Namibia vs. Angola


BackgroundSouth Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. Prime Minister Hage GEINGOB was elected president in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections and established a system of gender parity in parliamentary positions.
Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010 and was elected to a five year term as president in 2012.


LocationSouthern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates22 00 S, 17 00 E
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than half the size of Alaska
about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,220 km
border countries (4): Angola 1,427 km, Botswana 1,544 km, South Africa 1,005 km, Zambia 244 km
total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
Coastline1,572 km
1,600 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatedesert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrainmostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,141 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m
mean elevation: 1,112 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m
Natural resourcesdiamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish
note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 47.2%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 46.2%
forest: 8.8%
other: 44% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.5%
arable land 8.3%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 91.23%
forest: 46.5%
other: 6% (2014 est.)
Irrigated land80 sq km (2012)
860 sq km (2014)
Natural hazardsprolonged periods of drought
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notefirst country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population distributionpopulation density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola
most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly Luanda


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
29,310,273 (July 2017 est.)
note: Angola's national statistical agency projects the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million
Age structure0-14 years: 36.97% (male 463,810/female 454,735)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 251,838/female 253,823)
25-54 years: 34.37% (male 408,536/female 445,500)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 48,529/female 59,543)
65 years and over: 3.96% (male 41,912/female 56,554) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 48.12% (male 7,005,891/female 7,097,392)
15-24 years: 18.25% (male 2,593,355/female 2,756,367)
25-54 years: 28.03% (male 3,921,046/female 4,293,307)
55-64 years: 3.26% (male 438,268/female 517,690)
65 years and over: 2.34% (male 290,247/female 396,710) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 21.2 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 21.9 years (2017 est.)
total: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.95% (2017 est.)
3.52% (2017 est.)
Birth rate27.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
44.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 67.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 61.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64 years
male: 62.4 years
female: 65.6 years (2017 est.)
total population: 60.2 years
male: 58.2 years
female: 62.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate3.29 children born/woman (2017 est.)
6.16 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate13.8% (2016 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groupsblack 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other indigenous ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS230,000 (2016 est.)
280,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsChristian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,300 (2016 est.)
11,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesOshivambo languages 48.9%, Nama/Damara 11.3%, Afrikaans 10.4% (common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population), Otjiherero languages 8.6%, Kavango languages 8.5%, Caprivi languages 4.8%, English (official) 3.4%, other African languages 2.3%, other 1.7%
note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 Indo-European languages (2011 est.)
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.9%
male: 79.2%
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures8.3% of GDP (2010)
3.5% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 48.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 45.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.6% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 84.6% of population
total: 91% of population
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 15.4% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 54.5% of population
rural: 16.8% of population
total: 34.4% of population
urban: 45.5% of population
rural: 83.2% of population
total: 65.6% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationWINDHOEK (capital) 368,000 (2015)
LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate265 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight13.2% (2013)
19% (2016)
Health expenditures8.9% of GDP (2014)
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate17.2% (2016)
8.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2015/16 est.)
Demographic profilePlanning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades – from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 – due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.
The majority of Namibians are rural dwellers (about 55%) and live in the better-watered north and northeast parts of the country. Migration, historically male-dominated, generally flows from northern communal areas – non-agricultural lands where blacks were sequestered under the apartheid system – to agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers in the center and south. After independence from South Africa, restrictions on internal movement eased, and rural-urban migration increased, bolstering urban growth.
Some Namibians – usually persons who are better-educated, more affluent, and from urban areas – continue to legally migrate to South Africa temporarily to visit family and friends and, much less frequently, to pursue tertiary education or better economic opportunities. Namibians concentrated along the country’s other borders make unauthorized visits to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, or Botswana, to visit family and to trade agricultural goods. Few Namibians express interest in permanently settling in other countries; they prefer the safety of their homeland, have a strong national identity, and enjoy a well-supplied retail sector. Although Namibia is receptive to foreign investment and cross-border trade, intolerance toward non-citizens is widespread.
More than a decade after the end of Angola’s 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country’s rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, more than 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population – about 45% are under the age of 15 – is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola’s high maternal mortality rate.
Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate56.1% (2013)
13.7% (2015/16)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 68.1
youth dependency ratio: 62.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 97.6
youth dependency ratio: 93
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)


Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch Suedwest Afrika), South-West Africa
etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name ""namib"" means ""vast place"" in the Nama/Damara language
"conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title ""ngola"" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 21 March (1990)
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitutionhistory: drafted 9 February 1990, signed 16 March 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the National Assembly membership and of the National Council of Parliament and assent by the president of the republic; if the National Council fails to pass an amendment, the president can call for a referendum; passage by referendum requires two-thirds majority of votes cast; amendments that detract from or repeal constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended, and the requisite majorities needed by Parliament to amend the constitution cannot be changed; amended 1998, 2010, 2014 (2017)
history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic
Legal systemmixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law
civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5.0%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1.0%, other 2.0%
chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by the National Assembly
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president) and the National Council, which primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly (42 seats); members indirectly elected 3 each by the 14 regional councils to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 27 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 40, NUDO 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 80.0%, DTA 4.8%, RDP 3.5%, APP 2.3%, UDF 2.1%, NUDO 2.0%, CPN 1.5%, other 3.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 77, DTA 5, RDP 3, APP 2, UDF 2, NUDO 2, CPN 2, SWANU 1, UPM 1, RP 1
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 61.1%, UNITA 26.7%, CASA-CE 9.5%, PRS 1.4%, FNLA .9%, other 0.5%; seats by party - MPLA 150, UNITA 51, CASA-CE 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65 but terms can be extended by the president until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leadersAll People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI]
Communist Party of Namibia or CPN (formerly known as Workers' Revolutionary Party or WRP) [Attie BEUKES and Harry BOESAK]
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [McHenry VENAANI]
National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Asser MBAI]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Jeremiah NAMBINGA]
Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA]
South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Apius AUCHAB]
United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]
Political pressure groups and leadersNational Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS
other: labor unions
Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda - Armed Forces of Cabinda or FLEC-FAC [Emmanuel NZITA]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese national soccer team in 2010
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Martin ANDJABA (since 16 September 2010)
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Frederick DAUGHTON (since 26 November 2014)
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603
chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
Flag descriptiona wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a golden-yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green; red signifies the heroism of the people and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all; white stands for peace, unity, tranquility, and harmony; blue represents the Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain; the golden-yellow sun denotes power and existence; green symbolizes vegetation and agricultural resources
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a 5-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty; black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National anthem"name: ""Namibia, Land of the Brave""
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB
note: adopted 1991
"name: ""Angola Avante"" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
note: adopted 1975
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow
Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


Economy - overviewNamibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 11.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.

Namibia is the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine is expected to start producing uranium ore in 2017. Once the Husab mine reaches full production, Namibia is expected to become the world’s second-largest producer of uranium. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.

Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years, food shortages are problematic in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, obscures one of the world's most unequal income distributions. A priority of the current government is poverty eradication. Despite a drought, real GDP growth remained strong in 2015 because of construction in the mining and housing sectors, coupled with an expansionary fiscal policy. GDP growth in 2017 slowed to about 1%, however, due to contractions in both the construction and mining sectors, as well as the ongoing drought. Growth is expected to recover modestly in 2018.

A five-year Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU); volatility in the size of Namibia's annual SACU allotment and global mineral prices complicates budget planning.
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again in 2015-16.

Falling oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy. Government spending in the run-up to the 2017 elections is likely to strain Luanda’s budget.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$27.02 billion (2017 est.)
$26.81 billion (2016 est.)
$26.52 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$192 billion (2017 est.)
$189.2 billion (2016 est.)
$190.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.8% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2017 est.)
-0.7% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,500 (2017 est.)
$11,500 (2016 est.)
$11,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$6,800 (2017 est.)
$6,900 (2016 est.)
$7,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.6%
industry: 25.8%
services: 67.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 61.4%
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line28.7% (2010 est.)
40.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)
lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
30.9% (2017 est.)
32.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force956,800 (2017 est.)
12.51 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 31%
industry: 14%
services: 54%
note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture (2013 est.)
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate28.1% (2014 est.)
29.6% (2013 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $3.967 billion
expenditures: $4.759 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $35.59 billion
expenditures: $44.64 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesmeatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate2.2% (2017 est.)
1.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsmillet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Exports$4.71 billion (2017 est.)
$4.003 billion (2016 est.)
$33.82 billion (2017 est.)
$31.03 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesdiamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 20%, South Africa 17.1%, Botswana 15%, Zambia 6.7%, Spain 4.6%, Italy 4.2% (2016)
China 53.7%, India 7.6%, US 5.6%, South Africa 5.3%, France 4.4% (2016)
Imports$6.846 billion (2017 est.)
$6.441 billion (2016 est.)
$23 billion (2017 est.)
$19.25 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partnersSouth Africa 57.1%, Botswana 6.8%, Zambia 4.1% (2016)
Portugal 15.9%, US 12.5%, China 12.2%, South Africa 6.8%, Belgium 6.3%, Brazil 5.5%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Debt - external$7.489 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.904 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$27.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesNamibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar -
13.67 (2017 est.)
14.7096 (2016 est.)
14.7096 (2015 est.)
12.7589 (2014 est.)
10.8526 (2013 est.)
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172.6 (2017 est.)
163.656 (2016 est.)
163.656 (2015 est.)
120.061 (2014 est.)
98.303 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
calendar year
Public debt43% of GDP (2017 est.)
40.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
87.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
77.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.949 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.834 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$921 million (2017 est.)
-$1.529 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.922 billion (2017 est.)
-$4.904 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$12.56 billion (2016 est.)
$124 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
$15.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
$23.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate7% (12 April 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2015)
9% (31 December 2014)
25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
20% (31 December 2017 est.)
15.71% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$6.977 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.006 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$2.878 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.898 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$23.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$6.03 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.281 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$48.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$39.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
-7.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.9%
government consumption: 23.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 41.7%
imports of goods and services: -59% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 75.6%
government consumption: 15.4%
investment in fixed capital: 9.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 28.4%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving18% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
3.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.4% of GDP (2015 est.)


Electricity - production1.519 billion kWh (2015 est.)
9.438 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.771 billion kWh (2015 est.)
8.338 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports88 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports2.623 billion kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
1.77 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.7 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
8.273 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves62.29 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
308.1 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
773 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
1.094 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
500 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity514,200 kW (2015 est.)
1.704 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels30.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
45.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants64.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
54% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources5.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
46,680 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption25,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
142,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports79.56 bbl/day (2014 est.)
23,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports24,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
118,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy4 million Mt (2013 est.)
33 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 32%
electrification - urban areas: 50%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 30%
electrification - urban areas: 46%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 187,812
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 304,493
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2,659,951
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
total: 13,001,124
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers with digital connections
domestic: multiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of about 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East submarine cable through South Africa; connected to the West Africa Cable System, an ultra-high capacity fiber-optic submarine cable linking southern and western African countries to Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2016)
general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to five; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 64 telephones per 100 persons in 2016
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2016)
Internet country code.na
Internet userstotal: 756,118
percent of population: 31.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 2,622,403
percent of population: 13.0% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2009)


Railwaystotal: 2,628 km
narrow gauge: 2,628 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,852 km
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 44,138 km
paved: 6,387 km
unpaved: 37,751 km (2010)
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Luderitz, Walvis Bay
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: general cargo 1, other 8 (2017)
total: 55
by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 9, other 32 (2017)
Airports112 (2013)
176 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 93
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 52
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 553,322
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30,302,405 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 10
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,244,491
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 46.043 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixV5 (2016)
D2 (2016)


Military branchesNamibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP4.44% of GDP (2016)
4.7% of GDP (2015)
4.18% of GDP (2014)
3.07% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)
2.95% of GDP (2016)
3.52% of GDP (2015)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
4.88% of GDP (2013)
3.59% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalconcerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Source: CIA Factbook