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Namibia vs. Botswana

Introduction

NamibiaBotswana
BackgroundSouth Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. Prime Minister Hage GEINGOB was elected president in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections and established a system of gender parity in parliamentary positions.
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Ian KHAMA was reelected for a second term in 2014. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography

NamibiaBotswana
LocationSouthern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates22 00 S, 17 00 E
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km
total: 581,730 sq km
land: 566,730 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than half the size of Alaska
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,220 km
border countries (4): Angola 1,427 km, Botswana 1,544 km, South Africa 1,005 km, Zambia 244 km
total: 4,347.15 km
border countries (4): Namibia 1,544 km, South Africa 1,969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
Coastline1,572 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatedesert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrainmostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,141 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m
mean elevation: 1,013 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resourcesdiamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish
note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land useagricultural land: 47.2%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 46.2%
forest: 8.8%
other: 44% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 45.8%
arable land 0.6%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 45.2%
forest: 19.8%
other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land80 sq km (2012)
20 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsprolonged periods of drought
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notefirst country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Population distributionpopulation density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola
the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west

Demographics

NamibiaBotswana
Population2,484,780
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
2,214,858
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 36.97% (male 463,810/female 454,735)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 251,838/female 253,823)
25-54 years: 34.37% (male 408,536/female 445,500)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 48,529/female 59,543)
65 years and over: 3.96% (male 41,912/female 56,554) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 31.95% (male 357,003/female 350,657)
15-24 years: 18.91% (male 207,209/female 211,629)
25-54 years: 38.45% (male 401,082/female 450,437)
55-64 years: 5.46% (male 51,195/female 69,835)
65 years and over: 5.23% (male 50,206/female 65,605) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 21.2 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 21.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 24.5 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.95% (2017 est.)
1.55% (2017 est.)
Birth rate27.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 29.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 65.6 years (2017 est.)
total population: 63.3 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 65.5 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate3.29 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.56 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate13.8% (2016 est.)
21.9% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groupsblack 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other indigenous ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS230,000 (2016 est.)
360,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsChristian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,300 (2016 est.)
3,900 (2016 est.)
LanguagesOshivambo languages 48.9%, Nama/Damara 11.3%, Afrikaans 10.4% (common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population), Otjiherero languages 8.6%, Kavango languages 8.5%, Caprivi languages 4.8%, English (official) 3.4%, other African languages 2.3%, other 1.7%
note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 Indo-European languages (2011 est.)
Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.9%
male: 79.2%
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
Education expenditures8.3% of GDP (2010)
9.6% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 48.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 58% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 84.6% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 15.4% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 54.5% of population
rural: 16.8% of population
total: 34.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.5% of population
rural: 83.2% of population
total: 65.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 78.5% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 63.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 21.5% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationWINDHOEK (capital) 368,000 (2015)
GABORONE (capital) 247,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate265 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.2% (2013)
11.2% (2007)
Health expenditures8.9% of GDP (2014)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density2.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate17.2% (2016)
18.9% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
19 years (2007 est.)
Demographic profilePlanning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades – from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 – due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.
The majority of Namibians are rural dwellers (about 55%) and live in the better-watered north and northeast parts of the country. Migration, historically male-dominated, generally flows from northern communal areas – non-agricultural lands where blacks were sequestered under the apartheid system – to agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers in the center and south. After independence from South Africa, restrictions on internal movement eased, and rural-urban migration increased, bolstering urban growth.
Some Namibians – usually persons who are better-educated, more affluent, and from urban areas – continue to legally migrate to South Africa temporarily to visit family and friends and, much less frequently, to pursue tertiary education or better economic opportunities. Namibians concentrated along the country’s other borders make unauthorized visits to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, or Botswana, to visit family and to trade agricultural goods. Few Namibians express interest in permanently settling in other countries; they prefer the safety of their homeland, have a strong national identity, and enjoy a well-supplied retail sector. Although Namibia is receptive to foreign investment and cross-border trade, intolerance toward non-citizens is widespread.
Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.
Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.
Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.
Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.
Contraceptive prevalence rate56.1% (2013)
52.8%
note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 68.1
youth dependency ratio: 62.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.1
youth dependency ratio: 49.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)

Government

NamibiaBotswana
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch Suedwest Afrika), South-West Africa
etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name ""namib"" means ""vast place"" in the Nama/Damara language
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
etymology: the name Botswana means ""Land of the Tswana"" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
"
Government typepresidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language
10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
Independence21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
30 September 1966 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 21 March (1990)
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitutionhistory: drafted 9 February 1990, signed 16 March 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the National Assembly membership and of the National Council of Parliament and assent by the president of the republic; if the National Council fails to pass an amendment, the president can call for a referendum; passage by referendum requires two-thirds majority of votes cast; amendments that detract from or repeal constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended, and the requisite majorities needed by Parliament to amend the constitution cannot be changed; amended 1998, 2010, 2014 (2017)
history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law
mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5.0%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1.0%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); President KHAMA is anticipated to hand over the presidency to MASSI in April 2018, in keeping with Botswanan political tradition; note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); President KHAMA is anticipated to hand over the preidency to MASISI in April 2018, in keeping with Botswanan political tradition
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president) and the National Council, which primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly (42 seats); members indirectly elected 3 each by the 14 regional councils to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 27 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 40, NUDO 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 80.0%, DTA 4.8%, RDP 3.5%, APP 2.3%, UDF 2.1%, NUDO 2.0%, CPN 1.5%, other 3.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 77, DTA 5, RDP 3, APP 2, UDF 2, NUDO 2, CPN 2, SWANU 1, UPM 1, RP 1
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (65 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 6 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
elections: last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65 but terms can be extended by the president until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts
highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
Political parties and leadersAll People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI]
Communist Party of Namibia or CPN (formerly known as Workers' Revolutionary Party or WRP) [Attie BEUKES and Harry BOESAK]
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [McHenry VENAANI]
National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Asser MBAI]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Jeremiah NAMBINGA]
Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA]
South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Apius AUCHAB]
United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Ndaba GAOLATHE]
Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (coalition includes BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF)
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP (associate observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Martin ANDJABA (since 16 September 2010)
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
consulate(s) general: Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Frederick DAUGHTON (since 26 November 2014)
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603
chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 318-0232
Flag descriptiona wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a golden-yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green; red signifies the heroism of the people and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all; white stands for peace, unity, tranquility, and harmony; blue represents the Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain; the golden-yellow sun denotes power and existence; green symbolizes vegetation and agricultural resources
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
National anthem"name: ""Namibia, Land of the Brave""
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB
note: adopted 1991
"
"name: ""Fatshe leno la rona"" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
note: adopted 1966
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow
zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

NamibiaBotswana
Economy - overviewNamibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 11.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.

Namibia is the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine is expected to start producing uranium ore in 2017. Once the Husab mine reaches full production, Namibia is expected to become the world’s second-largest producer of uranium. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.

Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years, food shortages are problematic in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, obscures one of the world's most unequal income distributions. A priority of the current government is poverty eradication. Despite a drought, real GDP growth remained strong in 2015 because of construction in the mining and housing sectors, coupled with an expansionary fiscal policy. GDP growth in 2017 slowed to about 1%, however, due to contractions in both the construction and mining sectors, as well as the ongoing drought. Growth is expected to recover modestly in 2018.

A five-year Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU); volatility in the size of Namibia's annual SACU allotment and global mineral prices complicates budget planning.
Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the second largest earner of foreign exchange; many Batswana also engage in subsistence farming and cattle rearing. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,000 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.

Botswana's economy closely follows global economic trends because of its heavy reliance on a single luxury export. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.

Botswana’s economy recovered from the 2008 global recession in 2010, but has only grown modestly since then, primarily due to the downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains. Diamond exports increased again in 2017 to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth of about 4.5% in 2017 and increasing foreign reserves to about 45% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$27.02 billion (2017 est.)
$26.81 billion (2016 est.)
$26.52 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$39.55 billion (2017 est.)
$37.86 billion (2016 est.)
$36.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.8% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
-1.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,500 (2017 est.)
$11,500 (2016 est.)
$11,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$18,100 (2017 est.)
$17,600 (2016 est.)
$17,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.6%
industry: 25.8%
services: 67.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 29.2%
services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line28.7% (2010 est.)
30.3% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force956,800 (2017 est.)
1.177 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 31%
industry: 14%
services: 54%
note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture (2013 est.)
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate28.1% (2014 est.)
29.6% (2013 est.)
20% (2013 est.)
17.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index59.7 (2010)
70.7 (2003)
60.5 (2009)
63 (1993)
Budgetrevenues: $3.967 billion
expenditures: $4.759 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $5.609 billion
expenditures: $6.072 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesmeatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate2.2% (2017 est.)
3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsmillet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Exports$4.71 billion (2017 est.)
$4.003 billion (2016 est.)
$7.58 billion (2017 est.)
$7.226 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesdiamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 20%, South Africa 17.1%, Botswana 15%, Zambia 6.7%, Spain 4.6%, Italy 4.2% (2016)
Belgium 18.9%, India 15.1%, South Africa 13.6%, Namibia 11.6%, UAE 9.7%, Israel 6.1%, Singapore 5.6%, Canada 5% (2016)
Imports$6.846 billion (2017 est.)
$6.441 billion (2016 est.)
$5.998 billion (2017 est.)
$5.906 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 57.1%, Botswana 6.8%, Zambia 4.1% (2016)
South Africa 64.5%, Namibia 10.5%, Canada 5.6% (2016)
Debt - external$7.489 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.904 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.461 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesNamibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar -
13.67 (2017 est.)
14.7096 (2016 est.)
14.7096 (2015 est.)
12.7589 (2014 est.)
10.8526 (2013 est.)
pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
10.19 (2017 est.)
10.9022 (2016 est.)
10.9022 (2015 est.)
10.1263 (2014 est.)
8.9761 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
1 April - 31 March
Public debt43% of GDP (2017 est.)
40.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.949 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.834 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.476 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$921 million (2017 est.)
-$1.529 billion (2016 est.)
$746 million (2017 est.)
$1.824 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$12.56 billion (2016 est.)
$16.73 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.305 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.152 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.176 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate7% (12 April 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2015)
5.5% (31 December 2016)
6% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
7.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$6.977 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.006 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.859 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.597 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.878 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.898 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.574 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.505 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$6.03 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.281 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.893 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 56.2%
male: 49.4%
female: 62.2% (2013 est.)
total: 36%
male: 29.6%
female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.9%
government consumption: 23.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 41.7%
imports of goods and services: -59% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 46.8%
government consumption: 17.7%
investment in fixed capital: 30.7%
investment in inventories: -10%
exports of goods and services: 54.1%
imports of goods and services: -39.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving18% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
40.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

NamibiaBotswana
Electricity - production1.519 billion kWh (2015 est.)
2.789 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.771 billion kWh (2015 est.)
3.722 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports88 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports2.623 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.468 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves62.29 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity514,200 kW (2015 est.)
134,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
98.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants64.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources5.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption25,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports79.56 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports24,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
21,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy4 million Mt (2013 est.)
4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 32%
electrification - urban areas: 50%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)
population without electricity: 700,000
electrification - total population: 66%
electrification - urban areas: 75%
electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)

Telecommunications

NamibiaBotswana
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 187,812
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 142,122
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2,659,951
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
total: 3,288,986
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers with digital connections
domestic: multiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of about 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East submarine cable through South Africa; connected to the West Africa Cable System, an ultra-high capacity fiber-optic submarine cable linking southern and western African countries to Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2016)
general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.na
.bw
Internet userstotal: 756,118
percent of population: 31.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 869,610
percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)

Transportation

NamibiaBotswana
Railwaystotal: 2,628 km
narrow gauge: 2,628 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 44,138 km
paved: 6,387 km
unpaved: 37,751 km (2010)
total: 17,916 km
note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)
Airports112 (2013)
74 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 93
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 52
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 553,322
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30,302,405 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixV5 (2016)
A2 (2016)

Military

NamibiaBotswana
Military branchesNamibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP4.44% of GDP (2016)
4.7% of GDP (2015)
4.18% of GDP (2014)
3.07% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)
3.37% of GDP (2016)
2.66% of GDP (2015)
2.13% of GDP (2014)
2.06% of GDP (2013)
2.23% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

NamibiaBotswana
Disputes - internationalconcerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
none
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, construction, and fishing operations
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Namibia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Namibia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2015, the Child Care and Protection Bill passed, criminalizing child trafficking; the government’s first sex trafficking prosecution remained pending; no new prosecutions were initiated and no trafficking offenders have ever been convicted; accusations of forced labor at Chinese construction and mining companies continue to go uninvestigated; authorities failed to fully implement victim identification and referral processes, which led to the deportation of possible victims (2015)
current situation: Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their parents, may be denied education and basic necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative of forced labor; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labor on farms and at cattle posts in the country’s rural west
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Botswana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; an anti-trafficking act was passed at the beginning of 2014, but authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any offenders or government officials complicit in trafficking or operationalize victim identification and referral procedures based on the new law; the government sponsored a radio campaign to familiarize the public with the issue of human trafficking (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook