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Poland vs. Czech Republic

Introduction

PolandCzech Republic
Background"Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union ""Solidarity"" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A ""shock therapy"" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
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"At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country's predominantly Czech leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the increasingly strident demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Slovaks, the Sudeten Germans, and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the territory that today comprises Czechia, and Slovakia became an independent state allied with Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create ""socialism with a human face,"" ushering in a period of repression known as ""normalization."" The peaceful ""Velvet Revolution"" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent ""velvet divorce"" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. The country changed its short-form name to Czechia in 2016.
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Geography

PolandCzech Republic
LocationCentral Europe, east of Germany
Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
Geographic coordinates52 00 N, 20 00 E
49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
total: 78,867 sq km
land: 77,247 sq km
water: 1,620 sq km
Area - comparativeabout twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
about two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundariestotal: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
total: 2,143 km
border countries (4): Austria 402 km, Germany 704 km, Poland 796 km, Slovakia 241 km
Coastline440 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrainmostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
mean elevation: 433 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resourcescoal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48.2%
arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 30.6%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.8%
arable land 41%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 12.8%
forest: 34.4%
other: 10.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land970 sq km (2012)
320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsflooding
flooding
Environment - current issuesdecreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notehistorically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Population distributionpopulation concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, but the northern and eastern regions tend to have larger urban concentrations

Demographics

PolandCzech Republic
Population38,476,269 (July 2017 est.)
10,674,723 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.76% (male 2,919,353/female 2,757,923)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 2,113,358/female 2,003,033)
25-54 years: 43.48% (male 8,447,418/female 8,283,757)
55-64 years: 14.21% (male 2,586,097/female 2,880,031)
65 years and over: 16.86% (male 2,560,847/female 3,924,452) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 15.16% (male 831,150/female 786,984)
15-24 years: 9.59% (male 527,232/female 496,530)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 2,403,333/female 2,276,261)
55-64 years: 12.44% (male 646,106/female 681,541)
65 years and over: 18.98% (male 842,384/female 1,183,202) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 40.7 years
male: 39 years
female: 42.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 42.1 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 43.4 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate-0.13% (2017 est.)
0.12% (2017 est.)
Birth rate9.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.8 years
male: 73.9 years
female: 81.8 years (2017 est.)
total population: 78.8 years
male: 75.8 years
female: 81.9 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.35 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.45 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
<.1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groupsPolish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
Czech 64.3%, Moravian 5%, Slovak 1.4%, other 1.8%, unspecified 27.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
3,400 (2016 est.)
ReligionsCatholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
<100 (2016 est.)
LanguagesPolish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%
note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
Czech (official) 95.4%, Slovak 1.6%, other 3% (2011 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2013)
4.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 60.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.02% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 73% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 98.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationWARSAW (capital) 1.722 million; Krakow 760,000 (2015)
PRAGUE (capital) 1.314 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures6.4% of GDP (2014)
7.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.68 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density6.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.1% (2016)
26% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.4 years (2014 est.)
28.1 years (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 43.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.4
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.5
youth dependency ratio: 22.6
elderly dependency ratio: 26.9
potential support ratio: 3.7 (2015 est.)

Government

PolandCzech Republic
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Prague
geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky (Karlovy Vary), Kralovehradecky (Hradec Kralove), Liberecky (Liberec), Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky (Olomouc), Pardubicky (Pardubice), Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky (Usti), Vysocina (Highlands), Zlinsky (Zlin)
Independence11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs commemorate 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
National holidayConstitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009, 2015 (2016)
history: previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993
amendments: passage requires at least three-fifths concurrence by members present in both houses of Parliament; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
new civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 11 December 2017); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Culture and National Heritage Piotr GLINSKI (since 16 November 2015), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Higher Education Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), Beata SZYDLO, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Social Policy (since 11 December 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 with a second round on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Andrzej DUDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%
chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Designate Andrej BABIS (since 6 December 2017); First Deputy Prime Minister Richard BRABEC (since 24 May 2017) and Second Deputy Prime Minister Martin STROPNICKY (since 13 December 2017); note - the government of Prime Minister Bohuslav SOBOTKA (since 17 January 2014) resigned on 29 November 2017; BABIS' government was sworn in on 13 December but still must win a confidence vote scheduled for 10 January 2018
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 12-13 January 2018 with a runoff on 26-27 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2023); prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term
election results: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG (TOP 09) 45.2%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the 2 houses meet jointly
note: the German minority is exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019); Sejm - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 61, PO 34, PSL 1, independent 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 37.6%, PO 24.1%, K15 8.8%, N 7.6%, PSL 5.1% other 16.8%; seats by party - PiS 235, PO 138, K15 42, N 28, PSL 16, German minority 1
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members directly elected in 14 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote with a 5% threshold required to fill a seat; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in 2 rounds on 7-8 and 14-15 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20-21 October 2017 (next to be held by October 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; CSSD 25, KDU-CSL 14, ODS 9, ANO 7, STAN 5, SZ 4, TOP 09 2, SLK 2, SZ 2, SPO 1, Movement for Prague 1, S.cz. 1, KSCM 1, other 5, independent 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ANO 29.6%, ODS 11.3%, Pirates 10.8%, SPD 10.6%, KSCM 7.8%, CSSD 7.3%, KDU-CSL 5.8%, TOP 09 5.3%, STAN 5.2%, other 6.3%; seats by party - ANO 78, ODS 25, Pirates 22, SPD 22, KSCM 15, CSSD 15, KDU-CSL 10, TOP 09 7, STAN 6
note: Senate seats by party as of 20 May 2017 - CSSD 25, KDU-CSL 16, STAN and TOP 09 11, ODS 10, ANO 7, SPO 2, SZ 2, S.cz. 1, KSCM 1, Movement for Prague 1, independent 5
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 judges organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended
subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; State Tribunal; administrative courts; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Civil Law and Commercial Division, and Criminal Division each with a court chief justice, vice justice, and several judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 justices); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 28 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Chamber of Deputies and appointed by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed for 10-year, renewable terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the president of the Court; unlimited terms
subordinate courts: High Court; superior, regional, and district courts
Political parties and leaders"Civic Platform or PO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY]
German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA]
Kukiz 15 or K15 [Pawel KUKIZ]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]
Liberty (formerly the Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic-Liberty and Hope or KORWiN) [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE]
Nowoczesna (""Modern"") or N [Katarzyna LUBNAUER]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ]
Razem (Together) [collective leadership]
"
Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]
Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA]
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]
Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milan CHOVANEC]
Dawn - National Coalition or Usvit-NK [Miroslav LIDINSKY]
Free Citizens Party or Svobodni [Petr MACH]
Freedom and Direct Democracy or SPD [Tomio OKAMURA]
Green Party or SZ [Matej STROPNICKY]
Mayors and Independents or STAN [Petr GAZDIK]
Movement for Prague
Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS]
Nestranici (Non-Partisans) or NK [Vera RYBOVA]
North Bohemians or S.cz [Bronislav SCHWARZ]
Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Jan VELEBA]
Pirate Party or Pirates [Ivan BARTOS]
Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Jiri POSPISIL]
Political pressure groups and leadersAll Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ [Jan GUZ] (trade union)
Independent Self-Governing Trade Union or Solidarity [Piotr DUDA]
Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA]
International organization participationArctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Piotr Antoni WILCZEK (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Hynek KMONICEK (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paul Wayne JONES (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
consulate(s) general: Krakow
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen B. KING (since 6 December 2017)
embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 - Mala Strana
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] 257 022 000
FAX: [420] 257 022 809
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
note: combines the white and red colors of Bohemia with blue from the arms of Moravia; is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia
National anthem"name: ""Mazurek Dabrowskiego"" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as ""Jeszcze Polska nie zginela"" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied
"
"name: ""Kde domov muj?"" (Where is My Home?)
lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP
note: adopted 1993; the anthem was originally written as incidental music to the play ""Fidlovacka"" (1834), it soon became very popular as an unofficial anthem of the Czech nation; its first verse served as the official Czechoslovak anthem beginning in 1918, while the second verse (Slovak) was dropped after the split of Czechoslovakia in 1993
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)white crowned eagle; national colors: white, red
silver (or white), double-tailed, rampant lion; national colors: white, red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PolandCzech Republic
Economy - overviewPoland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term. However, since 2015 Warsaw’s prioritization of spending on social welfare programs has prompted investors to decrease Poland’s economic growth projections for the next few years.

The Polish economy performed well during the 2014-17 period, with the real GDP growth rate generally exceeding 3%, in part because of the government’s fiscal prudence. However, the government reduced the retirement age as of October 2017 and has tried to introduce new taxes and boost tax compliance to offset the increased costs of social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland will exceed the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds.

Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.
Czechia is a prosperous market economy that boasts one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment levels in the EU, but its dependence on exports makes economic growth vulnerable to contractions in external demand. Czechia’s exports comprise some 80% of GDP and largely consist of automobiles, the country’s single largest industry. Czechia acceded to the EU in 2004 but has yet to join the euro-zone. While the flexible koruna helps Czechia weather external shocks, it was one of the world’s strongest performing currencies in 2017, appreciating approximately 16% relative to the US dollar after the central bank (Czech National Bank - CNB) in early April ended its cap on the currency’s value, which it had maintained since November 2013. The CNB hiked rates in August and November 2017 - the first rate changes in nine years - to address rising inflationary pressures brought by strong economic growth and a tight labor market.

After slowly recovering from a steep recession in 2009, the Czech economy again fell into recession in 2012 and 2013 because of a slump in demand within the EU and government austerity measures. Inflows of EU development funds underpinned a rebound in 2014-15, with GDP growth reaching 4.5% in 2015, followed by a slowdown in 2016 largely due to a cyclical lag in EU funding in connection with a new EU budget cycle. The Czech economy was one of the EU’s best performers in 2017, with broad-based growth of nearly 4.5% and an unemployment rate of 2.8%, one of the lowest rates in the EU.

Since coming to power in 2014, the new government has undertaken some reforms to try to reduce corruption, attract investment, and improve social welfare programs, which could help increase the government’s revenues and improve living conditions for Czechs. The government introduced in December 2016 an online tax reporting system intended to reduce tax evasion and increase revenues. The government also plans to remove labor market rigidities to improve the business climate, bring procurement procedures in line with EU best practices, and boost wages. The country's low unemployment rate has led to steady increases in salaries, and the government is facing pressure from businesses to allow greater migration of qualified workers, at least from Ukraine and neighboring Central European countries.

Long-term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, a shortage of skilled workers, a lagging education system, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.111 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.07 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.042 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$372.6 billion (2017 est.)
$360 billion (2016 est.)
$350.9 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.8% (2017 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2017 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$29,300 (2017 est.)
$28,200 (2016 est.)
$27,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$35,200 (2017 est.)
$34,100 (2016 est.)
$33,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.4%
industry: 40.2%
services: 64.3% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 37.8%
services: 59.7% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line17.6% (2015 est.)
9.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.7% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.9% (2017 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force17.6 million (2017 est.)
5.427 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 11.5%
industry: 30.4%
services: 57.6% (2015)
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 38%
services: 59.2% (2015)
Unemployment rate4.8% (2017 est.)
6.2% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.8 (2015)
33.7 (2008)
25 (2015)
25.1 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $90.8 billion
expenditures: $102.2 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $83.62 billion
expenditures: $83.93 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesmachine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate4.2% (2017 est.)
5.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productspotatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Exports$221.4 billion (2017 est.)
$195.7 billion (2016 est.)
$157.4 billion (2017 est.)
$131.1 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials, fuel, chemicals
Exports - partnersGermany 27.3%, UK 6.6%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.4%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.5% (2016)
Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 8.4%, Poland 5.8%, UK 5.2%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.3%, Austria 4.2% (2016)
Imports$221.8 billion (2017 est.)
$193.6 billion (2016 est.)
$147.4 billion (2017 est.)
$120.8 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
Imports - partnersGermany 28.3%, China 7.9%, Netherlands 6%, Russia 5.8%, Italy 5.3%, France 4.2%, Czech Republic 4.1% (2016)
Germany 30.6%, Poland 9.6%, China 7.5%, Slovakia 6.3%, Netherlands 5.3%, Italy 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$362 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$347.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$145.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rateszlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
3.748 (2017 est.)
3.9459 (2016 est.)
3.9459 (2015 est.)
3.7721 (2014 est.)
3.1538 (2013 est.)
koruny (CZK) per US dollar -
23.34 (2017 est.)
24.44 (2016 est.)
24.44 (2015 est.)
24.599 (2014 est.)
20.758 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt46.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
35.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$115 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$114.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$161 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$85.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.958 billion (2017 est.)
-$959 million (2016 est.)
$1.192 billion (2017 est.)
$2.154 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$510 billion (2016 est.)
$209.7 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$235.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$224.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$146.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$139.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$68.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$64.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$43.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$261.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$277.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$351.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$44.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$45.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate1.5% (31 December 2016)
2% (31 December 2015)
0.05% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)
note: this is the two-week repo, the main rate CNB uses
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.74% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.91% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$413.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$336.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$142.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$124.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$255.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$172.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$133.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$374.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$300.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$190 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$148.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
39.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
-0.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.8%
male: 20.7%
female: 20.9% (2015 est.)
total: 12.6%
male: 11.3%
female: 14.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 58.8%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 56.2%
imports of goods and services: -51.8% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 47.7%
government consumption: 19.2%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 79.1%
imports of goods and services: -72.4% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving19% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

PolandCzech Republic
Electricity - production152.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
77.74 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption141.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
61.16 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports12.02 billion kWh (2016)
24.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports14.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
13.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production20,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2,333 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports490,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
105,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports4,520 bbl/day (2016 est.)
518.7 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves137.8 million bbl (1 January 2017)
15 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves81.66 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production6.132 billion cu m (2015 est.)
247 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption26.78 billion cu m (2015 est.)
11.51 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports56 million cu m (2015 est.)
1 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports12.12 billion cu m (2015 est.)
7.474 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity37.32 million kW (2015 est.)
21.51 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels77.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
56.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
5.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
18.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
14.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production557,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
121,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption578,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
180,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports135,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
49,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports173,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
103,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy296 million Mt (2015 est.)
103 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

PolandCzech Republic
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 9.345 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,682,194
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 55,878,845
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2016 est.)
total: 12,484,885
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2015)
general assessment: good telephone and Internet service; there are three major mobile phone providers, though the government is facing criticism for failing to promote sufficient competition, with critics complaining that Czech mobile phone and data prices are among the highest in the EU
domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s, but the number of fixed-line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s, and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2017)
Internet country code.pl
.cz
Internet userstotal: 28,237,820
percent of population: 73.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 8,141,303
percent of population: 76.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)
roughly 130 TV broadcasters operating some 350 channels with 4 publicly operated and the remainder in private hands; 16 TV stations have national coverage with 4 being publicly operated; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; 63 radio broadcasters are registered operating roughly 80 radio stations with 15 stations publicly operated; 10 radio stations provide national coverage with the remainder local or regional (2008)

Transportation

PolandCzech Republic
Railwaystotal: 19,231 km
broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,865 km electrified) (2015)
total: 9,621.5 km
standard gauge: 9,519.5 km 1.435-m gauge (3,240.5 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 102 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 417,026 km
paved: 287,650 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways)
unpaved: 129,376 km (2014)
total: 130,661 km (includes urban roads)
paved: 130,661 km (includes 730 km of expressways) (2011)
Waterways3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
Pipelinesgas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 777 km (2013)
gas 7,160 km; oil 536 km; refined products 94 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie
river port(s): Prague (Vltava); Decin, Usti nad Labem (Elbe)
Airports126 (2013)
128 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 87
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 6 (2017)
total: 41
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
total: 87
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 61 (2013)
Heliports6 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 92
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,841,128
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 120,016,466 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 48
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,971,616
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 26,619,650 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixSP (2016)
OK (2016)

Military

PolandCzech Republic
Military branchesPolish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defense Force (2017)
note: Territorial Defense Force only began recruitment in winter 2016
Army of the Czech Republic (Armada Ceske Republiky): General Staff (Generalni Stab, includes Land Forces (Pozemni Sily) and Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily)) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; women only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers (2013)
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.99% of GDP (2016)
2.14% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.77% of GDP (2013)
1.8% of GDP (2012)
0.98% of GDP (2016)
0.96% of GDP (2015)
0.97% of GDP (2014)
0.99% of GDP (2013)
1.03% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

PolandCzech Republic
Disputes - internationalas a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
none
Illicit drugsdespite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 71,302 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015); 9,864 (Russia) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,825 (2016)
stateless persons: 1,502 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook