Nigeria vs. Chad


BackgroundBritish influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2016 was reelected to his fifth term in an election that was peaceful but flawed. In December 2015, Chad completed a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council. In January 2017, DEBY completed a one-year term as President of the African Union.


LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 8 00 E
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
Area - comparativeabout six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
almost nine times the size of New York state; slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
total: 6,406 km
border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
Coastline853 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrainsouthern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 380 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
mean elevation: 543 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land useagricultural land: 78%
arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
forest: 9.5%
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 39.6%
arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7%
forest: 9.1%
other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,930 sq km (2012)
300 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - notethe Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
"note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the ""Green Sahara"" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
11,852,462 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.79% (male 40,744,956/female 38,870,303)
15-24 years: 19.48% (male 18,514,466/female 17,729,351)
25-54 years: 30.65% (male 29,259,621/female 27,768,368)
55-64 years: 3.96% (male 3,595,293/female 3,769,986)
65 years and over: 3.12% (male 2,754,040/female 3,047,002) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.63% (male 2,622,700/female 2,549,035)
15-24 years: 21.18% (male 1,225,731/female 1,285,150)
25-54 years: 28.31% (male 1,525,208/female 1,830,530)
55-64 years: 3.87% (male 202,044/female 256,936)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,957/female 208,171) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.3 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.6 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.44% (2016 est.)
1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate37.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 71.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 92.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 53.4 years
male: 52.4 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 50.2 years
male: 49 years
female: 51.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate3.17% (2014 est.)
2.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groupsNigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 29.9%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.7%, Arab 9.6%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7.5%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.6%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Tupuri/Kera 2.1%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.9%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.2%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.4%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS3,391,600 (2014 est.)
165,600 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths174,300 (2014 est.)
8,500 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 40.2%
male: 48.5%
female: 31.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)
Education expendituresNA
2.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 47.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 22.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.42% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.8% of population
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 25.4% of population
total: 29% of population
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 74.6% of population
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 12.1% of population
urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)
N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight19.8% (2014)
28.8% (2015)
Health expenditures3.7% of GDP (2014)
3.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate9.7% (2014)
6.6% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 11,396,823
percentage: 29% (2007 est.)
total number: 1,475,960
percentage: 48% (2010 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
17.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Demographic profileNigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.
Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.
More than 300,000 refugees from Sudan and almost 70,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.
Contraceptive prevalence rate15.1% (2013)
5.7% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 87.7
youth dependency ratio: 82.6
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 100.7
youth dependency ratio: 95.8
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
"conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word ""tsade"" means ""large body of water"" or ""lake"" in several local native languages
Government typefederal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence1 October 1960 (from the UK)
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
mixed legal system of civil and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch"chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019)
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 54%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 45%, other 1%
chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (MPS) 5.1%, other 9.8%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10l; note - in the Senate seats by party as of 19 April 2017: APC 66, PDB 43; with continuing defections to the ruling APC, this is a moving target in the House of Represenatives
description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Political parties and leadersAccord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Ali Modu SHERIFF]
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDARD]
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic or CAP-SUR [Joseph Djimrangar DADNADJI]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
Political pressure groups and leadersAcademic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: the press
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hakeem Toyin BALOGUN (since 27 August 2015)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
consulate(s): Lagos
chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow (gold) of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; gold represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: almost identical to the flag of Romania but with a darker shade of blue; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design based on the flag of France
National anthem"name: ""Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey""
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
"name: ""La Tchadienne"" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)eagle; national colors: green, white
goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad
dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years


Economy - overviewNigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels, however - over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production has contracted every year since 2012.

President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but his reliance on the Central Bank governor has led to overwhelmingly protectionist policies aimed at defending the naira from further devaluation. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as an implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources. The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

Partly because of lower oil prices, Nigeria entered a recession in 2016. However, the medium-term outlook for Nigeria is positive, assuming oil output stabilizes and oil prices recover.
Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.

Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.

Athough high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.

In 2017, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2017, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.089 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.108 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.08 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$30.59 billion (2016 est.)
$30.93 billion (2015 est.)
$30.39 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-1.7% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
6.3% (2014 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
6.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,900 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$6,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,700 (2015 est.)
$2,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 21.1%
industry: 19.4%
services: 59.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 53%
industry: 12.8%
services: 34.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line70% (2010 est.)
46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)15.3% (2016 est.)
9% (2015 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
4.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force58.8 million (2016 est.)
5.457 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate13.9% (2016 est.)
23.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index48.8 (2013)
50.6 (1997)
43.3 (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $11.4 billion
expenditures: $21.21 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.626 billion
expenditures: $2.163 billion (2016 est.)
Industriescrude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate-4.7% (2016 est.)
-5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Exports$33.27 billion (2016 est.)
$45.89 billion (2015 est.)
$4.053 billion (2016 est.)
$3.965 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
Exports - partnersIndia 17%, Netherlands 8.9%, Spain 8.5%, Brazil 8.5%, South Africa 5.6%, France 5.4%, Japan 4.7%, Cote dIvoire 4.3%, Ghana 4.2% (2015)
US 56.7%, India 16%, Japan 11% (2015)
Imports$36.4 billion (2016 est.)
$52.33 billion (2015 est.)
$3.075 billion (2016 est.)
$3.071 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partnersChina 25.9%, US 6.5%, Netherlands 6.1%, India 4.3% (2015)
France 16.5%, China 14.2%, Cameroon 11%, US 6.4%, India 6%, Belgium 5.7%, Italy 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external$39.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.875 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.802 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnairas (NGN) per US dollar -
305 (2016 est.)
192.73 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)
156.81 (2012 est.)
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
35.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$23.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$627.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$382.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$2.619 billion (2016 est.)
-$15.76 billion (2015 est.)
-$885 million (2016 est.)
-$1.347 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$415.1 billion (2016 est.)
$10.44 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$98.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$95.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA (31 December 2010)
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$13.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2010)
6% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate18% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.85% (31 December 2015 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$80.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$111.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.324 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$33.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.741 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.604 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$71.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$101.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.976 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.751 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues2.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 79%
government consumption: 7.2%
investment in fixed capital: 14.2%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 9%
imports of goods and services: -10.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 71.4%
government consumption: 4.4%
investment in fixed capital: 30.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 25.3%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2014 est.)


Electricity - production29 billion kWh (2014 est.)
200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption24 billion kWh (2014 est.)
200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production2.317 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
120,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports2.231 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
105,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves37 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.111 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production43.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption18.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports25 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity12.52 million kW (2015 est.)
41,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels83.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants15% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production110,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption277,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
2,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports22,480 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports187,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2,215 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy97 million Mt (2013 est.)
300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 95,500,000
electrification - total population: 45%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 37% (2013)
population without electricity: 10,477,071
electrification - total population: 4%
electrification - urban areas: 14%
electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 187,155
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 17,029
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 150.83 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.466 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density
domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 45 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ng
Internet userstotal: 86.138 million
percent of population: 47.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 314,000
percent of population: 2.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast medianearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
1 state-owned TV station; 2 privately-owned TV stations; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; over 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2017)


Roadwaystotal: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
total: 40,000 km
note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
Waterways8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
(Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
Pipelinescondensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
oil 582 km (2013)
Airports54 (2013)
59 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 11 (2013)


Military branchesNigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.42% of GDP (2015)
0.41% of GDP (2014)
0.47% of GDP (2013)
0.5% of GDP (2012)
0.58% of GDP (2011)
2.03% of GDP (2015)
2.82% of GDP (2014)
5.61% of GDP (2013)
NA% (2012)
5.02% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalJoint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1,884,331 (Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 317,219 (Sudan); 72,955 (Central African Republic); 7,850 (Nigeria) (2017)
IDPs: 127,000 (majority are in the east) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook