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Niger vs. Nigeria

Introduction

NigerNigeria
Background
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base, and is ranked last in the world on the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Government continues its attempts to diversify the economy through increased oil production and mining projects. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election was heralded for the fact that the then-umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeated the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999 and assumed the presidency after a peaceful transfer of power. Successful presidential and legislative elections were held in early 2019.

Geography

NigerNigeria
Location
Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates
16 00 N, 8 00 E
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references
Africa
Africa
Area
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
total: 5,834 km
border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1608 km
total: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1608 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
853 km
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain
predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 474 m
lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
mean elevation: 380 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources
uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use
agricultural land: 35.1% (2011 est.)
arable land: 12.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 22.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 1% (2011 est.)
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 78% (2011 est.)
arable land: 37.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 7.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 33.3% (2011 est.)
forest: 9.5% (2011 est.)
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
1,000 sq km (2012)
2,930 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards
recurring droughts
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues
overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; contaminated water; inadequate potable water; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Population distribution
majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin
largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest

Demographics

NigerNigeria
Population
19,866,231 (July 2018 est.)
203,452,505 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.68% (male 4,878,031 /female 4,793,021)
15-24 years: 19.36% (male 1,899,879 /female 1,945,806)
25-54 years: 26.02% (male 2,581,597 /female 2,587,913)
55-64 years: 3.3% (male 340,032 /female 315,142)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 268,072 /female 256,738) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 42.45% (male 44,087,799 /female 42,278,742)
15-24 years: 19.81% (male 20,452,045 /female 19,861,371)
25-54 years: 30.44% (male 31,031,253 /female 30,893,168)
55-64 years: 4.04% (male 4,017,658 /female 4,197,739)
65 years and over: 3.26% (male 3,138,206 /female 3,494,524) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 15.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 15.4 years
female: 15.7 years
total: 18.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.6 years
Population growth rate
3.16% (2018 est.)
2.54% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
43.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
35.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 79.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 83.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 75 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 63.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 56.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 55 years
female: 57.7 years
total population: 59.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 57.5 years
female: 61.1 years
Total fertility rate
6.35 children born/woman (2018 est.)
4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.3% (2018 est.)
1.5% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups
Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018 est.)
note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
36,000 (2018 est.)
1.9 million (2018 est.)
Religions
Muslim 99.3%, Christian 0.3%, animist 0.2%, none 0.1% (2012 est.)
Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other .6% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
1,200 (2018 est.)
53,200 (2017 est.)
Languages
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever (2016)
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)
note - on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2017)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures
3.5% of GDP (2017)
NA
Urbanization
urban population: 16.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 51.2% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 37.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 10.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 62.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 95.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 32.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 25.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 29% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 67.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 74.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
1.252 million NIAMEY (capital) (2019)
13.904 million Lagos, 3.906 million Kano, 3.464 million Ibadan, 3.095 million ABUJA (capital), 2.873 million Port Harcourt, 1.676 million Benin City (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
509 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
917 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
31.4% (2016)
31.5% (2016)
Health expenditures
7.2% (2015)
3.6% (2015)
Physicians density
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.5% (2016)
8.9% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
18.1 years (2012 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

20.3 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.

Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.

For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.

More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.

Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.

Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
11% (2018)
27.6% (2018)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 111.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 106.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 88.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 83 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)

Government

NigerNigeria
Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"

note: pronounced nee-zher

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
Government type
semi-presidential republic
federal presidential republic
Capital
name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: Abuja is a planned capital city, it replaced Lagos in 1991; situated in the center of the country, Abuja takes its name from a nearby town, now renamed Suleja
Administrative divisions
7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence
3 August 1960 (from France)
1 October 1960 (from the UK)
National holiday
Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution
history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority vote by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states
elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2023); note: the election was scheduled for 16 February 2019, but postponed on 16 February 2019
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKER (PDP) 39%, other 8%
Legislative branch
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8; composition - men 146, women 24 percent of women 14.6%
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019
House of Representatives - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 65, PDP 39, YPP 1, TBD 3; composition - men 103, women 6, percent of women 5.5%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 217, PDP 115, other 20, TBD 8; composition - men 346, women 14, percent of women 3.9%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 4.3%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
Political parties and leaders
Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]

note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties

Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [Adams OSHIOMHOLE]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor Ike OYE]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Uche SECONDUS]
Young Progressive Party or YPP [Kingsley MOGHALU]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere NSOFOR (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 516-4277
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric P. WHITAKER (since 26 January 2018)
telephone: [227] 20-72-26-61
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
chief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036
consulate(s): Lagos
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people

note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
National anthem
name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET

note: adopted 1961

name: Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B.A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P.O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE

note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
eagle; national colors: green, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Economy

NigerNigeria
Economy - overview

Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for over 80% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.

Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.

The Government of Niger plans to exploit oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources to sustain future growth. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. In June 2017, The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) granted Niger $1 billion over three years for IDA18, a program to boost the country’s development and alleviate poverty. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY18, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.

Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger. In November 2017, the National Assembly passed the 2018 Finance Law that was geared towards raising government revenues and moving away from international support.

Nigeria is Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economy and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; over 62% of Nigeria's over 180 million people still live in extreme poverty.

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017.

President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but has taken a primarily protectionist approach that favors domestic producers at the expense of consumers. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources and a more transparent government payroll and personnel system that eliminated duplicate and "ghost workers." The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

Nigeria entered recession in 2016 as a result of lower oil prices and production, exacerbated by militant attacks on oil and gas infrastructure in the Niger Delta region, coupled with detrimental economic policies, including foreign exchange restrictions. GDP growth turned positive in 2017 as oil prices recovered and output stabilized.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$21.86 billion (2017 est.)
$20.84 billion (2016 est.)
$19.87 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$1.121 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.112 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.13 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
4.9% (2017 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
4.3% (2015 est.)
0.8% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$1,200 (2017 est.)
$1,100 (2016 est.)
$1,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$5,900 (2017 est.)
$6,100 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 41.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
services: 38.7% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 21.1% (2016 est.)
industry: 22.5% (2016 est.)
services: 56.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
45.4% (2014 est.)
70% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2.4% (2017 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
16.5% (2017 est.)
15.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force
6.5 million (2017 est.)
60.08 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 79.2%
industry: 3.3%
services: 17.5% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate
0.3% (2017 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
16.5% (2017 est.)
13.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
34 (2014)
50.5 (1995)
48.8 (2013)
50.6 (1997)
Budget
revenues: 1.757 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.171 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 12.92 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 19.54 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate
6% (2017 est.)
2.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Exports
$4.143 billion (2017 est.)
$1.101 billion (2016 est.)
$1.146 billion (2017 est.)
$34.7 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
Exports - partners
France 30.2%, Thailand 18.3%, Malaysia 9.9%, Nigeria 8.3%, Mali 5%, Switzerland 4.9% (2017)
India 30.6%, US 12.1%, Spain 6.6%, China 5.6%, France 5.5%, Netherlands 4.4%, Indonesia 4.4% (2017)
Imports
$1.829 billion (2017 est.)
$1.715 billion (2016 est.)
$32.67 billion (2017 est.)
$35.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners
France 28.8%, China 14.4%, Malaysia 5.7%, Nigeria 5.4%, Thailand 5.3%, US 5.1%, India 4.9% (2017)
China 21.1%, Belgium 8.7%, US 8.4%, South Korea 7.5%, UK 4.4% (2017)
Debt - external
$3.728 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$40.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.3 (2017 est.)
593.01 (2016 est.)
593.01 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
323.5 (2017 est.)
253 (2016 est.)
253 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
45.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
45.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$1.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$1.16 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.181 billion (2016 est.)
$10.38 billion (2017 est.)
$2.714 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$8.224 billion (2017 est.)
$376.4 billion (2017 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

$53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate
4.25% (31 December 2015)
4.25% (31 December 2014)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
6% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
17.58% (31 December 2017 est.)
16.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$1.506 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.196 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$84.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$88.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$1.804 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.511 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$1.804 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.511 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$37.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
21.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 0.7%
male: 0.9%
female: 0.4% (2014 est.)
total: 12.4%
male: NA
female: NA (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 70.2% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 9.4% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 38.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 16.4% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -34.6% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 80% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 11.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -13.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
22.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
16% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NigerNigeria
Electricity - production
494.7 million kWh (2016 est.)
29.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
1.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
24.72 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports
779 million kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
9,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
1.989 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2.096 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
150 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
37.45 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
5.475 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - production
0 cu m (2017 est.)
44.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
0 cu m (2017 est.)
17.24 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
27.21 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
0 cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
184,000 kW (2016 est.)
10.52 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
95% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
80% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
15,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
35,010 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
14,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
325,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
5,422 bbl/day (2015 est.)
2,332 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
3,799 bbl/day (2015 est.)
223,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
2.534 million Mt (2017 est.)
104 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
population without electricity: 19 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 16.2% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 65.4% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 4.7% (2016)
population without electricity: 77 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 59.3% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 86% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 41.1% (2016)

Telecommunications

NigerNigeria
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 114,352
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 139,344
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 8,778,884
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 144,920,170
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger; mobile services stronger than fixed telecoms; broadband penetration inconsequential;  LTE license secured for the future; government tax of telecom sector (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity remains 46 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned (2018)
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
general assessment: one of the larger telecom markets in Africa; foreign investment; market competition; LTE technologies available but GSM technology dominate; unified licensing regime; government committed to expanding broadband penetration; in Q1 2018, the Nigerian Communications Commission approved seven licenses to telecom companies to deploy fiber optic cable in the six geopolitical zones and Lagos (2018)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 76 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, NCSCS,  MainOne, Glo-1 & 2, ACE, and Equiano fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and South and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)
Internet country code
.ne
.ng
Internet users
total: 805,702
percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)
total: 47,759,904
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available
nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available; digital broadcasting migration process completed in three states in 2018 (2019)

Transportation

NigerNigeria
Roadways
total: 18,949 km (2010)
paved: 3,912 km (2010)
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
total: 195,000 km (2017)
paved: 60,000 km (2017)
unpaved: 135,000 km (2017)
Waterways
300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
Pipelines
464 km oil
124 km condensate, 4045 km gas, 164 km liquid petroleum gas, 4441 km oil, 3940 km refined products (2013)
Merchant marine
total: 1
by type: other 1 (2018)
total: 576
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 90, other 472 (2018)
Airports
total: 30 (2013)
total: 54 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 10 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 40 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 20 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 14 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports
1 (2013)
5 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,242 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 16 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,223,459 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 22,400,657 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
5U (2016)
5N (2016)

Military

NigerNigeria
Military branches
Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger), Niger Gendarmerie (GN); Ministry of Interior: Niger National Guard (GNN) (2019)
Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard), Air Force; Ministry of Interior: Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC, a paramilitary agency commissioned to assist the military in the management of threats to internal security, including attacks and natural disasters) (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
2.45% of GDP (2018)
2.47% of GDP (2017)
2.22% of GDP (2016)
1.78% of GDP (2014)
1.38% of GDP (2013)
0.51% of GDP (2018)
0.43% of GDP (2017)
0.43% of GDP (2016)
0.42% of GDP (2015)
0.42% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

NigerNigeria
Disputes - international

Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010

Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 161,359 (Nigeria), 56,499 (Mali) (2019)
IDPs: 187,359 (includes the regions of Diffa, Tillaberi, and Tahoua; unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2019)
refugees (country of origin): 44,524 (Cameroon) (2019)
IDPs: 2,018,513 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2019)

Source: CIA Factbook