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Peru vs. Colombia

Introduction

PeruColombia
Background
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016. Facing impeachment after evidence surfaced of his involvement in a vote-buying scandal, President KUCZYNSKI offered his resignation on 21 March 2018. Two days later, First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo was sworn in as president. On 30 September 2019, President VIZCARRA invoked his constitutional authority to dissolve Peru's Congress after months of battling with the body over anticorruption reforms. New congressional elections took place on 26 January 2020 resulting in the return of an opposition-led legislature. President VIZCARRA was impeached by Congress on 9 November 2020 for a second time and removed from office after being accused of corruption and mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of vacancies in the vice-presidential positions, constitutional succession led to the President of the Peruvian Congress, Manuel MERINO, becoming the next president of Peru. His ascension to office was not well received by the population, and large protests forced his resignation on 15 November 2020. On 17 November, Francisco SAGASTI assumed the position of President of Peru after being appointed President of the Congress the previous day.

Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A decades-long conflict between government forces, paramilitaries, and antigovernment insurgent groups heavily funded by the drug trade, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) paramilitaries demobilized by the end of 2006, and the AUC as a formal organization ceased to operate. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, illegal armed groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a final peace accord with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently ratified by the Colombian Congress. The accord calls for members of the FARC to demobilize, disarm, and reincorporate into society and politics. The accord also committed the Colombian Government to create three new institutions to form a 'comprehensive system for truth, justice, reparation, and non-repetition,' to include a truth commission, a special unit to coordinate the search for those who disappeared during the conflict, and a 'Special Jurisdiction for Peace' to administer justice for conflict-related crimes. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to expand its presence into every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug-related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

Geography

PeruColombia
Location
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates
10 00 S, 76 00 W
4 00 N, 72 00 W
Map references
South America
South America
Area
total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km

note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank

Area - comparative
almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total: 7,062 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 1212 km, Brazil 2659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1494 km, Ecuador 1529 km
total: 6,672 km
border countries (5): Brazil 1790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1494 km, Venezuela 2341 km
Coastline
2,414 km
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 1,555 m
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,746 m
mean elevation: 593 m
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,730 m
Natural resources
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land use
agricultural land: 18.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 3.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 14.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 53% (2011 est.)
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 37.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 34.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 54.4% (2011 est.)
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
25,800 sq km (2012)
10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

volcanism: Galeras (4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace

Environment - current issues
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes; overfishing
deforestation resulting from timber exploitation in the jungles of the Amazon and the region of Chocó; illicit drug crops grown by peasants in the national parks; soil erosion; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note

note 1: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

note 2: Peru is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: on 19 February 1600, Mount Huaynaputina in the southern Peruvian Andes erupted in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historical times; intermittent eruptions lasted until 5 March 1600 and pumped an estimated 16 to 32 million metric tons of particulates into the atmosphere reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface and affecting weather worldwide; over the next two and a half years, millions died around the globe in famines from bitterly cold winters, cool summers, and the loss of crops and animals

note 4: the southern regions of Peru and the extreme northwestern part of Bolivia are considered to be the place of origin for the common potato

only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Population distribution
approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated
the majority of people live in the north and west where agricultural opportunities and natural resources are found; the vast grasslands of the llanos to the south and east, which make up approximately 60% of the country, are sparsely populated

Demographics

PeruColombia
Population
31,914,989 (July 2020 est.)
49,084,841 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 25.43% (male 4,131,985/female 3,984,546)
15-24 years: 17.21% (male 2,756,024/female 2,736,394)
25-54 years: 41.03% (male 6,279,595/female 6,815,159)
55-64 years: 8.28% (male 1,266,595/female 1,375,708)
65 years and over: 8.05% (male 1,207,707/female 1,361,276) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 23.27% (male 5,853,351/female 5,567,196)
15-24 years: 16.38% (male 4,098,421/female 3,939,870)
25-54 years: 42.04% (male 10,270,516/female 10,365,423)
55-64 years: 9.93% (male 2,307,705/female 2,566,173)
65 years and over: 8.39% (male 1,725,461/female 2,390,725) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 29.1 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29.9 years (2020 est.)
total: 31.2 years
male: 30.2 years
female: 32.2 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.92% (2020 est.)
0.93% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
17 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
15.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 96.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 97.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 76.9 years (2020 est.)
total population: 76.6 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 80 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
1.94 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.4% (2019 est.)
0.5% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groups
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, white 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)
mestizo and white 87.6%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 6.8%, Amerindian 4.3%, unspecified 1.4% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
87,000 (2019 est.)
200,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other .3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)
Roman Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<1000 (2019 est.)
4,100 (2019 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none .1%, unspecified .7% (2017 est.)
Spanish (official)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.4%
male: 97.1%
female: 91.7% (2018)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.1%
male: 94.9%
female: 95.3% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Peru; as of 10 November 2020, Peru has reported a total of 917,503 cases of COVID-19 or 27,827 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 1,055 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; at this time, there are no specific limitations or quarantine requirements for US citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents entering the US from Peru; on 3 June 2020, Peruvian President Martín VIZCARRA signed a supreme decree extending Peru’s Health State of Emergency for 90 days beginning Wednesday, 10 June 2020; this is not an extension of the national quarantine, although social distancing and the use of facemasks will be required for the foreseeable future
degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Colombia; as of 10 November 2020, Colombia has reported a total of 1,127,733 cases of COVID-19 or 22,163 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 637 cumulative deaths per 1 million population
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2017)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2018)
Education expenditures
3.9% of GDP (2017)
4.5% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 78.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 81.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 95.6% of population
rural: 77.4% of population
total: 92.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.4% of population
rural: 22.6% of population
total: 7.9% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 86.4% of population
total: 97.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 13.6% of population
total: 2.7% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 60.8% of population
total: 85.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 14.8% of population (2017 est.)
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 98.3% of population
rural: 80.1% of population
total: 94.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.7% of population
rural: 19.9% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
10.719 million LIMA (capital), 923,000 Arequipa, 865,000 Trujillo (2020)
10.978 million BOGOTA (capital), 4.000 million Medellin, 2.782 million Cali, 2.273 million Barranquilla, 1.331 million Bucaramanga, 1.063 million Cartagena (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
88 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
83 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
2.6% (2018)
3.7% (2015/16)
Health expenditures
5% (2017)
7.2% (2017)
Physicians density
1.3 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
19.7% (2016)
22.3% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
22.2 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

21.7 years (2015 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.

Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee outflows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; the United States and, until recently, Venezuela have been the main host countries. Emigration to Spain picked up in the 1990s because of its economic growth, but this flow has since diminished because of Spain’s ailing economy and high unemployment. Colombia has been the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Venezuela’s political and economic crisis since 2015, however, has created a reverse flow, consisting largely of Colombians returning home.

Forced displacement continues to be prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Even with the Colombian Government’s December 2016 peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the risk of displacement remains as other rebel groups fill the void left by the FARC. Between 1985 and September 2017, nearly 7.6 million persons have been internally displaced, the highest total in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because many internally displaced persons are not registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world’s highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades—although the number is likely to be much higher—including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.

Because of political violence and economic problems, Colombia received limited numbers of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from the Middle East, Europe, and Japan. More recently, growth in the oil, mining, and manufacturing sectors has attracted increased labor migration; the primary source countries are Venezuela, the US, Mexico, and Argentina. Colombia has also become a transit area for illegal migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean -- especially Haiti and Cuba -- who are en route to the US or Canada.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
76.3% (2018)
81% (2015/16)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 50.2
youth dependency ratio: 37.1
elderly dependency ratio: 13.1
potential support ratio: 7.6 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.4
youth dependency ratio: 32.3
elderly dependency ratio: 13.2
potential support ratio: 7.6 (2020 est.)

Government

PeruColombia
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government type
presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the word "Lima" derives from the Spanish pronunciation of "Limaq," the native name for the valley in which the city was founded in 1535; "limaq" means "talker" in coastal Quechua and referred to an oracle that was situated in the valley but which was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church
name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: originally referred to as "Bacata," meaning "enclosure outside of the farm fields," by the indigenous Muisca
Administrative divisions
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region

32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday
Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993
amendments: proposed by Congress, by the president of the republic with the approval of the "Cabinet, " or by petition of at least 0.3% of voters; passage requires absolute majority approval by the Congress membership, followed by approval in a referendum; a referendum is not required if Congress approves the amendment by greater than two-thirds majority vote in each of two successive sessions; amended many times, last in 2018
history: several previous; latest promulgated 4 July 1991
amendments: proposed by the government, by Congress, by a constituent assembly, or by public petition; passage requires a majority vote by Congress in each of two consecutive sessions; passage of amendments to constitutional articles on citizen rights, guarantees, and duties also require approval in a referendum by over one half of voters and participation of over one fourth of citizens registered to vote; amended many times, last in 2020
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President Francisco Rafael SAGASTI Hochhausler (since 17 November 2020); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President (vacant); note - President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA was impeached and removed from office on 9 November 2020; after the resignation of his successor, Manuel Arturo MERINO, President SAGASTI assumed the office and will serve as president until 28 July 2021; new elections are slated for April 2021; the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Francisco Rafael SAGASTI Hochhausler (since 17 November 2020); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with a runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (Broad Front) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (Popular Action) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo assumed office after President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard resigned from office on 21 March 2018; after VIZCARRA was impeached on 9 November 2020, the constitutional line of succession led to the inauguration of the President of the Peruvian Congress, Manuel Arturo MERINO, as President of Peru on 10 November 2020; following his resignation only days later on 15 November 2020, Francisco Rafael SAGASTI Hochhausler - who had been elected by the legislature to be the new President of Congress on 16 November 2020 - was then sworn in as President of Peru on 17 November 2020 by line of succession

note: Prime Minister Violeta BERMUDEZ (since 18 November 2020) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

chief of state: President Ivan DUQUE Marquez (since 7 August 2018); Vice President Marta Lucia RAMIREZ Blanco (since 7 August 2018); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ivan DUQUE Marquez (since 7 August 2018); Vice President Marta Lucia RAMIREZ Blanco (since 7 August 2018)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 27 May 2018 with a runoff held on 17 June 2018 (next to be held in 2022); note - political reform in 2015 eliminated presidential reelection
election results: Ivan DUQUE Marquez elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ivan DUQUE Marquez (CD) 54%, Gustavo PETRO (Humane Colombia) 41.8%, other/blank/invalid 4.2%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms); note - a referendum held in December 2018 banned congressional reelection, holding members to a single consecutive term
elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); note - President VIZCARRA dissolved the Congress on 30 September 2019 and called new congressional elections for 26 January 2020; the new Congress will serve an abbreviated term, with the next regular election to be held in April 2021
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Fuerza Popular 36.3%, PPK 16.5%, Frente Amplio 13.9%, APP 9.2%; APRA 8.3%; AP 7.2%, other 8.6%; seats by party/coalition - Fuerza Popular 73, Frente Amplio 20, PPK 18, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5; composition - men 94, women 36, percent of women 27.7%
description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of:
Senate or Senado (108 seats; 100 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, 2 members elected in a special nationwide constituency for indigenous communities, 5 members of the People's Alternative Revolutionary Force (FARC) political party for the 2018 and 2022 elections only as per the 2016 peace accord, and 1 seat reserved for the runner-up presidential candidate in the recent election; all members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (172 seats; 165 members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote, 5 members of the FARC for the 2018 and 2022 elections only as per the 2016 peace accord, and 1 seat reserved for the runner-up vice presidential candidate in the recent election; all members serve 4-year terms)
elections:  
Senate - last held on 11 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2022)
Chamber of Representatives - last held on 11 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2022)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CD 19, CR 16, PC 15, PL 14, U Party 14, Green Alliance 10, PDA 5, other 9; composition - men 77, women 31, percent of women 28.7%
Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 35, CD 32, CR 30, U Party 25, PC 21, Green Alliance 9, other 13; composition - men 147, women 25, percent of women 14.5%; total Congress percent of women 20%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Board of Justice (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 27 judges); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council
subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA
Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad) (coalition includes Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (coalition includes Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Jorge Enrique ROBLEDO]
Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC [Angel ALIRIO Moreno] (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN)
Conservative Party or PC [Hernan ANDRADE]
Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez]
Green Alliance [Claudia LOPEZ Hernandez]
Humane Colombia [Gustavo PETRO]
Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA]
People's Alternative Revolutionary Force or FARC [Rodrigo LONDONO Echeverry]
Radical Change or CR [Rodrigo LARA Restrepo]
Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS]

note: Colombia has numerous smaller political movements

International organization participation
APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Hugo DE ZELA Martínez (since 8 July 2019)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
Ambassador Francisco SANTOS Calderon (since 17 September 2018)
chancery: 1724 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Krishna R. URS (since 18 October 2017)
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip S. GOLDBERG (since 19 September 2019)
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
embassy: Carrera 45, No. 24B-27, Bogota
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
Flag description
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom; alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red); or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity

note: similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

National anthem
name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO

note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest

name: "Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI

note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

PeruColombia
Economy - overview

Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2017, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016-17, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2018. However, economic performance was depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm. Massive flooding in early 2017 also was a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.

Colombia heavily depends on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices. Colombia is Latin America’s fourth largest oil producer and the world’s fourth largest coal producer, third largest coffee exporter, and second largest cut flowers exporter. Colombia’s economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, poverty, narcotrafficking, and an uncertain security situation, in addition to dependence on primary commodities (goods that have little value-added from processing or labor inputs).

Colombia’s economy slowed in 2017 because of falling world market prices for oil and lower domestic oil production due to insurgent attacks on pipeline infrastructure. Although real GDP growth averaged 4.7% during the past decade, it fell to an estimated 1.8% in 2017. Declining oil prices also have contributed to reduced government revenues. In 2016, oil revenue dropped below 4% of the federal budget and likely remained below 4% in 2017. A Western credit rating agency in December 2017 downgraded Colombia’s sovereign credit rating to BBB-, because of weaker-than-expected growth and increasing external debt. Colombia has struggled to address local referendums against foreign investment, which have slowed its expansion, especially in the oil and mining sectors. Colombia’s FDI declined by 3% to $10.2 billion between January and September 2017.

Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into effect in May 2012. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance—a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. The Colombian government took steps in 2017 to address several bilateral trade irritants with the US, including those on truck scrappage, distilled spirits, pharmaceuticals, ethanol imports, and labor rights. Colombia hopes to accede to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$430.3 billion (2017 est.)
$420 billion (2016 est.)
$403.7 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$711.6 billion (2017 est.)
$699.1 billion (2016 est.)
$685.6 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
2.18% (2019 est.)
3.97% (2018 est.)
2.48% (2017 est.)
3.26% (2019 est.)
2.51% (2018 est.)
1.36% (2017 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$13,500 (2017 est.)
$13,300 (2016 est.)
$13,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$14,400 (2017 est.)
$14,300 (2016 est.)
$14,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 7.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 32.7% (2017 est.)
services: 59.9% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 7.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 30.8% (2017 est.)
services: 62.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
22.7% (2014 est.)
28% (2017 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 39.6% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2.8% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average

4.3% (2017 est.)
7.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force
3.421 million (2020 est.)

note: individuals older than 14 years of age

19.309 million (2020 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate
6.58% (2019 est.)
6.73% (2018 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

10.5% (2019 est.)
9.68% (2018 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
45.3 (2012)
51 (2005)
51.1 (2015)
53.5 (2014)
Budget
revenues: 58.06 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 64.81 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 83.35 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 91.73 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate
2.7% (2017 est.)
-2.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigolds, onions, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Exports
$44.92 billion (2017 est.)
$37.02 billion (2016 est.)
$39.48 billion (2017 est.)
$31.39 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partners
China 26.5%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 5.2%, South Korea 4.4%, Spain 4.1%, India 4.1% (2017)
US 28.5%, Panama 8.6%, China 5.1% (2017)
Imports
$38.65 billion (2017 est.)
$35.13 billion (2016 est.)
$44.24 billion (2017 est.)
$43.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partners
China 22.3%, US 20.1%, Brazil 6%, Mexico 4.4% (2017)
US 26.3%, China 19.3%, Mexico 7.5%, Brazil 5%, Germany 4.1% (2017)
Debt - external
$66.25 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$66.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$124.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
3.265 (2017 est.)
3.3751 (2016 est.)
3.3751 (2015 est.)
3.185 (2014 est.)
2.8383 (2013 est.)
Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -
2,957 (2017 est.)
3,055.3 (2016 est.)
3,055.3 (2015 est.)
2,001 (2014 est.)
2,001.1 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
25.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

49.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
49.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$63.83 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$61.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$47.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$46.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$3.531 billion (2019 est.)
-$3.821 billion (2018 est.)
-$13.748 billion (2019 est.)
-$13.118 billion (2018 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$214.2 billion (2017 est.)
$314.5 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$98.24 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$91.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$179.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$164.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$5.447 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.255 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$55.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$51.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate
4.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.05% (31 December 2012)
4.75% (12 December 2017)
7.5% (31 December 2016)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
16.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.47% (31 December 2016 est.)

note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity

13.69% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.65% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$56.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$52.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$153.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$33.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$34.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$33.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$34.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
27.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
26.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 14.7%
male: 14.3%
female: 15% (2018 est.)
total: 18.5%
male: 14.4%
female: 24% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 64.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 24% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 68.2% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 14.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 14.6% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -19.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
19% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

PeruColombia
Electricity - production
50.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
74.92 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
44.61 billion kWh (2016 est.)
68.25 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
55 million kWh (2015 est.)
460 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports
22 million kWh (2016 est.)
378 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
49,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
863,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
86,060 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
7,995 bbl/day (2015 est.)
726,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
434.9 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
1.665 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
455.9 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
113.9 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
12.99 billion cu m (2017 est.)
10.02 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
7.483 billion cu m (2017 est.)
10.08 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
5.505 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
48.14 million cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
14.73 million kW (2016 est.)
16.89 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
61% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
29% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
35% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
69% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
166,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
303,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
250,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
333,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
62,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
56,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
65,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
57,170 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
55.94 million Mt (2017 est.)
95.59 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 2 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 95% (2017)
electrification - urban areas: 97% (2017)
electrification - rural areas: 89% (2017)
population without electricity: 1 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 99% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 100% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 95.7% (2016)

Telecommunications

PeruColombia
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 3,099,172
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9.8 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 6,774,363
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13.93 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 39,138,119
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123.76 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 64,033,049
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131.67 (2019 est.)
Internet country code
.pe
.co
Internet users
total: 16,461,427
percent of population: 52.54% (July 2018 est.)
total: 29,990,017
percent of population: 62.26% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systems
general assessment: good mobile operator competition with LTE services; broadband subscriber penetration low compared to other Latin American countries; 3G network and new LTE services expanded providing mobile broadband to rural communities, regulator auctions of 700 MHz spectrum for LTE services; Peru is seen as a potential market for growth in broadband, with government work to install fiber-optic backbone to remote areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, now 124 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (2019)
international: country code - 51; landing points for the SAM-1, IGW, American Movil-Telxius, SAC and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
general assessment: fastest growing sector is mobile broadband with LTE infrastructure and investment in 5G; strong demand in rural areas for mobile broadband, potential is high while penetration is low; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; the cable sector commands about half of the market by subscribers, with DSL having a declining share while fiber-based broadband is developing strongly; competition among the MVNO (mobile virtual network operator) sector has promoted 2.9 million subscribers as of mid-2018; most infrastructure is primarily in high-density urban areas; growing popularity of bundled services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 14 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 132 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations (2019)
international: country code - 57; landing points for the SAC, Maya-1, SAIT, ACROS, AMX-1, CFX-1, PCCS, Deep Blue Cable, Globe Net, PAN-AM, SAm-1 submarine cable systems providing links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Broadband - fixed subscriptions
total: 2,310,217
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2017 est.)
total: 6,678,543
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2018 est.)
Broadcast media
10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2019)
combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2019)

Transportation

PeruColombia
Railways
total: 1,854 km (2014)
standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,141 km (2015)
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (2015)
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadways
total: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved) (2012)

note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved)

total: 206,500 km (2016)
Waterways
8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon River system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Pipelines
786 km extra heavy crude, 1526 km gas, 679 km liquid petroleum gas, 1033 km oil, 15 km refined products (2013)
4991 km gas, 6796 km oil, 3429 km refined products (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (2,250,200) (2017)
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo
oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (2,663,415) (2017)
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
Merchant marine
total: 98
by type: bulk carrier 1, oil tanker 10, other 87 (2019)
total: 115
by type: general cargo 21, oil tanker 9, other 85 (2019)
Airports
total: 191 (2013)
total: 836 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 59 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 12 (2017)
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
total: 121 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2017)
under 914 m: 18 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 132 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 30 (2013)
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
total: 715 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 201 (2013)
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports
5 (2013)
3 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 62
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,758,527 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 313.26 million mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 12 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 157
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 33,704,037 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,349,450,000 mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
OB (2016)
HJ, HK (2016)

Military

PeruColombia
Military branches
Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru: Peruvian Army (Ejercito del Peru), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP); Ministry of the Interior (Ministerio del Interior): Peruvian National Police (Policía Nacional del Perú, PNP) (2020)
Military Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Militares de Colombia): National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC; includes Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC); Colombian National Police (civilian force that is part of the Ministry of Defense) (2020)
Military service age and obligation
18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2013)
18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.2% of GDP (2018)
1.2% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.7% of GDP (2015)
3.2% of GDP (2019)
3.1% of GDP (2018 est.)
3.2% of GDP (2017)
3.1% of GDP (2016)
3.1% of GDP (2015)

Transnational Issues

PeruColombia
Disputes - international

Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank

Illicit drugs
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 44,000 hectares in 2016, a decrease of 16 per cent over 2015; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 410 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2016; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 188,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2016, a 18% increase over 2015, producing a potential of 710 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2016, the Colombian government reported manual eradication of 17,642 hectares; Colombia suspended aerial eradication in October 2015 making 2016 the first full year without aerial eradication; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; Colombia probably remains the second largest supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation was estimated to be 1,100 hectares in 2015, sufficient to potentially produce three metric tons of pure heroin
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 959,631 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2020)
IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 768,714 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or received alternative legal stay)(2020)
IDPs: 7,967,965 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2020)
stateless persons: 11 (2019)

Terrorism

PeruColombia
Terrorist groups - home based
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL): aim(s): generate revenue by providing security for narcotics trafficking and growing coca to produce cocaine; historically, SL's goal has been to replace Peruvian institutions with a peasant revolutionary regime
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in the Valley of the Apurimac, Ene, and Mantaro River (VRAEM) region (2018)
National Liberation Army (Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional, ELN):
aim(s):
Marxist-Leninist group that seeks to defend Colombians whom they believed to be victims of social, political, and economic injustices perpetrated by the Colombian government
area(s) of operation: the nation's largest remaining insurgent group operates mainly in the rural and mountainous areas of northern, northeastern, and southwestern Colombia as well as border regions with Venezuela
note: the group has a long history of engaging in narcotics production and trafficking, extortion of foreign and local companies, and kidnappings for ransom to fund operations; historically focused on attacking economic infrastructure, in particular oil and gas pipelines and electricity pylons (2019)
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, FARC):
aim(s):
signed a peace accord with the Colombian Government in 2016 (approved by the Colombian Congress on 30 November 2016) and entered the political arena in September 2017 as the People's Alternative Revolutionary Force (also known as FARC) in order to change Colombia's economic model, push an agenda focused on social justice and development of rural areas; historically, the FARC's aim has been to install a Marxist-Leninist regime in Colombia through a violent revolution
area(s) of operation: NA (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook