Mala Strana
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [420] 257 022 809
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field

note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

note: combines the white and red colors of Bohemia with blue from the arms of Moravia; is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia

National anthem
name: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional

note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied

name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)
lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play "Fidlovacka" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
white crowned eagle; national colors: white, red
silver (or white), double-tailed, rampant lion; national colors: white, red, blue
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PolandCzech Republic
Economy - overview

Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term Poland is the largest recipient of EU development funds and their cyclical allocation can significantly impact the rate of economic growth.

The Polish economy performed well during the 2014-17 period, with the real GDP growth rate generally exceeding 3%, in part because of increases in government social spending that have helped to accelerate consumer-driven growth. However, since 2015, Poland has implemented new business restrictions and taxes on foreign-dominated economic sectors, including banking and insurance, energy, and healthcare, that have dampened investor sentiment and has increased the government’s ownership of some firms. The government reduced the retirement age in 2016 and has had mixed success in introducing new taxes and boosting tax compliance to offset the increased costs of social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland during the next few years is at risk of exceeding the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds. Poland’s economy is projected to perform well in the next few years in part because of an anticipated cyclical increase in the use of its EU development funds and continued, robust household spending.

Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.

Czechia is a prosperous market economy that boasts one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment levels in the EU, but its dependence on exports makes economic growth vulnerable to contractions in external demand. Czechia’s exports comprise some 80% of GDP and largely consist of automobiles, the country’s single largest industry. Czechia acceded to the EU in 2004 but has yet to join the euro-zone. While the flexible koruna helps Czechia weather external shocks, it was one of the world’s strongest performing currencies in 2017, appreciating approximately 16% relative to the US dollar after the central bank (Czech National Bank - CNB) ended its cap on the currency’s value in early April 2017, which it had maintained since November 2013. The CNB hiked rates in August and November 2017 - the first rate changes in nine years - to address rising inflationary pressures brought by strong economic growth and a tight labor market.

Since coming to power in 2014, the new government has undertaken some reforms to try to reduce corruption, attract investment, and improve social welfare programs, which could help increase the government’s revenues and improve living conditions for Czechs. The government introduced in December 2016 an online tax reporting system intended to reduce tax evasion and increase revenues. The government also plans to remove labor market rigidities to improve the business climate, bring procurement procedures in line with EU best practices, and boost wages. The country's low unemployment rate has led to steady increases in salaries, and the government is facing pressure from businesses to allow greater migration of qualified workers, at least from Ukraine and neighboring Central European countries.

Long-term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, a shortage of skilled workers, a lagging education system, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$1.126 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.076 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.045 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$375.9 billion (2017 est.)
$360.5 billion (2016 est.)
$351.9 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.7% (2017 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$29,600 (2017 est.)
$28,300 (2016 est.)
$27,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$35,500 (2017 est.)
$34,200 (2016 est.)
$33,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)
industry: 40.2% (2017 est.)
services: 57.4% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)
industry: 36.9% (2017 est.)
services: 60.8% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
17.6% (2015 est.)
9.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.7% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2% (2017 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
17.6 million (2017 est.)
5.427 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 11.5%
industry: 30.4%
services: 57.6% (2015)
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 38%
services: 59.2% (2015)
Unemployment rate
4.9% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
30.8 (2015)
33.7 (2008)
25 (2015)
25.1 (2014)
Budget
revenues: 207.5 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 216.2 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 87.37 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 83.92 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate
7.5% (2017 est.)
7.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Exports
$224.6 billion (2017 est.)
$195.7 billion (2016 est.)
$144.8 billion (2017 est.)
$131.1 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals
Exports - partners
Germany 27.4%, Czech Republic 6.4%, UK 6.4%, France 5.6%, Italy 4.9%, Netherlands 4.4% (2017)
Germany 32.8%, Slovakia 7.8%, Poland 6.1%, France 5.1%, UK 4.9%, Austria 4.4%, Italy 4.1% (2017)
Imports
$223.8 billion (2017 est.)
$193.2 billion (2016 est.)
$134.7 billion (2017 est.)
$120.5 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners
Germany 27.9%, China 8%, Russia 6.4%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5.3%, France 4.2%, Czech Republic 4% (2017)
Germany 29.8%, Poland 9.1%, China 7.4%, Slovakia 5.8%, Netherlands 5.3%, Italy 4% (2017)
Debt - external
$241 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$347.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$205.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
3.748 (2017 est.)
3.9459 (2016 est.)
3.9459 (2015 est.)
3.7721 (2014 est.)
3.1538 (2013 est.)
koruny (CZK) per US dollar -
23.34 (2017 est.)
24.44 (2016 est.)
24.44 (2015 est.)
24.599 (2014 est.)
20.758 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
50.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
54.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

34.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$113.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$114.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$148 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$85.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
$1.584 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.369 billion (2016 est.)
$2.317 billion (2017 est.)
$3.037 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$524.8 billion (2017 est.)
$215.8 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$282.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$224.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$185.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$139.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$72.87 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$64.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$54.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$43.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$397 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$277.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$58.83 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$40.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Central bank discount rate
1.5% (31 December 2017)
1.5% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2017)
0.05% (31 December 2016)

note: this is the two-week repo, the main rate CNB uses

Commercial bank prime lending rate
4.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.74% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.59% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.91% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$419.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$336.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$147.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$124.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$260.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$177.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$133.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$260.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$177.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$133.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
39.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
40.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 14.8%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.1% (2017 est.)
total: 7.9%
male: 7.4%
female: 8.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 58.6% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 17.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 17.7% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -49.9% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 47.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 24.7% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 79.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -72.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
20% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

PolandCzech Republic
Electricity - production
156.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
77.39 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
149.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
62.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
12.02 billion kWh (2016)
24.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
14.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
13.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
21,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
2,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
493,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
155,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
4,451 bbl/day (2017 est.)
446 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
126 million bbl (1 January 2018)
15 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
79.79 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
5.748 billion cu m (2017 est.)
229.4 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
20.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
8.721 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
1.246 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
15.72 billion cu m (2017 est.)
8.891 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
38.11 million kW (2016 est.)
21.63 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
79% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
60% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
554,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
177,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
649,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
213,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
104,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
52,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
222,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
83,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
359 million Mt (2017 est.)
115.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

PolandCzech Republic
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 8,143,145
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,616,631
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 49,828,596
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 12,634,937
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services; regulatory is framed by EU principles of competition; mobile penetration is above European average; 5G trials begin; LTE-B and VoWi-Fi technologies; launch of 1Gb/s cable services (2018)
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line 24 per 100 service lags in rural areas, mobile-cellular 130 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 48; landing points for the Baltica and the Denmark-Poland2 submarine cables connecting Poland, Denmark and Sweden; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2019)
general assessment: good telephone and Internet service; the Czech Republic has a sophisticated telecom market, with competition in all sectors provided by a number of alternate operators; the incumbent telco O2 Czech Republic remains the dominant player though other operators are gaining market share, through merger and acquisition activity; regulator makes progress for 5G services; fixed wireless broadband remains strong, with penetration among the highest in the EU (2018)
domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s, 15 per 100 fixed-line, but the number of fixed-line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply to 119 per 100 mobile-cellular, and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population (2018)
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2019)
Internet country code
.pl
.cz
Internet users
total: 28,237,820
percent of population: 73.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 8,141,303
percent of population: 76.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2019)
22 TV stations operate nationally, with 17 of them in private hands; publicly operated Czech Television has 5 national channels; throughout the country, there are some 350 TV channels in operation, many through cable, satellite, and IPTV subscription services; 63 radio broadcasters are registered, operating over 80 radio stations, including 7 multiregional radio stations or networks; publicly operated broadcaster Czech Radio operates 4 national, 14 regional, and 4 Internet stations; both Czech Radio and Czech Television are partially financed through a license fee (2019)

Transportation

PolandCzech Republic
Railways
total: 19,231 km (2016)
standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,874 km electrified) (2016)
broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge (2016)
total: 9,408 km (2017)
standard gauge: 9,385 km 1.435-m gauge (3,218 km electrified) (2017)
narrow gauge: 23 km 0.760-m gauge (2017)
Roadways
total: 420,000 km (2016)
paved: 291,000 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways, 1,559 of motorways) (2016)
unpaved: 129,000 km (2016)
total: 55,744 km (includes urban and category I, II, III roads) (2019)
paved: 55,744 km (includes 1,252 km of expressways) (2019)
Waterways
3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
Pipelines
14198 km gas, 1374 km oil, 2483 km refined products (2016)
7,160 km gas, 675 km oil, 94 km refined products (2016)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
container port(s) (TEUs): Gdansk (1,593,761) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
river port(s): Prague (Vltava)
Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)
Airports
total: 126 (2013)
total: 128 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 87 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2017)
under 914 m: 6 (2017)
total: 41 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
under 914 m: 16 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 39 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 17 (2013)
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 87 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 25 (2013)
under 914 m: 61 (2013)
Heliports
6 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 92 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,841,128 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 120,016,466 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,971,616 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 26,619,650 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
SP (2016)
OK (2016)

Military

PolandCzech Republic
Military branches
Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces (Wojska Ladowe), Navy (Marynarka Wojenna), Air Force (Sily Powietrzne), Special Forces (Wojska Specjalne), Territorial Defense Force (Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej) (2019)

note: Territorial Defense Force only began recruitment in winter 2016

Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces:  Czech Land Forces and Czech Air Force (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; professional soldiers serve on a permanent basis (for an unspecified period of time) or on a contract basis (for a specified period of time); initial contract period is 24 months; women serve in the military on the same terms as men (2019)
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.99% of GDP (2018 est.)
1.9% of GDP (2017)
1.94% of GDP (2016)
2.14% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.12% of GDP (2018)
1.04% of GDP (2017)
1.01% of GDP (2016)
0.96% of GDP (2015)
0.91% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

PolandCzech Republic
Disputes - international

as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine

none

Illicit drugs
despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 9,893 (Russia) (2018)
stateless persons: 10,825 (2018)
stateless persons: 1,502 (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook