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Norway vs. Sweden

Introduction

NorwaySweden
BackgroundTwo centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

Geography

NorwaySweden
LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates62 00 N, 10 00 E
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 2,566 km
border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km
total: 2,211 km
border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km
Coastline25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
3,218 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrainglaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 460 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
mean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 2.7%
arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5%
forest: 27.8%
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1%
forest: 68.7%
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land900 sq km (2012)
1,640 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrockslides, avalanches
volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issueswater pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteabout two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
Population distributionmost Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Demographics

NorwaySweden
Population5,320,045 (July 2017 est.)
9,960,487 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18% (male 490,915/female 466,515)
15-24 years: 12.58% (male 343,103/female 326,053)
25-54 years: 41.01% (male 1,125,334/female 1,056,330)
55-64 years: 11.71% (male 315,223/female 307,639)
65 years and over: 16.71% (male 409,057/female 479,876) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 17.43% (male 892,462/female 843,375)
15-24 years: 11.31% (male 581,025/female 545,971)
25-54 years: 39.42% (male 1,993,590/female 1,933,080)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 578,942/female 574,479)
65 years and over: 20.26% (male 931,593/female 1,085,970) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 39.2 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 40 years (2017 est.)
total: 41.2 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.01% (2017 est.)
0.81% (2017 est.)
Birth rate12.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.9 years
male: 79.8 years
female: 84 years (2017 est.)
total population: 82.1 years
male: 80.2 years
female: 84.2 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.85 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.88 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.2% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groupsNorwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)
indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; most common countries of origin among immigrants: Finland, Syria, Iraq, Poland, Iran
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
11,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsChurch of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 71.5%, Roman Catholic 2.8%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.8%, other 2%, unspecified 7.5% (2016 est.)
Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 63%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 17% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
<100 (2016 est.)
LanguagesBokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities
Swedish (official)
note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2015)
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Education expenditures7.4% of GDP (2013)
7.7% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 81% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.31% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
urban population: 86.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationOSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015)
STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.486 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.7% of GDP (2014)
11.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.42 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
4.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density3.85 beds/1,000 population (2014)
2.54 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.1% (2016)
20.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.9 years
note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births (2015 est.)
29.1 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.1
youth dependency ratio: 27.3
elderly dependency ratio: 24.8
potential support ratio: 4
note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 27.4
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)

Government

NorwaySweden
Country name"conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words ""nordr"" and ""vegr"" meaning ""northern way"" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
"
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
Government typeparliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
National holidayConstitution Day, 17 May (1814)
National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitutionhistory: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2015 (2016)
"history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the ""Instrument of Government"") (2016)
"
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 September 2017 (next to be held in September 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 27.4%, H 25%, FrP 15.2%, SP 10.3%, SV 6%, V 4.4%, KrF 4.2%, MDG 3.2%, R 2.4%, other/invalid 1.9%; seats by party - Ap 49, H 45, FrP 27, SP 19, SV 11, V 8, KrF 8, MDG 1, R 1
"description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in ""at-large"" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held on or before 9 September 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, L 5.4%, KD 4.6%, other 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, L 19, KD 16
"
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leadersCenter Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Une Aina BASTHOLM]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Gustav FRIDOLIN]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Norwegian Enterprise or NHO [Tore ULSTEIN, Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or LO [Hans-Christian GABRIELSEN]
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Naringsliv) [Carola LEMNE]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO [Goran ARRIUS]
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO [Eva NORDMARK]
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Karl-Petter THORWALDSSON]
other: environmental groups; media
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 17 September 2013)
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 459-3990
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James P. DEHART (since 12 January 2017)
embassy: Morgedalsvegen 36, 0378 Oslo;
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David E. LINDWALL (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag descriptionred with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
National anthem"name: ""Ja, vi elsker dette landet"" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK
note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, ""Kongesangen"" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of ""God Save the Queen,"" serves as the royal anthem
"
"name: ""Du Gamla, Du Fria"" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional
note: in use since 1844; also known as ""Sang till Norden"" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; ""Kungssangen"" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, blue
three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

NorwaySweden
Economy - overviewNorway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources in addition to oil and gas, including hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, though oil production in 2016 was close to 50% below its peak in 2000; annual gas production, conversely, more than doubled over the same time period. After a continual decline from 2001 to 2013, oil production rose in 2016 for the third year running, due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at almost $900 billion as of early 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a “fiscal rule,” which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. Lower oil prices in 2015 and 2016 caused growth to slow, increased unemployment, and weakened the Norwegian krone. The latter trend has mitigated the negative impact of lower oil and gas prices by making Norwegian exports cheaper for foreign buyers. The government has expressed willingness to increase public spending from the sovereign wealth fund to help prevent a recession.
Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade.

Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014-17, with real GDP growth above 3%, but continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$375.9 billion (2017 est.)
$370.9 billion (2016 est.)
$366.9 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$521.7 billion (2017 est.)
$506 billion (2016 est.)
$490.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.4% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$70,600 (2017 est.)
$70,600 (2016 est.)
$70,500 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$51,300 (2017 est.)
$50,600 (2016 est.)
$49,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.4%
industry: 31.1%
services: 66.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 33%
services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
15% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.1% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.797 million (2017 est.)
5.361 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate4% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.8 (2010)
25.8 (1995)
24.9 (2013)
25 (1992)
Budgetrevenues: $214.3 billion
expenditures: $198 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $274.8 billion
expenditures: $269.9 billion (2017 est.)
Industriespetroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsbarley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Exports$102.8 billion (2017 est.)
$88.88 billion (2016 est.)
$169.7 billion (2017 est.)
$151.4 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)
Exports - partnersUK 21%, Germany 14.4%, Netherlands 10.7%, France 6.9%, Sweden 6.5%, Belgium 4.4%, US 4.3%, Denmark 4% (2016)
Germany 10.6%, Norway 10.4%, US 7.3%, Denmark 7%, Finland 6.8%, UK 6%, Netherlands 5.4%, Belgium 4.7%, France 4.4% (2016)
Imports$79.9 billion (2017 est.)
$73.62 billion (2016 est.)
$154.8 billion (2017 est.)
$139.9 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partnersGermany 12.2%, Sweden 12.2%, China 11.2%, US 6.6%, Denmark 5.7%, UK 5.2%, Netherlands 4.1% (2016)
Germany 18.8%, Netherlands 8.2%, Norway 7.8%, Denmark 7.6%, China 5.6%, UK 5.2%, Belgium 4.6%, Finland 4.5%, France 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
$939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesNorwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
8.308 (2017 est.)
8.3978 (2016 est.)
8.3978 (2015 est.)
8.0646 (2014 est.)
6.3021 (2013 est.)
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
8.442 (2017 est.)
8.5605 (2016 est.)
8.5605 (2015 est.)
8.4335 (2014 est.)
6.8612 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt37% of GDP (2017 est.)
35.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
39% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$60.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$21.73 billion (2017 est.)
$18.43 billion (2016 est.)
$21.4 billion (2017 est.)
$23.07 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$392.1 billion (2016 est.)
$541.9 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$217.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$219.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$405.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$205.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$191.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$495.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.25% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)
"-0.5% (31 December 2016)
-0.35% (31 December 2015)
note:: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a ""Reference rate"" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate
"
Commercial bank prime lending rate1.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.85% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$650.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$571.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$953.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$748.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$236.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$339.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$273.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$272.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$234.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$395.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$321.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues54.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)4.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.1%
male: 13%
female: 9.3% (2016 est.)
total: 20.4%
male: 21.2%
female: 19.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 44.7%
government consumption: 24.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.8%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 36.4%
imports of goods and services: -33.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 44.2%
government consumption: 25.4%
investment in fixed capital: 25.3%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 45.5%
imports of goods and services: -40.7% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving34.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
34.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NorwaySweden
Electricity - production149.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
154.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption133.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
125.4 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports5.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production1.648 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports10,630 bbl/day (2016 est.)
393,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports1.395 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves6.611 billion bbl (1 January 2017)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.856 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production117.2 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption9.428 billion cu m (2015 est.)
1.25 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports112 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2014 est.)
812 million cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity33.85 million kW (2015 est.)
39.67 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels4.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
6.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants88.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
40.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
24.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production282,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
418,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption227,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
320,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports353,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
336,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports124,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
220,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy53.9 million Mt (2015 est.)
62 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

NorwaySweden
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 863,855
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,328,371
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 5,718,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
total: 12,362,191
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2016)
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2016)
Internet country code.no
.se
Internet userstotal: 5,122,904
percent of population: 97.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 9,041,427
percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2017)
publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)

Transportation

NorwaySweden
Railwaystotal: 4,250 km
standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2014)
total: 14,127 km
standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
Roadwaystotal: 93,870 km (includes 393 km of expressways)
paved: 75,754 km
unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)
total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways)
paved: 140,100 km
unpaved: 433,034 km
note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads (2016)
Waterways1,577 km (2010)
2,052 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 8,520 km; oil/condensate 1,304 km (2017)
gas 1,626 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
Merchant marinetotal: 1,585
by type: bulk carrier 99, general cargo 240, oil tanker 80, other 1,166 (2017)
total: 368
by type: general cargo 71, oil tanker 23, other 274 (2017)
Airports95 (2013)
231 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 21 (2017)
total: 149
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
total: 82
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
2 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,277,220
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 8
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixLN (2016)
SE (2016)

Military

NorwaySweden
Military branchesNorwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2017)
Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2016)
Military service age and obligation19-35 years of age for male and female compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation (2017)
18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, is due to be reinstated in 2018 (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.62% of GDP (2016)
1.5% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)
1.4% of GDP (2012)
1.04% of GDP (2016)
1.09% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)
1.13% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

NorwaySweden
Disputes - internationalNorway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
none
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,062 (Eritrea); 11,537 (Syria); 8,379 (Somalia); 6,568 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 3,251 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 96,914 (Syria); 25,968 (Eritrea); 21,693 (Iraq); 22,548 (Somalia); 16,558 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 36,036 (2016); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia

Source: CIA Factbook