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Norway vs. United States

Introduction

NorwayUnited States
BackgroundTwo centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.
Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

Geography

NorwayUnited States
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Geographic coordinates62 00 N, 10 00 E
38 00 N, 97 00 W
Map referencesEurope
North America
Areatotal: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
total: 9,833,517 sq km
land: 9,147,593 sq km
water: 685,924 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories (2010)
Area - comparativeslightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union
Land boundariestotal: 2,566 km
border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km
total: 12,048 km
border countries (2): Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,155 km
note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km
Coastline25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
19,924 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climatetemperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Terrainglaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 460 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
mean elevation: 760 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Death Valley -86 m (lowest point in North America)
highest point: Denali (Mount McKinley) 6,190 m (highest point in North America)
note: the peak of Mauna Kea (4,205 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land
note: the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total
Land useagricultural land: 2.7%
arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5%
forest: 27.8%
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 44.5%
arable land 16.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 27.4%
forest: 33.3%
other: 22.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land900 sq km (2012)
264,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrockslides, avalanches
volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell; in Hawaii: Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood
Environment - current issueswater pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
large emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Geography - noteabout two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent
Population distributionmost Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
large urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu

Demographics

NorwayUnited States
Population5,320,045 (July 2017 est.)
326,625,791 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18% (male 490,915/female 466,515)
15-24 years: 12.58% (male 343,103/female 326,053)
25-54 years: 41.01% (male 1,125,334/female 1,056,330)
55-64 years: 11.71% (male 315,223/female 307,639)
65 years and over: 16.71% (male 409,057/female 479,876) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 18.73% (male 31,255,995/female 29,919,938)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 22,213,952/female 21,137,826)
25-54 years: 39.45% (male 64,528,673/female 64,334,499)
55-64 years: 12.91% (male 20,357,880/female 21,821,976)
65 years and over: 15.63% (male 22,678,235/female 28,376,817) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 39.2 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 40 years (2017 est.)
total: 38.1 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 39.4 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.01% (2017 est.)
0.81% (2017 est.)
Birth rate12.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: NA
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.9 years
male: 79.8 years
female: 84 years (2017 est.)
total population: 80 years
male: 77.7 years
female: 82.2 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.85 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
noun: American(s)
adjective: American
Ethnic groupsNorwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)
white 72.4%, black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.9%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%, other 6.2%, two or more races 2.9% (2010 estimate)
note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 16.3% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2010
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsChurch of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 71.5%, Roman Catholic 2.8%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.8%, other 2%, unspecified 7.5% (2016 est.)
Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesBokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities
English 79%, Spanish 13%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific island 3.4%, other 1% (2015 est.)
note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2015)
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Education expenditures7.4% of GDP (2013)
4.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 81% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.31% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
urban population: 82% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationOSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015)
New York-Newark 18.593 million; Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana 12.31 million; Chicago 8.745 million; Miami 5.817 million; Dallas-Fort Worth 5.703 million; WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) 4.955 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
14 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.7% of GDP (2014)
17.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.42 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.55 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density3.85 beds/1,000 population (2014)
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.1% (2016)
36.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.9 years
note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births (2015 est.)
26.4 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 27.3
elderly dependency ratio: 24.8
potential support ratio: 4
note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 51.2
youth dependency ratio: 29
elderly dependency ratio: 22.1
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)

Government

NorwayUnited States
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words ""nordr"" and ""vegr"" meaning ""northern way"" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
"
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA
etymology: the name America is derived from that of Amerigo VESPUCCI (1454-1512) - Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer - using the Latin form of his name, Americus, feminized to America
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
constitutional federal republic
Capitalname: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Washington, DC
geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W
time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: the 50 United States cover six time zones
Administrative divisions19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Dependent areasBouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island
note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; it entered into a political relationship with all four political entities: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994)
Independence7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
National holidayConstitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Constitutionhistory: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2015 (2016)
previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789; amended many times, last in 1992 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
common law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law except Louisiana, which is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
chief of state: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 10 November 2020)
election results: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 September 2017 (next to be held in September 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 27.4%, H 25%, FrP 15.2%, SP 10.3%, SV 6%, V 4.4%, KrF 4.2%, MDG 3.2%, R 2.4%, other/invalid 1.9%; seats by party - Ap 49, H 45, FrP 27, SP 19, SV 11, V 8, KrF 8, MDG 1, R 1
description: bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats; 2 members directly elected in each of the 50 state constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia and Louisiana which require an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia which requires an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 2-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 6 November 2018); House of Representatives - last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 6 November 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 24, Democratic Party 10; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 241, Democratic Party 194,
note: in addition to the regular members of the House of Representatives there are 6 non-voting delegates elected from the District of Columbia and the US territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands; these are single seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term (except for the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico who serves a 4-year term); the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegates last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held on 6 November 2018)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
highest court(s): US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: president nominates and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories
note: the US court system consists of the federal court system and the state court systems; although each court system is responsible for hearing certain types of cases, neither is completely independent of the other, and the systems often interact
Political parties and leadersCenter Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Une Aina BASTHOLM]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Democratic Party [Tom PEREZ]
Green Party [collective leadership]
Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK]
Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Norwegian Enterprise or NHO [Tore ULSTEIN, Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or LO [Hans-Christian GABRIELSEN]
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag descriptionred with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; the blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship; red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory
note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
National anthem"name: ""Ja, vi elsker dette landet"" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK
note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, ""Kongesangen"" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of ""God Save the Queen,"" serves as the royal anthem
"
"name: ""The Star-Spangled Banner""
lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH
note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of ""The Anacreontic Song""; only the first verse is sung
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
withdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, blue
bald eagle; national colors: red, white, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

NorwayUnited States
Economy - overviewNorway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources in addition to oil and gas, including hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, though oil production in 2016 was close to 50% below its peak in 2000; annual gas production, conversely, more than doubled over the same time period. After a continual decline from 2001 to 2013, oil production rose in 2016 for the third year running, due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at almost $900 billion as of early 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a “fiscal rule,” which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. Lower oil prices in 2015 and 2016 caused growth to slow, increased unemployment, and weakened the Norwegian krone. The latter trend has mitigated the negative impact of lower oil and gas prices by making Norwegian exports cheaper for foreign buyers. The government has expressed willingness to increase public spending from the sovereign wealth fund to help prevent a recession.
"The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $57,300. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at purchasing power parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades.

In the US, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, businesses face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets.

Long-term problems for the US include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits.

The onrush of technology has been a driving factor in the gradual development of a ""two-tier"" labor market in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. But the globalization of trade, and especially the rise of low-wage producers such as China, has put additional downward pressure on wages and upward pressure on the return to capital. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income.

Imported oil accounts for nearly 55% of US consumption and oil has a major impact on the overall health of the economy. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. Because the US economy is energy-intensive, falling oil prices since 2013 have alleviated many of the problems the earlier increases had created.

The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the US into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009, Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012, the Federal Government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries.

Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through 2014, the direct costs of the wars totaled more than $1.5 trillion, according to US Government figures.

In March 2010, President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million Americans by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on healthcare - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010.

In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are ""too big to fail,"" and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight.

In December 2012, the Federal Reserve Board (Fed) announced plans to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short-term rates near zero until unemployment dropped below 6.5% or inflation rose above 2.5%. In late 2013, the Fed announced that it would begin scaling back long-term bond purchases to $75 billion per month in January 2014 and further reduce them as conditions warranted; the Fed ended the purchases during the summer of 2014. In 2014, the unemployment rate dropped to 6.2%, and continued to fall to 5.5% by mid-2015, the lowest rate of joblessness since before the global recession began; inflation stood at 1.7%, and public debt as a share of GDP continued to decline, following several years of increases. In December 2015, the Fed raised its target for the benchmark federal funds rate by 0.25%, the first increase since the recession began. With US GDP growth below 2%, the Fed opted to raise rates three times since then, and in mid-June 2017, the range for the target rate stood at 1% to 1.25%.
"
GDP (purchasing power parity)$375.9 billion (2017 est.)
$370.9 billion (2016 est.)
$366.9 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$19.36 trillion (2017 est.)
$18.95 trillion (2016 est.)
$18.67 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.4% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$70,600 (2017 est.)
$70,600 (2016 est.)
$70,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$59,500 (2017 est.)
$58,600 (2016 est.)
$58,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.4%
industry: 31.1%
services: 66.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 18.9%
services: 80.2%
(2017 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
15.1% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.1% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
2.1% (2017 est.)
1.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.797 million (2017 est.)
160.4 million
note: includes unemployed (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7%
manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3%
managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3%
sales and office: 24.2%
other services: 17.6%
note: figures exclude the unemployed
(2009)
Unemployment rate4% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.8 (2010)
25.8 (1995)
45 (2007)
40.8 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $214.3 billion
expenditures: $198 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $3.336 trillion
expenditures: $3.991 trillion
note: for the US, revenues exclude social contributions of approximately $1.0 trillion; expenditures exclude social benefits of approximately $2.3 trillion (2017 est.)
Industriespetroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Exports$102.8 billion (2017 est.)
$88.88 billion (2016 est.)
$1.576 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.456 trillion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2008 est.)
Exports - partnersUK 21%, Germany 14.4%, Netherlands 10.7%, France 6.9%, Sweden 6.5%, Belgium 4.4%, US 4.3%, Denmark 4% (2016)
Canada 18.3%, Mexico 15.9%, China 8%, Japan 4.4% (2016)
Imports$79.9 billion (2017 est.)
$73.62 billion (2016 est.)
$2.352 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.208 trillion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2008 est.)
Imports - partnersGermany 12.2%, Sweden 12.2%, China 11.2%, US 6.6%, Denmark 5.7%, UK 5.2%, Netherlands 4.1% (2016)
China 21.1%, Mexico 13.4%, Canada 12.7%, Japan 6%, Germany 5.2% (2016)
Debt - external$642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
$17.91 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$17.85 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency
Exchange ratesNorwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
8.308 (2017 est.)
8.3978 (2016 est.)
8.3978 (2015 est.)
8.0646 (2014 est.)
6.3021 (2013 est.)
British pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.906 (2017 est.), 0.9214 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 October - 30 September
Public debt37% of GDP (2017 est.)
35.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
"77.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
76.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as ""Debt Held by the Public,"" which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intra-government debt were added, ""gross debt"" would increase by about one-third of GDP
"
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$60.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$117.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$117.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$21.73 billion (2017 est.)
$18.43 billion (2016 est.)
-$462 billion (2017 est.)
-$451.7 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$392.1 billion (2016 est.)
$19.36 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$217.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$219.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.084 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.614 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$205.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$191.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.644 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.352 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$25.07 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.33 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$24.03 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.25% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)
0.5% (31 December 2010)
0.5% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate1.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
3.51% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$650.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$571.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.59 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.24 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$236.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.627 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.25 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$272.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$234.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.84 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues54.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.2% of GDP
note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)4.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.1%
male: 13%
female: 9.3% (2016 est.)
total: 10.4%
male: 11.4%
female: 9.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 44.7%
government consumption: 24.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.8%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 36.4%
imports of goods and services: -33.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 69.1%
government consumption: 17.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 12.2%
imports of goods and services: -15.1% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving34.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
34.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NorwayUnited States
Electricity - production149.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
4.088 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption133.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3.911 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
9.695 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports5.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
80.66 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production1.648 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
8.853 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports10,630 bbl/day (2016 est.)
7.85 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports1.395 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
590,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves6.611 billion bbl (1 January 2017)
36.52 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.856 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
8.714 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production117.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
766.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption9.428 billion cu m (2015 est.)
773.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports112 billion cu m (2015 est.)
50.52 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2014 est.)
76.96 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity33.85 million kW (2015 est.)
1.074 billion kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels4.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
70.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants88.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
7.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
9.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
10.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production282,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
20.08 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption227,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
19.69 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports353,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
4.67 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports124,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
2.205 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy53.9 million Mt (2015 est.)
5.402 billion Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

NorwayUnited States
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 863,855
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 121.53 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5,718,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
total: 416.684 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2016)
general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country
international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2016)
Internet country code.no
.us
Internet userstotal: 5,122,904
percent of population: 97.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 246,809,221
percent of population: 76.2% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2017)
4 major terrestrial TV networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with many affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 600 member stations; satellite radio available; overall, nearly 15,000 radio stations operating (2008)

Transportation

NorwayUnited States
Railwaystotal: 4,250 km
standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2014)
total: 293,564.2 km
standard gauge: 293,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 93,870 km (includes 393 km of expressways)
paved: 75,754 km
unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)
total: 6,586,610 km
paved: 4,304,715 km (includes 76,334 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,281,895 km (2012)
Waterways1,577 km (2010)
41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce; Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, is shared with Canada) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 8,520 km; oil/condensate 1,304 km (2017)
natural gas 1,984,321 km; petroleum products 240,711 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
cargo ports: Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Hampton Roads, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines (LA), Tampa, Texas City
container port(s) (TEUs): Hampton Roads (2,549,000), Houston (2,131,000), Long Beach (7,192,000), Los Angeles (8,160,000), New York/New Jersey (6,372,000), Oakland (2,278,000), Savannah (3,737,000), Seattle (3,531,000) (2015)
cruise departure ports (passengers): Miami (2,032,000), Port Everglades (1,277,000), Port Canaveral (1,189,000), Seattle (430,000), Long Beach (415,000) (2009)
oil terminal(s): LOOP terminal, Haymark terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Everett (MA), Freeport (TX), Golden Pass (TX), Hackberry (LA), Lake Charles (LA), Neptune (offshore), Northeast Gateway (offshore), Pascagoula (MS), Sabine Pass (TX)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kenai (AK)
Merchant marinetotal: 1,585
by type: bulk carrier 99, general cargo 240, oil tanker 80, other 1,166 (2017)
total: 3,611
by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 61, general cargo 114, oil tanker 66, other 3,365 (2017)
Airports95 (2013)
13,513 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 21 (2017)
total: 5,054
over 3,047 m: 189
2,438 to 3,047 m: 235
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,478
914 to 1,523 m: 2,249
under 914 m: 903 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
total: 8,459
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 140
914 to 1,523 m: 1,552
under 914 m: 6,760 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
5,287 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,277,220
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 92
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6,817
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 798.23 million
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 37.219 billion mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixLN (2016)
N (2016)

Military

NorwayUnited States
Military branchesNorwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2017)
United States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard; note - Coast Guard administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy (2017)
Military service age and obligation19-35 years of age for male and female compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation (2017)
18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); 8-year service obligation, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines); all military occupations and positions open to women (2016)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.62% of GDP (2016)
1.5% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)
1.4% of GDP (2012)
3.29% of GDP (2016)
3.3% of GDP (2015)
3.51% of GDP (2014)
3.83% of GDP (2013)
4.24% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

NorwayUnited States
Disputes - internationalNorway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,062 (Eritrea); 11,537 (Syria); 8,379 (Somalia); 6,568 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,251 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): the US admitted 84,994 refugees during FY2016 including: 16,370 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 12,587 (Syria); 12,347 (Burma); 9,880 (Iraq); 9,020 (Somalia); 5,817 (Bhutan); 3,750 (Iran)
note: more than 46,000 Venezuelans have claimed asylum since 2014 because of the economic and political crisis (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook