Moldova vs. Romania


BackgroundA large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the breakaway region of Transnistria, whose population is roughly equally composed of ethnic Ukrainians, Russians, and Moldovans.
Years of Communist Party rule in Moldova post-independence ultimately ended with election-related violent protests and a rerun of parliamentary elections in 2009. Since then, a series of pro-European ruling coalitions have governed Moldova. As a result of the country's most recent legislative election in November 2014, the three pro-European parties that entered Parliament won a total of 55 of the body's 101 seats. Infighting among coalition members led to prolonged legislative gridlock and political instability, as well as the collapse of two governments, all ruled by pro-European coalitions centered around the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM) and the Democratic Party (PDM). A political impasse ended in January 2016 when a new parliamentary majority led by PDM, joined by defectors from the Communists and PLDM, supported PDM member Pavel FILIP as prime minister.
Moldova remains Europe's poorest economy, but has made steps toward expanding its market access by signing and ratifying an Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which fully entered into force in July 2016 after ratification by all EU member states. Igor DODON won Moldova's first direct presidential election in over 20 years in November 2016.
"The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist ""people's republic"" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.


LocationEastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates47 00 N, 29 00 E
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 33,851 sq km
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km
total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Maryland
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 1,885 km
border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1,202 km
total: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
225 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatemoderate winters, warm summers
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrainrolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 139 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
mean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resourceslignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 74.9%
arable land 55.1%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 11.9%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,283 sq km (2012)
31,490 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslandslides
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issuesheavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
Population distributionpockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti
urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania


Population3,474,121 (July 2017 est.)
21,529,967 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18.18% (male 325,501/female 305,931)
15-24 years: 12.32% (male 221,582/female 206,458)
25-54 years: 43.4% (male 760,511/female 747,352)
55-64 years: 13.46% (male 214,565/female 252,924)
65 years and over: 12.64% (male 171,347/female 267,950) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 14.35% (male 1,586,976/female 1,502,864)
15-24 years: 10.6% (male 1,170,679/female 1,110,727)
25-54 years: 46.03% (male 5,016,529/female 4,893,792)
55-64 years: 12.61% (male 1,271,281/female 1,443,414)
65 years and over: 16.41% (male 1,428,599/female 2,105,106) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 36.7 years
male: 34.9 years
female: 38.6 years (2017 est.)
total: 41.1 years
male: 39.7 years
female: 42.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate-1.05% (2017 est.)
-0.33% (2017 est.)
Birth rate11.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
8.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
12 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-9.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 9.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 71 years
male: 67.1 years
female: 75.1 years (2017 est.)
total population: 75.4 years
male: 71.9 years
female: 79 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate1.57 children born/woman (2017 est.)
1.35 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.6% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groupsMoldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)
Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS15,000 (2016 est.)
16,000 (2016 est.)
ReligionsOrthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic <.1%, atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.9% (2014 est.)
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<500 (2016 est.)
<200 (2016 est.)
LanguagesMoldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.)
note: data represent mother tongue
Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.1% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures7.5% of GDP (2014)
2.9% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 45.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: -0.36% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 54.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.9% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 88.4% of population
urban: 3.1% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 87.8% of population
rural: 67.1% of population
total: 76.4% of population
urban: 12.2% of population
rural: 32.9% of population
total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationCHISINAU (capital) 725,000 (2015)
BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures10.3% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.54 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density6.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate18.9% (2016)
22.5% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth24 years (2014 est.)
26.7 years (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 34.5
youth dependency ratio: 21.2
elderly dependency ratio: 13.4
potential support ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 48
youth dependency ratio: 22.8
elderly dependency ratio: 25.2
potential support ratio: 4 (2015 est.)


Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin ""Romanus"" meaning ""citizen of Rome"" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
Government typeparliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Independence27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 August (1991)
Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994
amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by one-third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2010; note – in early 2016, the Moldovan Constitutional Court decision returned the country to direct presidential elections, reversing a 2000 constitutional amendment that allowed Parliament to select the president (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Igor DODON (since 23 December 2016); note - on 20 October 2017, DODON was temporarily suspended by the Moldovan Constitutional Court for rejecting ministerial appointments; Parliamentary Chairman, Andrian CANDU, has assumed some of the presidential functions
head of government: Prime Minister Pavel FILIP (since 20 January 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2020); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament
election results: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote - Igor DODON (PSRM) 52.2%, Maia SANDU (PAS) 47.8%; Pavel FILIP (PDM) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 57 of 101
chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mihai TUDOSE (since 29 June 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Gratiela GAVRILESCU (since 29 June 2017), Marcel CIOLACU, (since 29 June 2017), Paul STANESCU (17 October 2017); note - Mihai TUDOSE resigned on 15 January 2018; Viorica DANCILA named Prime Minister Designate on 17 January 2018
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%; Mihai TUDOSE approved as prime minister 275-102
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 30 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 20.5%, PLDM 20.2%, PCRM 17.5%, PDM 15.8%, PL 9.7%, other 16.3%; seats by party - PSRM 25, PLDM 23, PCRM 21, PDM 19, PL 13
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats, 2 reserved for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats, 17 reserved for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms); in 2016, the elections returned to a party list vote-proportional representation voting system
elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.4%, other 8.4%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistracy (an 11-member body of judicial officials); all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Political parties and leaders"represented in Parliament:
Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
Democratic Party of Moldova or PDM [Vladimir PLAHOTNIUC]
European People’s Party of Moldova or EPPM [Iurie LEANCA]
Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova or PLDM [Viorel CIBOTARU]
Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]
Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Zinaida GRECEANII]
not represented in Parliament, participated in recent elections (2014-2016):
Action and Solidarity Party or PAS [Maia SANDU]
Anti-Mafia Movement or MPA [Sergiu MOCANU]
Centrist Union of Moldova or UCM [Mihai PETRACHE]
Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]
Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]
Democracy at Home Party or PPDA [Vasile COSTIUC]
Democratic Action Party or PAD [Mihai GODEA]
Dignity and Truth Platform or PDA [Andrei NASTASE]
Ecologist Green Party or PVE [Anatolie PROHNITCHI]
European People’s Party of Moldova or EPPM [Iurie LEANCA]
Law and Justice Party or PLD [Nicolae ALEXEI]
""Motherland"" Party or PP [Emilian CIOTU]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]
Our Home Moldova or PCNM [Grigore PETRENCO]
Our Party or PN [Renato USATII]
People’s Party of Moldova or PPRM [Alexandru OLEINIC]
Regions Party of Moldova or PRM [Alexandr KALININ]
“Right” Party or PD [Ana GUTU]
Shor Party or PS [Ilan SHOR]
Socialist People’s Party of Moldova or PPSM [Victor STEPANIUC]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Ioana CONSTANTIN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Ludovic ORBAN]
New Romania Party or PNR [Sebastian POPESCU]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or Partidul USR [Dan BARNA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
various human rights and professional associations
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Tatiana SOLOMON
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador James D. PETTIT (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of Prussian blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of dark gold (brown) outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag displays a mirrored image of the coat of arms
note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia
three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
National anthem"name: ""Limba noastra"" (Our Language)
lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
note: adopted 1994
"name: ""Desteapta-te romane!"" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red
golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


Economy - overviewDespite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.12 billion from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries.

With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. Moldova hopes to build a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers.

The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2014 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. During fall 2014, Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU, connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. Still, a $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; a subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption and a Russian import ban on Moldova’s agricultural products. The government’s push to restore stability and implement meaningful reform led to the approval of a $179 million three-year IMF program focused on improving the banking and fiscal environments.

Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices, Russian political and economic pressure, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.
Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-17 period, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was the major driver, due to the mid-2015 cut of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs, from 24% to 9%.

An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$20.07 billion (2017 est.)
$19.29 billion (2016 est.)
$18.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$474 billion (2017 est.)
$449.3 billion (2016 est.)
$428.7 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate4% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
-0.4% (2015 est.)
5.5% (2017 est.)
4.8% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,700 (2017 est.)
$5,400 (2016 est.)
$5,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$24,000 (2017 est.)
$22,700 (2016 est.)
$21,600 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.2%
industry: 21%
services: 64.8% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 33.2%
services: 64.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line20.8% (2013 est.)
22.4% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.5% (2017 est.)
6.4% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2017 est.)
-1.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force1.295 million (2017 est.)
8.951 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 33.7%
industry: 12.1%
services: 54.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
Unemployment rate4.3% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.8 (2015 est.)
26.8 (2014 est.)
27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)
Budgetrevenues: $2.796 billion
expenditures: $3.027 billion
note: National Public Budget (2017 est.)
revenues: $58.5 billion
expenditures: $65.54 billion (2017 est.)
Industriessugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate4% (2017 est.)
2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsvegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Exports$1.78 billion (2017 est.)
$1.547 billion (2016 est.)
$64.92 billion (2017 est.)
$57.72 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, textiles, machinery
machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
Exports - partnersRomania 25.5%, Russia 11.6%, Italy 9.9%, Germany 6.3%, UK 5.7%, Belarus 5.2% (2016)
Germany 21.5%, Italy 11.6%, France 7.2%, Hungary 5.2%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Imports$4.01 billion (2017 est.)
$3.604 billion (2016 est.)
$78.12 billion (2017 est.)
$67.94 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
Imports - partnersRomania 13.7%, Russia 13.3%, China 9.8%, Ukraine 9.5%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 7%, Turkey 6.8% (2016)
Germany 20.5%, Italy 10.3%, Hungary 7.5%, France 5.6%, Poland 5.1%, China 5.1%, Netherlands 4.1% (2016)
Debt - external$6.503 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$94.17 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$93.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesMoldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
18.03 (2017 est.)
19.924 (2016 est.)
19.924 (2015 est.)
19.83 (2014 est.)
14.036 (2013 est.)
lei (RON) per US dollar -
4.077 (2017 est.)
4.0592 (2016 est.)
4.0592 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt43.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.206 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$45.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$40 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$314 million (2017 est.)
-$258 million (2016 est.)
-$6.131 billion (2017 est.)
-$4.389 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$7.945 billion (2016 est.)
$204.9 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$3.581 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.466 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$81.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$76.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$206.1 million (31 December 2016)
$197.1 million (31 December 2015)
$6.263 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.963 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$9.723 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$50.47 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$65.29 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate9% (31 December 2016)
19.5% (31 December 2015)
note: this is the basic rate on short-term operations
1.75% (31 December 2015)
2.75% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate10.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.28% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.7% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.71% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.197 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.942 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$60.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.958 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.406 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$54.44 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$4.695 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.529 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$90.36 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$72.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues35.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 12.8%
male: 12.4%
female: 13.5% (2015 est.)
total: 21.7%
male: 20.6%
female: 23.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 90%
government consumption: 19.1%
investment in fixed capital: 23%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 51%
imports of goods and services: -83.1% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 70.6%
government consumption: 7.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.4%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.9%
imports of goods and services: -46% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving18.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.7% of GDP (2015 est.)


Electricity - production5.741 billion kWh (2015 est.)
62.16 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption4.611 billion kWh (2015 est.)
48.28 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
11.22 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports18 million kWh (2015 est.)
4.492 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
77,910 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports20 bbl/day (2014 est.)
145,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1,049 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
600 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (42370 est.)
105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production10 million cu m (2015 est.)
11.17 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption3.48 billion cu m
note: excludes breakaway Transnistria (2015 est.)
17.33 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.72 billion cu m
note: excludes breakaway Transnistria (2015 est.)
728 million cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity483,000 kW
note: excludes Transnistria (2015 est.)
24.03 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels85.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
46.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
28% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
5.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production262 bbl/day (2016 est.)
228,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption15,570 bbl/day (2016 est.)
182,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports261 bbl/day (2016 est.)
80,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports15,560 bbl/day (2016 est.)
40,940 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy4.976 million Mt (2013 est.)
76 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,171,287
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 4.11 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 3,788,490
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2016 est.)
total: 22.9 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of service to outside the cities and across most of the country
domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 105 per 100 persons
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2016)
general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by five mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 105 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2016)
Internet country code.md
Internet userstotal: 2,492,444
percent of population: 71.0% (July 2016 est.)
total: 12,852,696
percent of population: 59.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2017)
a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting (2014)


Railwaystotal: 1,171 km
broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 9,352 km
paved: 8,835 km
unpaved: 517 km (2012)
total: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
Waterways558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut Rivers) (2011)
1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
Pipelinesgas 1,916 km (2014)
gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
Merchant marinetotal: 172
by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 2, general cargo 130, oil tanker 8, other 27 (2017)
total: 114
by type: general cargo 13, oil tanker 7, other 94 (2017)
Airports7 (2013)
45 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,005,942
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 489,630 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 51
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,636,642
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,691,280 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixER (2016)
YR (2016)


Military branchesNational Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit); Carabinieri Troops: a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that also has official status as a service of the Armed Forces during wartime (2017)
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation (2016)
conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.44% of GDP (2016)
0.35% of GDP (2015)
0.35% of GDP (2014)
0.33% of GDP (2013)
0.33% of GDP (2012)
1.42% of GDP (2016)
1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.28% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - internationalMoldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Illicit drugslimited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 4,776 (2016)
stateless persons: 249 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook