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Norway vs. United States

Introduction

NorwayUnited States
Background
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

Geography

NorwayUnited States
Location
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Geographic coordinates
62 00 N, 10 00 E
38 00 N, 97 00 W
Map references
Europe
North America
Area
total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
total: 9,833,517 sq km
land: 9,147,593 sq km
water: 685,924 sq km

note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories

Area - comparative
slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union
Land boundaries
total: 2,566 km
border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1666 km, Russia 191 km
total: 12,048 km
border countries (2): Canada 8893 km (including 2477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3155 km

note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km

Coastline
25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
19,924 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climate
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Terrain
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 460 m
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
mean elevation: 760 m
lowest point: Death Valley (lowest point in North America) -86 m
highest point: Denali 6,190 m (Mount McKinley) (highest point in North America)
note: the peak of Mauna Kea (4,207 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level
Natural resources
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land, note, the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total
Land use
agricultural land: 2.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 2.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 27.8% (2011 est.)
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 44.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 16.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 27.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)
other: 22.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
900 sq km (2012)
264,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell, Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in Hawaii: Haleakala, Kilauea, Loihi; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - current issues
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
air pollution; large emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; deforestation; mining; desertification; species conservation; invasive species (the Hawaiian Islands are particularly vulnerable)
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Geography - note
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

note 1: world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent

note 2: the western coast of the United States and southern coast of Alaska lie along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: the Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands that divide the Bering Sea (north) from the main Pacific Ocean (south); they extend about 1,800 km westward from the Alaskan Peninsula; the archipelago consists of 14 larger islands, 55 smaller islands, and hundreds of islets; there are 41 active volcanoes on the islands, which together form a large northern section of the Ring of Fire

note 4: Mammoth Cave, in west-central Kentucky, is the world's longest known cave system with more than 650 km (405 miles) of surveyed passageways, which is nearly twice as long as the second-longest cave system, the Sac Actun underwater cave in Mexico - the world's longest underwater cave system (see "Geography - note" under Mexico);

note 5: Kazumura Cave on the island of Hawaii is the world's longest and deepest lava tube cave; it has been surveyed at 66 km (41 mi) long and 1,102 m (3,614 ft) deep

note 6: Bracken Cave outside of San Antonio, Texas is the world's largest bat cave; it is the summer home to the largest colony of bats in the world; an estimated 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats roost in the cave from March to October making it the world's largest known concentration of mammals

Population distribution
most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
large urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu

Demographics

NorwayUnited States
Population
5,372,191 (July 2018 est.)
329,256,465 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.99% (male 495,403 /female 471,014)
15-24 years: 12.37% (male 340,672 /female 324,088)
25-54 years: 40.98% (male 1,136,373 /female 1,065,138)
55-64 years: 11.72% (male 318,898 /female 310,668)
65 years and over: 16.94% (male 420,178 /female 489,759) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 18.62% (male 31,329,121 /female 29,984,705)
15-24 years: 13.12% (male 22,119,340 /female 21,082,599)
25-54 years: 39.29% (male 64,858,646 /female 64,496,889)
55-64 years: 12.94% (male 20,578,432 /female 22,040,267)
65 years and over: 16.03% (male 23,489,515 /female 29,276,951) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 39.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 38.6 years
female: 40 years
total: 38.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 37 years
female: 39.5 years
Population growth rate
0.94% (2018 est.)
0.8% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
12.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
12.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female NA
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 82 years (2018 est.)
male: 79.9 years
female: 84.1 years
total population: 80.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 77.8 years
female: 82.3 years
Total fertility rate
1.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
1.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.1% (2018 est.)
NA
Nationality
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
noun: American(s)
adjective: American
Ethnic groups
Norwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)
white 72.4%, black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.9%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%, other 6.2%, two or more races 2.9% (2010 est.)

note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 16.3% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2010

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
5,800 (2018 est.)
NA
Religions
Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 70.6%, Muslim 3.2%, Roman Catholic 3%, other Christian 3.7%, other 2.5%, unspecified 17% (2016 est.)
Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<100 (2018 est.)
NA
Languages
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

note: Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms

English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.)

note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 19 years (2016)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2016)
Education expenditures
7.6% of GDP (2015)
5% of GDP (2014)
Urbanization
urban population: 82.6% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

urban population: 82.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 98.1% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.027 million OSLO (capital) (2019)
18.805 million New York-Newark, 12.448 million Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, 8.862 million Chicago, 6.245 million Houston, 6.201 million Dallas-Fort Worth, 5.264 million WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
10% (2015)
16.8% (2015)
Physicians density
4.63 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
2.59 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
3.8 beds/1,000 population (2015)
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
23.1% (2016)
36.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.9 years (2015 est.)

note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births

26.4 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 52.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 24.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4 (2015 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

total dependency ratio: 51.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 29 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)

Government

NorwayUnited States
Country name
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA
etymology: the name America is derived from that of Amerigo VESPUCCI (1454-1512) - Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer - using the Latin form of his name, Americus, feminized to America
Government type
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
constitutional federal republic
Capital
name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the medieval name was spelt "Aslo"; the "as" component refered either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("as" in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir (Norse gods); "lo" refered to "meadow," so the most likely interpretations would have been either "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods"; both explanations are considered equally plausible
name: Washington, DC
geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W
time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

note: the 50 United States cover six time zones

etymology: named after George Washington (1732-1799), the first president of the United States

Administrative divisions
18 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Telemark, Troms, Trondelag, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areas
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; it entered into a political relationship with all four political entities: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994)

Independence
7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)
4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
National holiday
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Constitution
history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2018 (2018)
history: previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine of the 13 states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789
amendments: proposed as a "joint resolution" by Congress, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by at least two thirds of the state legislatures; passage requires ratification by three fourths of the state legislatures or passage in state-held constitutional conventions as specified by Congress; the US president has no role in the constitutional amendment process; amended many times, last in 1992 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: Council  of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
chief of state: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
election results: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 September 2017 (next to be held in September 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 27.4%, H 25%, FrP 15.2%, SP 10.3%, SV 6%, V 4.4%, KrF 4.2%, MDG 3.2%, R 2.4%, other/invalid 1.9%; seats by party - Ap 49, H 45, FrP 27, SP 19, SV 11, V 8, KrF 8, MDG 1, R 1; composition - men 99, women 70, percent of women 41.4%
description: bicameral Congress consists of:
Senate (100 seats; 2 members directly elected in each of the 50 state constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia and Louisiana which require an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years)
House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia which requires an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 2-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 53, Democratic Party 45, independent 2; composition - men 75, women 25, percent of women 25%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 234, Republican Party 200, 1 seat still undecided; composition - men 328, women 106, percent of women 24.4%; note - total US Congress percent of women 24.5%
note: in addition to the regular members of the House of Representatives there are 6 non-voting delegates elected from the District of Columbia and the US territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands; these are single seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term (except for the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico who serves a 4-year term); the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegates last held on 6 November 2018 (next to be held on 3 November 2020)
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmennsrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
highest courts: US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: president nominates and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices serve for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories

note: the US court system consists of the federal court system and the state court systems; although each court system is responsible for hearing certain types of cases, neither is completely independent of the other, and the systems often interact

Political parties and leaders
Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Kjell Ingolf ROPSTADT]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Une Aina BASTHOLM]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Red Party or R [Bionar MOXNES]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Democratic Party [Tom PEREZ]
Green Party [collective leadership]
Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK]
Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag description
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship, red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory

note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

National anthem
name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem

name: The Star-Spangled Banner
lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH

note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song"; only the first verse is sung

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
withdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
National symbol(s)
lion; national colors: red, white, blue
bald eagle; national colors: red, white, blue
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

NorwayUnited States
Economy - overview

Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. However, as a member of the European Economic Area, Norway partially participates in the EU’s single market and contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources such as oil and gas, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, although oil production is close to 50% below its peak in 2000. Gas production, conversely, has more than doubled since 2000. Although oil production is historically low, it rose in 2016 for the third consecutive year due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream. Norway’s domestic electricity production relies almost entirely on hydropower.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $1 trillion at the end of 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a "fiscal rule," which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. The Norwegian economy has been adjusting to lower energy prices, as demonstrated by growth in labor force participation and employment in 2017. GDP growth was about 1.5% in 2017, driven largely by domestic demand, which has been boosted by the rebound in the labor market and supportive fiscal policies. Economic growth is expected to remain constant or improve slightly in the next few years.

The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $59,500. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at purchasing power parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades.

In the US, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, businesses face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.

Long-term problems for the US include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

The onrush of technology has been a driving factor in the gradual development of a "two-tier" labor market in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. But the globalization of trade, and especially the rise of low-wage producers such as China, has put additional downward pressure on wages and upward pressure on the return to capital. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income.

Imported oil accounts for more than 50% of US consumption and oil has a major impact on the overall health of the economy. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. Because the US economy is energy-intensive, falling oil prices since 2013 have alleviated many of the problems the earlier increases had created.

The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the US into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009, Congress passed and former President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012, the Federal Government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries.

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through FY 2018, the direct costs of the wars will have totaled more than $1.9 trillion, according to US Government figures.

In March 2010, former President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million Americans by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on healthcare - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010.

In July 2010, the former president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight.

The Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans in December 2012 to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short-term rates near zero until unemployment dropped below 6.5% or inflation rose above 2.5%. The Fed ended its purchases during the summer of 2014, after the unemployment rate dropped to 6.2%, inflation stood at 1.7%, and public debt fell below 74% of GDP. In December 2015, the Fed raised its target for the benchmark federal funds rate by 0.25%, the first increase since the recession began. With continued low growth, the Fed opted to raise rates several times since then, and in December 2017, the target rate stood at 1.5%.

In December 2017, Congress passed and President Donald TRUMP signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which, among its various provisions, reduces the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%; lowers the individual tax rate for those with the highest incomes from 39.6% to 37%, and by lesser percentages for those at lower income levels; changes many deductions and credits used to calculate taxable income; and eliminates in 2019 the penalty imposed on taxpayers who do not obtain the minimum amount of health insurance required under the ACA. The new taxes took effect on 1 January 2018; the tax cut for corporations are permanent, but those for individuals are scheduled to expire after 2025. The Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) under the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the new law will reduce tax revenues and increase the federal deficit by about $1.45 trillion over the 2018-2027 period. This amount would decline if economic growth were to exceed the JCT’s estimate.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$381.2 billion (2017 est.)
$374 billion (2016 est.)
$370 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$19.49 trillion (2017 est.)
$19.06 trillion (2016 est.)
$18.77 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1.9% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
2% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$72,100 (2017 est.)
$71,200 (2016 est.)
$71,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$59,800 (2017 est.)
$58,900 (2016 est.)
$58,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)
industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
services: 64% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 19.1% (2017 est.)
services: 80% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
NA
15.1% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.9% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2017 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force
2.797 million (2017 est.)
160.4 million (2017 est.)

note: includes unemployed

Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 0.7% (2009)
industry: 20.3% (2009)
services: 37.3% (2009)
industry and services: 24.2% (2009)
manufacturing: 17.6% (2009)
farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% (2009)
manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3% (2009)
managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3% (2009)
sales and office: 24.2% (2009)
other services: 17.6% (2009)

note: figures exclude the unemployed

Unemployment rate
4.2% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
26.8 (2010)
25.8 (1995)
45 (2007)
40.8 (1997)
Budget
revenues: 217.1 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 199.5 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 3.315 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.981 trillion (2017 est.)

note: revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion

Industries
petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Industrial production growth rate
1.5% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Exports
$102.8 billion (2017 est.)
$88.88 billion (2016 est.)
$1.553 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.456 trillion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2008 est.)
Exports - partners
UK 21.1%, Germany 15.5%, Netherlands 9.9%, Sweden 6.6%, France 6.4%, Belgium 4.8%, Denmark 4.7%, US 4.6% (2017)
Canada 18.3%, Mexico 15.7%, China 8.4%, Japan 4.4% (2017)
Imports
$95.06 billion (2017 est.)
$74.94 billion (2016 est.)
$2.361 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.208 trillion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2008 est.)
Imports - partners
Sweden 11.4%, Germany 11%, China 9.8%, US 6.8%, South Korea 6.7%, Denmark 5.4%, UK 4.7% (2017)
China 21.6%, Mexico 13.4%, Canada 12.8%, Japan 5.8%, Germany 5% (2017)
Debt - external
$642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
$17.91 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$17.85 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
Exchange rates
Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
8.308 (2017 est.)
8.3978 (2016 est.)
8.3978 (2015 est.)
8.0646 (2014 est.)
6.3021 (2013 est.)
British pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.885 (2017 est.), 0.903 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
1 October - 30 September
Public debt
36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

78.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intragovernment debt were added, "gross debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$65.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$123.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$117.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance
$22.01 billion (2017 est.)
$14.09 billion (2016 est.)
-$449.1 billion (2017 est.)
-$432.9 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$398.8 billion (2017 est.)
$19.49 trillion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$236.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$219.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.08 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.614 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$196.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$191.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.711 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.352 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$25.07 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.33 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$24.03 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate
6.25% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)
0.5% (31 December 2010)
0.5% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
2.89% (31 December 2017 est.)
2.96% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.51% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$640.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$571.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.59 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.24 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$237.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.512 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.251 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$237.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.512 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.251 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
54.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
17% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
4.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 10.4%
male: 11.7%
female: 9% (2017 est.)
total: 8.6%
male: 9.5%
female: 7.7% (2018 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 44.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 24% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 35.5% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 68.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 17.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 12.1% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -15% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
34.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
35.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NorwayUnited States
Electricity - production
147.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
4.095 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
122.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3.902 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.695 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
5.741 billion kWh (2016 est.)
72.72 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
1.517 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
10.962 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
36,550 bbl/day (2017 est.)
7.969 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
1.383 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
1.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
6.376 billion bbl (1 January 2018)
NA bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
1.782 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
Natural gas - production
123.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
772.8 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
4.049 billion cu m (2017 est.)
767.6 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
120.2 billion cu m (2017 est.)
89.7 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
5.663 million cu m (2017 est.)
86.15 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
33.86 million kW (2016 est.)
1.087 billion kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
70% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
371,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
20.3 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
205,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
19.96 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
432,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
5.218 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
135,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
2.175 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
39.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
5.242 billion Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

NorwayUnited States
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 745,182
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 119.902 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 5,721,255
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 395.881 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe; forward leaning in LTE-A developments; looking to close 3G and 2G networks by 2025 and preparing for 5G; broadband penetration rate is among the best in Europe (2018)
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 108 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)
general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system; mobile subscriber penetration rate of about 127%; 5G technologies and commercial services into 2019 and 2020; developing technologies based on 5G for non-commercial customers as well; FttP rather than FttN efforts (2018)
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country; fixed-line 27 per 100 and mobile-cellular 121 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions)
Internet country code
.no
.us
Internet users
total: 5,122,904
percent of population: 97.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 246,809,221
percent of population: 76.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2019)
4 major terrestrial TV networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with many affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 900 member stations; satellite radio available; in total, over 15,000 radio stations operating (2018)

Transportation

NorwayUnited States
Railways
total: 4,200 km (2019)
standard gauge: 4,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2,480 km electrified) (2019)
total: 293,564 km (2014)
standard gauge: 293,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways
total: 94,902 km (includes 455 km of expressways) (2018)
total: 6,586,610 km (2012)
paved: 4,304,715 km (includes 76,334 km of expressways) (2012)
unpaved: 2,281,895 km (2012)
Waterways
1,577 km (2010)
41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce; Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, is shared with Canada) (2012)
Pipelines
8520 km gas, 1304 km oil/condensate (2017)
1,984,321 km natural gas, 240,711 km petroleum products (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
oil terminal(s): LOOP terminal, Haymark terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Charleston (2,177,000), Hampton Roads (2,841,000), Houston (2,459,000), Long Beach (7,544,000), Los Angeles (9,343,000), New York/New Jersey (6,710,000), Oakland (2,420,000), Savannah (4,046,000), Seattle/Tacoma (3,665,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kenai (AK)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Everett (MA), Freeport (TX), Golden Pass (TX), Hackberry (LA), Lake Charles (LA), Neptune (offshore), Northeast Gateway (offshore), Pascagoula (MS), Sabine Pass (TX)
cargo ports: Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Hampton Roads, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines (LA), Tampa, Texas City
cruise departure ports (passengers): Miami (2,032,000), Port Everglades (1,277,000), Port Canaveral (1,189,000), Seattle (430,000), Long Beach (415,000) (2009)
Merchant marine
total: 1,581
by type: bulk carrier 102, general cargo 249, oil tanker 81, other 1149 (2018)
total: 3,692
by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 61, general cargo 115, oil tanker 71, other 3440 (2018)
Airports
total: 95 (2013)
total: 13,513 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 67 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2017)
under 914 m: 21 (2017)
total: 5,054 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 189 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 235 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,478 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2,249 (2013)
under 914 m: 903 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 28 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
total: 8,459 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 140 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1,552 (2013)
under 914 m: 6,760 (2013)
Heliports
1 (2013)
5,287 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,277,220 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 92 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6,817 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 798.23 million (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 37.219 billion mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
LN (2016)
N (2016)

Military

NorwayUnited States
Military branches
Norwegian Armed Forces:  Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2019)
United States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard (administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy), National Guard (Army National Guard and Air National Guard) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
19-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 17 years of age for male volunteers (16 in wartime); 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation; conscripts first serve 12 months from 19-28, and then up to 4-5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55, or 60 depending on rank and function. (2019)
18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 34 (Army), 39 (Air Force), 39 (Navy), 28 (Marines), 31 (Coast Guard); 8-year service obligation, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard); all military occupations and positions open to women (2019)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.61% of GDP (2018)
1.62% of GDP (2017)
1.62% of GDP (2016)
1.5% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
3.16% of GDP (2018)
3.11% of GDP (2017)
3.21% of GDP (2016)
3.27% of GDP (2015)
3.48% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

NorwayUnited States
Disputes - international

Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 15,246 (Eritrea), 13,914 (Syria), 7,183 (Somalia), 6,065 (Afghanistan) (2018)
stateless persons: 2,809 (2018)
refugees (country of origin): the US admitted 30,000 refugees during FY2019 including: 12,958 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 4,932 (Burma), 4,451 (Ukraine), 1,757 (Eritrea), 1,198 (Afghanistan)

note: 72,722 Venezuelans have claimed asylum since 2014 because of the economic and political crisis (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook