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Norway vs. Sweden

Introduction

NorwaySweden
Background
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 19.1% in 2018.

 

Geography

NorwaySweden
Location
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates
62 00 N, 10 00 E
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references
Europe
Europe
Area
total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land boundaries
total: 2,566 km
border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1666 km, Russia 191 km
total: 2,211 km
border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1666 km
Coastline
25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
3,218 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 460 m
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
mean elevation: 320 m
lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use
agricultural land: 2.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 2.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 27.8% (2011 est.)
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 68.7% (2011 est.)
other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
900 sq km (2012)
1,640 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices

Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
Population distribution
most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Demographics

NorwaySweden
Population
5,372,191 (July 2018 est.)
10,040,995 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.99% (male 495,403 /female 471,014)
15-24 years: 12.37% (male 340,672 /female 324,088)
25-54 years: 40.98% (male 1,136,373 /female 1,065,138)
55-64 years: 11.72% (male 318,898 /female 310,668)
65 years and over: 16.94% (male 420,178 /female 489,759) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 17.54% (male 904,957 /female 855,946)
15-24 years: 11.06% (male 573,595 /female 537,358)
25-54 years: 39.37% (male 2,005,422 /female 1,947,245)
55-64 years: 11.67% (male 588,314 /female 583,002)
65 years and over: 20.37% (male 946,170 /female 1,098,986) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 39.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 38.6 years
female: 40 years
total: 41.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 40.1 years
female: 42.2 years
Population growth rate
0.94% (2018 est.)
0.8% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
12.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 82 years (2018 est.)
male: 79.9 years
female: 84.1 years
total population: 82.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 80.3 years
female: 84.3 years
Total fertility rate
1.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
1.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.1% (2018 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
Nationality
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups
Norwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)

Swedish 80.9%, Syrian 1.8%, Finnish 1.4%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 14.5%

(2018 est.)
note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
5,800 (2018 est.)
11,000 (2016 est.)
Religions
Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 70.6%, Muslim 3.2%, Roman Catholic 3%, other Christian 3.7%, other 2.5%, unspecified 17% (2016 est.)
Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 60.2%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.5%, none or unspecified 31.3% (2017 est.)

note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members); an estimated 57.7% of Sweden's population were members of the Church of Sweden in 2018

HIV/AIDS - deaths
<100 (2018 est.)
NA
Languages
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

note: Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms

Swedish (official)

note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 19 years (2016)
total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2016)
Education expenditures
7.6% of GDP (2015)
7.6% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 82.6% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

urban population: 87.7% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 98.1% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.027 million OSLO (capital) (2019)
1.608 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Health expenditures
10% (2015)
11% (2015)
Physicians density
4.63 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
5.4 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
3.8 beds/1,000 population (2015)
2.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
23.1% (2016)
20.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.9 years (2015 est.)

note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births

29.1 years (2015 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 52.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 24.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4 (2015 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

total dependency ratio: 58.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)

Government

NorwaySweden
Country name
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
Government type
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital
name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the medieval name was spelt "Aslo"; the "as" component refered either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("as" in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir (Norse gods); "lo" refered to "meadow," so the most likely interpretations would have been either "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods"; both explanations are considered equally plausible
name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: "stock" and "holm" literally mean "log" and "islet" in Swedish, but there is no consensus as to what the words refer to
Administrative divisions
18 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Telemark, Troms, Trondelag, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence
7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
National holiday
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitution
history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2018 (2018)
history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government") (2016)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
cabinet: Council  of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016); note - Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN was ousted in a no-confidence vote on 25 September 2018 and headed a caretaker government until the next government was formed; LOFVEN was reelected as Prime Minister and took office on 21 January 2019
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branch
description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 September 2017 (next to be held in September 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 27.4%, H 25%, FrP 15.2%, SP 10.3%, SV 6%, V 4.4%, KrF 4.2%, MDG 3.2%, R 2.4%, other/invalid 1.9%; seats by party - Ap 49, H 45, FrP 27, SP 19, SV 11, V 8, KrF 8, MDG 1, R 1; composition - men 99, women 70, percent of women 41.4%
description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 September 2018 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 28.3%, M 19.8%, SD 17.5%, C 8.6%, V 8%, KD 6.3%, L 5.5%, MP 4.4%, other 1.6%; seats by party - SAP 100, M 70, SD 62, C 31, V 28, KD 22, L 20, MP 16; composition - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46.1%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmennsrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
highest courts: Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leaders
Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Kjell Ingolf ROPSTADT]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Une Aina BASTHOLM]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Red Party or R [Bionar MOXNES]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Per BOLUND]
Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 17 September 2013)
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 469-3990
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 536-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 536-1501
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth BRAITHWAITE (since 8 February 2018)
telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
embassy: Morgedalsvegen 36, 0378 Oslo
mailing address: PO Box 4075 AMB 0244 Oslo
FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Pamela TREMONT (since April 2019)
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
National anthem
name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem

name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
lion; national colors: red, white, blue
three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

NorwaySweden
Economy - overview

Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. However, as a member of the European Economic Area, Norway partially participates in the EU’s single market and contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources such as oil and gas, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, although oil production is close to 50% below its peak in 2000. Gas production, conversely, has more than doubled since 2000. Although oil production is historically low, it rose in 2016 for the third consecutive year due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream. Norway’s domestic electricity production relies almost entirely on hydropower.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $1 trillion at the end of 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a "fiscal rule," which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. The Norwegian economy has been adjusting to lower energy prices, as demonstrated by growth in labor force participation and employment in 2017. GDP growth was about 1.5% in 2017, driven largely by domestic demand, which has been boosted by the rebound in the labor market and supportive fiscal policies. Economic growth is expected to remain constant or improve slightly in the next few years.

Sweden’s small, open, and competitive economy has been thriving and Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system.

 

Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of a manufacturing economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. Exports, including engines and other machines, motor vehicles, and telecommunications equipment, account for more than 44% of GDP. Sweden enjoys a current account surplus of about 5% of GDP, which is one of the highest margins in Europe.

 

GDP grew an estimated 3.3% in 2016 and 2017 driven largely by investment in the construction sector. Swedish economists expect economic growth to ease slightly in the coming years as this investment subsides. Global economic growth boosted exports of Swedish manufactures further, helping drive domestic economic growth in 2017. The Central Bank is keeping an eye on deflationary pressures and bank observers expect it to maintain an expansionary monetary policy in 2018. Swedish prices and wages have grown only slightly over the past few years, helping to support the country’s competitiveness.

 

In the short and medium term, Sweden’s economic challenges include providing affordable housing and successfully integrating migrants into the labor market.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$381.2 billion (2017 est.)
$374 billion (2016 est.)
$370 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$518 billion (2017 est.)
$507.3 billion (2016 est.)
$494 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
1.9% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
2% (2015 est.)
2.1% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
4.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$72,100 (2017 est.)
$71,200 (2016 est.)
$71,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$51,200 (2017 est.)
$50,800 (2016 est.)
$50,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)
industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
services: 64% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 33% (2017 est.)
services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
NA
15% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24% (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
1.9% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
Labor force
2.797 million (2017 est.)
5.361 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2%
industry: 12%
services: 86% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate
4.2% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
6.7% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
26.8 (2010)
25.8 (1995)
24.9 (2013)
25 (1992)
Budget
revenues: 217.1 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 199.5 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 271.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 264.4 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate
1.5% (2017 est.)
4.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Exports
$102.8 billion (2017 est.)
$88.88 billion (2016 est.)
$165.6 billion (2017 est.)
$151.4 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
machinery (26%), motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2016 est.)
Exports - partners
UK 21.1%, Germany 15.5%, Netherlands 9.9%, Sweden 6.6%, France 6.4%, Belgium 4.8%, Denmark 4.7%, US 4.6% (2017)
Germany 11%, Norway 10.2%, Finland 6.9%, US 6.9%, Denmark 6.9%, UK 6.2%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.5%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2017)
Imports
$95.06 billion (2017 est.)
$74.94 billion (2016 est.)
$153.2 billion (2017 est.)
$140.2 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners
Sweden 11.4%, Germany 11%, China 9.8%, US 6.8%, South Korea 6.7%, Denmark 5.4%, UK 4.7% (2017)
Germany 18.7%, Netherlands 8.9%, Norway 7.7%, Denmark 7.2%, China 5.5%, UK 5.1%, Finland 4.7%, Belgium 4.7% (2017)
Debt - external
$642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
$939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rates
Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
8.308 (2017 est.)
8.3978 (2016 est.)
8.3978 (2015 est.)
8.0646 (2014 est.)
6.3021 (2013 est.)
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
8.442 (2017 est.)
8.5605 (2016 est.)
8.5605 (2015 est.)
8.4335 (2014 est.)
6.8612 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

40.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$65.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$62.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
$22.01 billion (2017 est.)
$14.09 billion (2016 est.)
$17.79 billion (2017 est.)
$21.84 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$398.8 billion (2017 est.)
$535.6 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$236.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$219.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$458.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$196.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$191.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$523.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate
6.25% (31 December 2010)
1.75% (31 December 2009)
-0.5% (31 December 2017)
-0.5% (31 December 2016)

note: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a "Reference rate" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate
2.89% (31 December 2017 est.)
2.96% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.93% (31 December 2017 est.)
2% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$640.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$571.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$929.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$749.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$237.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$329.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$273.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$237.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$329.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$273.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
54.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
50.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
4.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 10.4%
male: 11.7%
female: 9% (2017 est.)
total: 17.9%
male: 18.8%
female: 17% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 44.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 24% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 35.5% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 26% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
34.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
35.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NorwaySweden
Electricity - production
147.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
152.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
122.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
133.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
5.741 billion kWh (2016 est.)
14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
1.517 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
36,550 bbl/day (2017 est.)
400,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - exports
1.383 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
14,570 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
6.376 billion bbl (1 January 2018)
0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
1.782 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production
123.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
4.049 billion cu m (2017 est.)
764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
120.2 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
5.663 million cu m (2017 est.)
764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
33.86 million kW (2016 est.)
40.29 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
371,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
205,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
323,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
432,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
135,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
39.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
52.31 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

NorwaySweden
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 745,182
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,794,418
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 5,721,255
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 12,435,709
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe; forward leaning in LTE-A developments; looking to close 3G and 2G networks by 2025 and preparing for 5G; broadband penetration rate is among the best in Europe (2018)
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 108 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2018)
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2017)
Internet country code
.no
.se
Internet users
total: 5,122,904
percent of population: 97.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 9,041,427
percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2019)
publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently

Transportation

NorwaySweden
Railways
total: 4,200 km (2019)
standard gauge: 4,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2,480 km electrified) (2019)
total: 14,127 km (2016)
standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified) (2016)
narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
Roadways
total: 94,902 km (includes 455 km of expressways) (2018)
total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways) (2016)
paved: 140,100 km (2016)
unpaved: 433,034 km (2016)

note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads

Waterways
1,577 km (2010)
2,052 km (2010)
Pipelines
8520 km gas, 1304 km oil/condensate (2017)
1626 km gas (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
Merchant marine
total: 1,581
by type: bulk carrier 102, general cargo 249, oil tanker 81, other 1149 (2018)
total: 359
by type: general cargo 66, oil tanker 22, other 271 (2018)
Airports
total: 95 (2013)
total: 231 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 67 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2017)
under 914 m: 21 (2017)
total: 149 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2013)
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 28 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
total: 82 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
Heliports
1 (2013)
2 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,277,220 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 8 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
LN (2016)
SE (2016)

Military

NorwaySweden
Military branches
Norwegian Armed Forces:  Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2019)
Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army, Navy, Air Force, Home Guard (2019)
Military service age and obligation
19-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 17 years of age for male volunteers (16 in wartime); 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation; conscripts first serve 12 months from 19-28, and then up to 4-5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55, or 60 depending on rank and function. (2019)
18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in January 2018; conscription is selective, includes both female and male (age 18), and requires 9-12 months of service (2018)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.61% of GDP (2018)
1.62% of GDP (2017)
1.62% of GDP (2016)
1.5% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
1.04% of GDP (2018)
1.03% of GDP (2017)
1.06% of GDP (2016)
1.08% of GDP (2015)
1.14% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

NorwaySweden
Disputes - international

Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

none

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 15,246 (Eritrea), 13,914 (Syria), 7,183 (Somalia), 6,065 (Afghanistan) (2018)
stateless persons: 2,809 (2018)
refugees (country of origin): 109,343 (Syria), 27,653 (Eritrea), 28,204 (Afghanistan), 21,032 (Somalia), 12,693 (Iraq), 6,485 (Iran) (2018)
stateless persons: 31,819 (2018); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia

Source: CIA Factbook