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Nigeria vs. Cameroon

Introduction

NigeriaCameroon
BackgroundBritish influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.
French Cameroon became independent in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year the southern portion of neighboring British Cameroon voted to merge with the new country to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972, a new constitution replaced the federation with a unitary state, the United Republic of Cameroon. The country has generally enjoyed stability, which has enabled the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of President Paul BIYA.

Geography

NigeriaCameroon
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 8 00 E
6 00 N, 12 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 472,710 sq km
water: 2,730 sq km
Area - comparativeabout six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km
total: 5,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 901 km, Chad 1,116 km, Republic of the Congo 494 km, Equatorial Guinea 183 km, Gabon 349 km, Nigeria 1,975 km
Coastline853 km
402 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climatevaries; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrainsouthern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 380 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
mean elevation: 667 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako on Mont Cameroun 4,045 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 78%
arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
forest: 9.5%
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 20.6%
arable land 13.1%; permanent crops 3.3%; permanent pasture 4.2%
forest: 41.7%
other: 37.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,930 sq km (2012)
290 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding
volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
volcanism: Mt. Cameroon (4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000, is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku volcanic field have released fatal levels of gas on occasion, killing some 1,700 people in 1986
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa because of its central location on the continent and its position at the west-south juncture of the Gulf of Guinea; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano
Population distributionlargest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest
population concentrated in the west and north, with the interior of the country sparsely populated

Demographics

NigeriaCameroon
Population190,632,261
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
24,994,885
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.54% (male 41,506,288/female 39,595,720)
15-24 years: 19.61% (male 19,094,899/female 18,289,513)
25-54 years: 30.74% (male 30,066,196/female 28,537,846)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 3,699,947/female 3,870,080)
65 years and over: 3.13% (male 2,825,134/female 3,146,638) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 42.39% (male 5,337,879/female 5,257,026)
15-24 years: 19.56% (male 2,456,061/female 2,432,500)
25-54 years: 30.87% (male 3,880,906/female 3,835,107)
55-64 years: 3.98% (male 485,059/female 509,649)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 372,415/female 428,283) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.4 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.5 years (2017 est.)
total: 18.5 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.7 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.43% (2017 est.)
2.56% (2017 est.)
Birth rate36.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
35.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 69.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 51 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 53.8 years
male: 52.8 years
female: 55 years (2017 est.)
total population: 59 years
male: 57.6 years
female: 60.4 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate5.07 children born/woman (2017 est.)
4.64 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.9% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian
Ethnic groupsNigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS3.2 million (2016 est.)
560,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Roman Catholic 38.4%, Protestant 26.3%, other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 20.9%, animist 5.6%, other 1%, non-believer 3.2% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths160,000 (2016 est.)
29,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75%
male: 81.2%
female: 68.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 11 years (2015)
Education expendituresNA
3% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 49.4% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 55.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 52.7% of population
total: 75.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 47.3% of population
total: 24.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 25.4% of population
total: 29% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 74.6% of population
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 61.8% of population
rural: 26.8% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 38.2% of population
rural: 73.2% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationLagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)
YAOUNDE (capital) 3.066 million; Douala 2.943 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
596 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight19.4% (2015)
14.8% (2014)
Health expenditures3.7% of GDP (2014)
4.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.9% (2016)
11.4% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 11,396,823
percentage: 29% (2007 est.)
total number: 1,396,281
percentage: 31% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
19.7 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileNigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.
Cameroon has a large youth population, with more than 60% of the populace under the age of 25. Fertility is falling but remains at a high level, especially among poor, rural, and uneducated women, in part because of inadequate access to contraception. Life expectancy remains low at about 55 years due to the prevalence of HIV and AIDs and an elevated maternal mortality rate, which has remained high since 1990. Cameroon, particularly the northern region, is vulnerable to food insecurity largely because of government mismanagement, corruption, high production costs, inadequate infrastructure, and natural disasters. Despite economic growth in some regions, poverty is on the rise, and is most prevalent in rural areas, which are especially affected by a shortage of jobs, declining incomes, poor school and health care infrastructure, and a lack of clean water and sanitation. Underinvestment in social safety nets and ineffective public financial management also contribute to Cameroon’s high rate of poverty.
International migration has been driven by unemployment (including fewer government jobs), poverty, the search for educational opportunities, and corruption. The US and Europe are preferred destinations, but, with tighter immigration restrictions in these countries, young Cameroonians are increasingly turning to neighboring states, such as Gabon and Nigeria, South Africa, other parts of Africa, and the Near and Far East. Cameroon’s limited resources make it dependent on UN support to host more than 320,000 refugees and asylum seekers as of September 2017. These refugees and asylum seekers are primarily from the Central African Republic and more recently Nigeria.
Contraceptive prevalence rate20.4% (2016)
34.4% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 88.2
youth dependency ratio: 83
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 85.9
youth dependency ratio: 80
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2015 est.)

Government

NigeriaCameroon
Country name"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term ""Ni Gir"" meaning ""River Gir""
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conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon
local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon
former: French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon
etymology: in the 15th century, Portuguese explorers named the area near the mouth of the Wouri River the Rio dos Camaroes (River of Prawns) after the abundant shrimp in the water; over time the designation became Cameroon in English; this is the only instance where a country is named after a crustacean
Government typefederal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Yaounde
geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Adamaoua, Centre, East (Est), Far North (Extreme-Nord), Littoral, North (Nord), North-West (Nord-Ouest), West (Ouest), South (Sud), South-West (Sud-Ouest)
Independence1 October 1960 (from the UK)
1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
State Unification Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two-thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two-thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two-thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2012 (2017)
history: several previous; latest effective 18 January 1996
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; amendment drafts require approval of at least one-third of the membership in either house of Parliament; passage requires absolute majority vote of the Parliament membership; passage of drafts requested by the president for a second reading in Parliament requires two-thirds majority vote of its membership; the president can opt to submit drafts to a referendum, in which case passage requires a simple majority; constitutional articles on Cameroon’s unity and territorial integrity and its democratic principles cannot be amended; amended 2008 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch"chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi ""Yemi"" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held on 19 February 2019)
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 54%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 45%, other 1%
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chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Philemon YANG (since 30 June 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote - Paul BIYA (CPDM) 78.0%, John FRU NDI (SDF) 10.7%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.2%, other 8.1%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10
note: Senate - seats by party as of April 2017 - APC 66, PDP 43 (with continuing defections to the APC)
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; 70 members indirectly elected by regional councils and 30 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the 100-member Senate was formed at the time of the April 2013 election
elections: Senate last held on 14 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 56, SDF 14; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 148, SDF 18, UNDP 5, UDC 4, UPC 3, other 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cameroon (consists of 9 titular and 6 surrogate judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and audit chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 11 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the advice of the Higher Judicial Council of Cameroon, a body chaired by the president and includes the minister of justice, selected magistrates, and representatives of the National Assembly; judge term NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president for single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Parliamentary Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases involving the president and prime minister); appellate and first instance courts; circuit and magistrate's courts
Political parties and leadersAccord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Ali Modu SHERIFF]
Alliance for Democracy and Development
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]
Cameroon People's Party or CPP [Edith Kah WALLA]
Cameroon Renaissance Movement or MRC [Maurice KAMTO]
Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]
Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]
Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]
National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]
Progressive Movement or MP [Jean-Jacques EKINDI]
Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]
Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Provisionary Management Bureau]
Political pressure groups and leadersAcademic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: media
Network of Human Rights Defenders in Central Africa or REDHAC [Maximilliene Ngo MBE]
Tribunal 53 Articles [Patrice NGANANG]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere NSOFOR (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Essomba ETOUNDI (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; current temporary address - 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
consulate(s): Lagos
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Matthew SMITH (since 7 September 2017)
embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaounde
mailing address: P.O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 22220 1500; Consular: [237] 22220 1603
FAX: [237] 22220 1500 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 22220 1752
branch office(s): Douala
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
"three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow, with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; the vertical tricolor recalls the flag of France; red symbolizes unity, yellow the sun, happiness, and the savannahs in the north, and green hope and the forests in the south; the star is referred to as the ""star of unity""
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
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National anthem"name: ""Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey""
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
"
"name: ""O Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancetres"" (O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Rene Djam AFAME, Samuel Minkio BAMBA, Moise Nyatte NKO'O [French], Benard Nsokika FONLON [English]/Rene Djam AFAME
note: adopted 1957; Cameroon's anthem, also known as ""Chant de Ralliement"" (The Rallying Song), has been used unofficially since 1948 and officially adopted in 1957; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)eagle; national colors: green, white
lion; national colors: green, red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

NigeriaCameroon
Economy - overviewNigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; however, over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty.

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017.

President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but his reliance on the Central Bank governor has led to overwhelmingly protectionist policies aimed at defending the naira from further devaluation. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as an implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources. The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

Partly because of lower oil prices, Nigeria entered a recession in 2016. However, GDP growth turned positive, with oil prices recovering and output stabilizing in 2017.
Cameroon’s market-based, diversified economy features oil and gas, timber, aluminum, agriculture, mining and the service sector. Oil remains Cameroon’s main export commodity, and despite falling global oil prices, still accounts for nearly 40% of exports. Cameroon’s economy suffers from factors that often impact underdeveloped countries, such as stagnant per capita income, a relatively inequitable distribution of income, a top-heavy civil service, endemic corruption, continuing inefficiencies of a large parastatal system in key sectors, and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.

Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. The IMF continues to press for economic reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. The Government of Cameroon provides subsidies for electricity, food, and fuel that have strained the federal budget and diverted funds from education, healthcare, and infrastructure projects, as low oil prices have led to lower revenues.

Cameroon devotes significant resources to several large infrastructure projects currently under construction, including a deep seaport in Kribi and the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project. Cameroon’s energy sector continues to diversify, recently opening a natural gas-powered electricity generating plant. Cameroon continues to seek foreign investment to improve its inadequate infrastructure, create jobs, and improve its economic footprint, but its unfavorable business environment remains a significant deterrent to foreign investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.118 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.109 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.127 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$81.55 billion (2017 est.)
$78.44 billion (2016 est.)
$74.94 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.8% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,900 (2017 est.)
$6,000 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$3,400 (2017 est.)
$3,300 (2016 est.)
$3,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 21.6%
industry: 18.3%
services: 60.1% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 23.1%
industry: 28%
services: 48.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line70% (2010 est.)
30% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 37.5%
highest 10%: 35.4% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)16.3% (2017 est.)
15.7% (2016 est.)
0.7% (2017 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force60.08 million (2017 est.)
9.912 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
agriculture: 70%
industry: 13%
services: 17% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate13.4% (2017 est.)
13.4% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
30% (2001 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index48.8 (2013)
50.6 (1997)
44.6 (2001)
46.5 (2014 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $13.97 billion
expenditures: $22.15 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $5.154 billion
expenditures: $6.964 billion (2017 est.)
Industriescrude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Industrial production growth rate0.7% (2017 est.)
4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, cassava (manioc, tapioca); livestock; timber
Exports$40.81 billion (2017 est.)
$34.7 billion (2016 est.)
$5.158 billion (2017 est.)
$4.561 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Exports - partnersIndia 34%, US 9%, Spain 5.9%, France 5.8%, South Africa 5.5%, Canada 5.1% (2016)
Netherlands 21%, India 11.3%, Italy 11%, China 8%, Spain 6.7%, France 5.9% (2016)
Imports$35.24 billion (2017 est.)
$35.24 billion (2016 est.)
$5.334 billion (2017 est.)
$4.784 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Imports - partnersChina 20.3%, US 8.3%, Belgium 7.6%, UK 4.4%, Netherlands 4.1% (2016)
China 17.8%, Nigeria 12%, France 11%, Thailand 4.6%, Togo 4.5% (2016)
Debt - external$35.23 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.238 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.364 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesnairas (NGN) per US dollar -
323.5 (2017 est.)
253 (2016 est.)
253 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt15.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
32.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$31.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.357 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance$7.667 billion (2017 est.)
$2.722 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.095 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.065 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$394.8 billion (2016 est.)
$30.65 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$230 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2010)
6% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate17.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
13% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$79.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$89.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.427 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.714 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$32.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$67.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$77.91 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.102 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues3.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
-5.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 7.7%
male: NA
female: NA (2015 est.)
total: 6.4%
male: 5.3%
female: 7.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 79%
government consumption: 6.8%
investment in fixed capital: 14.4%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 12.5%
imports of goods and services: -13.5% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 71.3%
government consumption: 12.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 19.5%
imports of goods and services: -23.8% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving14.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NigeriaCameroon
Electricity - production29.83 billion kWh (2015 est.)
6.61 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption24.57 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.702 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
1.414 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production1.871 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
93,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
39,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports2.279 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
64,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves37.06 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
200 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.284 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
135.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production45.15 billion cu m (2015 est.)
680 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption26.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
1.08 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports26.33 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity10.48 million kW (2015 est.)
1.545 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels80.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
52.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants19.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
46.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production70,140 bbl/day (2014 est.)
54,740 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption316,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
42,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports11,010 bbl/day (2014 est.)
17,560 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports180,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy97 million Mt (2013 est.)
6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 95,500,000
electrification - total population: 45%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 37% (2013)
population without electricity: 10,100,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 88%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)

Telecommunications

NigeriaCameroon
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 154,513
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,051,073
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 154,342,168
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2016 est.)
total: 16,331,852
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 67 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: system includes cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter; Camtel, the monopoly provider of fixed-line service, provides connections for only about 4 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable
domestic: mobile-cellular usage, in part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has increased sharply, reaching a subscribership base of over 65 per 100 persons
international: country code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.ng
.cm
Internet userstotal: 47,759,904
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
total: 6,090,201
percent of population: 25.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast medianearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
government maintains tight control over broadcast media; state-owned Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV), broadcasting on both a TV and radio network, was the only officially recognized and fully licensed broadcaster until August 2007, when the government finally issued licenses to 2 private TV broadcasters and 1 private radio broadcaster; about 70 privately owned, unlicensed radio stations operating but are subject to closure at any time; foreign news services required to partner with state-owned national station (2007)

Transportation

NigeriaCameroon
Railwaystotal: 3,798 km
standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 987 km
narrow gauge: 987 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway connections generally efficient but limited; rail lines connect major cities of Douala, Yaounde, Ngaoundere, and Garoua; passenger and freight service provided by CAMRAIL (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
total: 51,350 km
paved: 4,108 km
unpaved: 47,242 km
note: there are 28,857 km of national roads (2011)
Waterways8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
(major rivers in the south, such as the Wouri and the Sanaga, are largely non-navigable; in the north, the Benue, which connects through Nigeria to the Niger River, is navigable in the rainy season only to the port of Garoua) (2010)
Pipelinescondensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
gas 53 km; liquid petroleum gas 5 km; oil 1,107 km; water 35 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
river port(s): Douala (Wouri); Garoua (Benoue)
oil terminal(s): Limboh Terminal
Merchant marinetotal: 583
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 83, other 486 (2017)
total: 19
by type: general cargo 4, other 15 (2017)
Airports54 (2013)
33 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 16
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,223,459
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 22,400,657 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 267,208
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix5N (2016)
TJ (2016)

Military

NigeriaCameroon
Military branchesNigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Cameroon Armed Forces (Forces Armees Camerounaises, FAC): Army (L'Armee de Terre), Navy (Marine Nationale Republique, MNR, includes naval infantry), Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC), Rapid Intervention Brigade, Fire Fighter Corps, Gendarmerie (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; high school graduation required; service obligation 4 years; periodic government calls for volunteers (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.43% of GDP (2016)
0.42% of GDP (2015)
0.41% of GDP (2014)
0.47% of GDP (2013)
0.5% of GDP (2012)
1.6% of GDP (2016)
1.25% of GDP (2015)
1.25% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.34% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

NigeriaCameroon
Disputes - internationalJoint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Joint Border Commission with Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a full phase-out of Nigerian control and patriation of residents in 2008; Cameroon and Nigeria agreed on maritime delimitation in March 2008; sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1,702,680 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 247,777 (Central African Republic); 90,728 (Nigeria) (2017)
IDPs: 335,016 (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook