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Niger vs. Chad

Demographics

NigerChad
Population23,605,767 (July 2021 est.)17,414,108 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 50.58% (male 5,805,102/female 5,713,815)

15-24 years: 19.99% (male 2,246,670/female 2,306,285)

25-54 years: 23.57% (male 2,582,123/female 2,784,464)

55-64 years: 3.17% (male 357,832/female 364,774)

65 years and over: 2.68% (male 293,430/female 317,866) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 47.43% (male 4,050,505/female 3,954,413)

15-24 years: 19.77% (male 1,676,495/female 1,660,417)

25-54 years: 27.14% (male 2,208,181/female 2,371,490)

55-64 years: 3.24% (male 239,634/female 306,477)

65 years and over: 2.43% (male 176,658/female 233,087) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 14.8 years

male: 14.5 years

female: 15.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 16.1 years

male: 15.6 years

female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate3.65% (2021 est.)3.12% (2021 est.)
Birth rate47.28 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)41.05 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate10.09 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 68.12 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 73.02 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 63.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 67.02 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 72.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 60.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 59.7 years

male: 58.19 years

female: 61.26 years (2021 est.)
total population: 58.73 years

male: 56.92 years

female: 60.6 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate6.91 children born/woman (2021 est.)5.57 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.2% (2020 est.)1.1% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nigerien(s)

adjective: Nigerien
noun: Chadian(s)

adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groupsHausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS31,000 (2020 est.)110,000 (2020 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 99.3%, Christian 0.3%, animist 0.2%, none 0.1% (2012 est.)Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,100 (2020 est.)3,000 (2020 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Hausa, DjermaFrench (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

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The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 19.1%

male: 27.3%

female: 11% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic

total population: 22.3%

male: 31.3%

female: 14% (2016)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 6 years

male: 7 years

female: 6 years (2017)
total: 7 years

male: 9 years

female: 6 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.5% of GDP (2018)2.5% of GDP (2017)
Urbanizationurban population: 16.8% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.72% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 23.8% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.1% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 95.7% of population

rural: 59.2% of population

total: 65.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.3% of population

rural: 40.8% of population

total: 34.8% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 86.7% of population

rural: 46.6% of population

total: 55.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 13.3% of population

rural: 53.4% of population

total: 44.3% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 76.6% of population

rural: 12.9% of population

total: 23.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 23.4% of population

rural: 87.1% of population

total: 76.7% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 56.5% of population

rural: 3.1% of population

total: 15.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 43.5% of population

rural: 96.9% of population

total: 84.7% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population1.336 million NIAMEY (capital) (2021)1.476 million N'DJAMENA (capital) (2021)
Maternal mortality rate509 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)1,140 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight31.3% (2019)29.2% (2019)
Health expenditures7.3% (2018)4.1% (2018)
Physicians density0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2016)0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.5% (2016)6.1% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.4 years (2012 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
18.1 years (2014/15 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
Demographic profile

Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.

Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.

For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other Sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.

More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.

Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.

As of October 2017, more than 320,000 refugees from Sudan and more than 75,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.

Contraceptive prevalence rate11% (2017/18)8.1% (2019)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 109.5

youth dependency ratio: 104.1

elderly dependency ratio: 5.4

potential support ratio: 18.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 96

youth dependency ratio: 91.1

elderly dependency ratio: 4.9

potential support ratio: 20.4 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook