Home

Mexico vs. Guatemala

Introduction

MexicoGuatemala
Background

The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. Left-leaning antiestablishment politician and former mayor of Mexico City (2000-05) Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR, from the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), became president in December 2018.

The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.

The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the internal conflict.

Geography

MexicoGuatemala
Location
North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Geographic coordinates
23 00 N, 102 00 W
15 30 N, 90 15 W
Map references
North America
Central America and the Caribbean
Area
total: 1,964,375 sq km
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km
total: 108,889 sq km
land: 107,159 sq km
water: 1,730 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries
total: 4,389 km
border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3155 km
total: 1,667 km
border countries (4): Belize 266 km, El Salvador 199 km, Honduras 244 km, Mexico 958 km
Coastline
9,330 km
400 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
varies from tropical to desert
tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain
high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
two east-west trending mountain chains divide the country into three regions: the mountainous highlands, the Pacific coast south of mountains, and the vast northern Peten lowlands
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 1,111 m
lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m
mean elevation: 759 m
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco (highest point in Central America) 4,220 m
Natural resources
petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use
agricultural land: 54.9% (2011 est.)
arable land: 11.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 41.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)
other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 41.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 14.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 8.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 18.2% (2011 est.)
forest: 33.6% (2011 est.)
other: 25.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
65,000 sq km (2012)
3,375 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms

volcanism: significant volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (3,772 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - current issues
scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
Environment - international agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note

note 1: strategic location on southern border of the US; Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 2: the "Three Sisters" companion plants - winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans - served as the main agricultural crops for various North American Indian groups; all three apparently originated in Mexico but then were widely disseminated through much of North America; vanilla, the world's most popular aroma and flavor spice, also emanates from Mexico

note 3: the Sac Actun cave system at 348 km (216 mi) is the longest underwater cave in the world and the second longest cave worldwide, after Mammoth Cave in the United States (see "Geography - note" under United States)

note 4: the prominent Yucatan Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico); formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth's plant and animal species - including the non-avian dinosaurs

note 1: despite having both eastern and western coastlines (Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean respectively), there are no natural harbors on the west coast

note 2: Guatemala is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

Population distribution
most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City
the vast majority of the populace resides in the southern half of the country, particularly in the mountainous regions; more than half of the population lives in rural areas

Demographics

MexicoGuatemala
Population
125,959,205 (July 2018 est.)
16,581,273 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 26.61% (male 17,143,124 /female 16,378,309)
15-24 years: 17.35% (male 11,072,817 /female 10,779,029)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 24,916,204 /female 26,612,272)
55-64 years: 7.87% (male 4,538,167 /female 5,375,867)
65 years and over: 7.26% (male 4,079,513 /female 5,063,903) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 34.55% (male 2,919,281 /female 2,810,329)
15-24 years: 20.23% (male 1,688,900 /female 1,665,631)
25-54 years: 35.47% (male 2,878,075 /female 3,002,920)
55-64 years: 5.28% (male 407,592 /female 468,335)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 336,377 /female 403,833) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 28.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 27.5 years
female: 29.7 years
total: 22.5 years (2018 est.)
male: 22 years
female: 23.1 years
Population growth rate
1.09% (2018 est.)
1.72% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
18.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
24.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 11.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 12.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births
total: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 76.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 73.5 years
female: 79.2 years
total population: 71.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 69.8 years
female: 73.9 years
Total fertility rate
2.22 children born/woman (2018 est.)
2.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2018 est.)
0.4% (2018 est.)
Nationality
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)

note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity

mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) 56%, Maya 41.7%, Xinca (indigenous, non-Maya) 1.8%, African descent .2%, Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak) .1%, foreign .2% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
230,000 (2018 est.)
47,000 (2018 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Maya
HIV/AIDS - deaths
4,000 (2017 est.)
2,200 (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2005)

note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages

Spanish (official) 69.9%, Maya languages 29.7% (Q'eqchi' 8.3%, K'iche 7.8%, Mam 4.4%, Kaqchikel 3%, Q'anjob'al 1.2%, Poqomchi' 1%, other 4%), other 0.4% (includes Xinca and Garifuna) (2018 est.)

note: the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinca, and Garifuna

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.9%
male: 95.8%
female: 94% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2016)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Education expenditures
5.2% of GDP (2015)
2.8% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 80.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 51.4% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 92.1% of population
total: 96.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 7.9% of population
total: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 92.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 7.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 88% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 74.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 85.2% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 12% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 14.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved: urban: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 49.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 63.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 22.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 50.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 36.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - population
21.672 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.101 million Guadalajara, 4.793 million Monterrey, 3.145 million Puebla, 2.411 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.099 million Tijuana (2019)
2.891 million GUATEMALA CITY (capital) (2019)
Maternal mortality rate
33 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
95 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
4.2% (2016)
12.4% (2015)
Health expenditures
5.9% (2015)
5.7% (2015)
Physicians density
2.25 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
0.36 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2015)
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
28.9% (2016)
21.2% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
21.3 years (2008 est.)
21.2 years (2014/15 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate
66.9% (2015)
60.6% (2014/15)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 51.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 41.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 10.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 68.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 61.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)

Government

MexicoGuatemala
Country name
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico
etymology: named after the capital city, whose name stems from the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain
conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
etymology: the Spanish conquistadors used many native Americans as allies in their conquest of Guatemala; the site of their first capital (established in 1524), a former Maya settlement, was called "Quauhtemallan" by their Nahuatl-speaking Mexican allies, a name that means "land of trees" or "forested land", but which the Spanish pronounced "Guatemala"; the Spanish applied that name to a re founded capital city three years later and eventually it became the name of the country
Government type
federal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capital
name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)
geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

note: Mexico has four time zones

etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

name: Guatemala City
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the Spanish conquistadors used many native Americans as allies in their conquest of Guatemala; the site of their first capital (established in 1524), a former Maya settlement, was called "Quauhtemallan" by their Nahuatl-speaking Mexican allies, a name that means "land of trees" or "forested land", but which the Spanish pronounced "Guatemala"; the Spanish applied that name to a re founded capital city three years later and eventually it became the name of the country
Administrative divisions
32 states (estados, singular - estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence
16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution
history: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917
amendments: proposed by the Congress of the Union; passage requires approval by at least two thirds of the members present and approval by a majority of the state legislatures; amended many times, last in 2019 (2019)
history: several previous; latest adopted 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended and reinstated in 1994
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by agreement of 10 or more deputies of Congress, by the Constitutional Court, or by public petition of at least 5,000 citizens; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Congress membership and approval by public referendum, referred to as "popular consultation"; constitutional articles such as national sovereignty, the republican form of government, limitations on those seeking the presidency, or presidential tenure cannot be amended; amended 1994 (2018)
Legal system
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police by law cannot vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
Executive branch
chief of state: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)
election results: Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA (PAN) 22.3%, Jose Antonio MEADE Kuribrena (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRIGUEZ Calderon 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%
chief of state: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (since 14 January 2016); Vice President Jafeth CABRERA Franco (since 14 January 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held on 16 June 2019 with a runoff on 11 August 2019 (next to be held in June 2023)
election results: Alejandro GIAMMATTEI elected president; percent of vote in first round - Sandra TORRES (UNE) 25.54%, Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (VAMOS) 13.95%, Edmond MULET (PHG) 11.21%, Thelma CABRERA (MLP) 10.37%, Roberto ARZU (PAN-PODEMOS) 6.08%; percent of vote in second round - Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (VAMOS) 58%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 42%; note - the new president will be inaugurated on 14 January 2020
Legislative branch
description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of:
Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 1 July 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 1 July 2021)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MORENA 58, PAN 22, PRI 14, PRD 9, MC 7, PT 7, PES 5, PVEM 5, PNA/PANAL 1; composition - men 65, women 63, percent of women 49.3%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MORENA 193, PAN 79, PT 61, PES 58, PRI 42, MC 26, PRD 23, PVEM 17, PNA/PANAL 1; composition - men 259, women 241, percent of women 48.2%; note - total National Congress percent of women 48.4%
note: for the 2018 election, senators will be eligible for a second term and deputies up to 4 consecutive terms
description: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; 127 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies in the country's 22 departments by simple majority vote and 31 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - two additional seats will be added to the new congress when it is seated in January 2020
elections: last held on 16 June 2019 (next to be held on June 2023)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UNE 53, VAMOS 16, UCN 12, VALOR 9, BIEN 8, FCN-NACION 8, SEMILLA 7, TODOS 7, VIVA 7, CREO 6, PHG 6, VICTORIA 4, Winaq 4, PC 3, PU 3, URNG 3, PAN 2, MLP 1, PODEMOS 1
note: current seats by party as of 1 June 2019 - FCN 37, UNE 32, MR 20, TODOS 17, AC 12, EG 7, UCN 6, CREO 5, LIDER 5, VIVA 4, Convergence 3, PAN 3, PP 2, FUERZA 1, PU 1, URNG 1, Winaq 1, independent 1; composition - men 136, women 22, percent of women 13.9%
Judicial branch
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president, and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve 15-year terms; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms
subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 13 magistrates, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad (consists of 5 titular magistrates and 5 substitute magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Courts of Appeal; magistrates elected for concurrent, renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the (public) University of San Carlos, and 1 by the Assembly of the College of Attorneys and Notaries; judges elected for renewable, consecutive 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term
subordinate courts: numerous first instance and appellate courts
Political parties and leaders
Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTANEDA]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Carlos Alberto PUENTE Salas]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Andres Manuel LOPEZ Obrador]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Damian ZEPEDA Vidales]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Manuel GRANADOS]
Bienestar Nacional or BIEN [Alfonso PORTILLO and Evelyn MORATAYA]
Citizen Alliance or AC
Citizen Prosperity or PC [Dami Anita Elizabeth KRISTENSON Sales]
Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Roberto GONZALEZ Diaz-Duran]
Convergence [Sandra MORAN]
Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO Cottom]
Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
Force or FUERZA [Mauricio RADFORD]
Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG-MAIZ or URNG [Gregorio CHAY Laynez]
Humanist Party of Guatemala or PHG [Edmond MULET]
Movement for the Liberation of Peoples or MLP [Thelma CABRERA]
Movimiento Semilla or SEMILLA [Thelma ALDANA]
National Advancement Party or PAN [Harald JOHANNESSEN]
National Convergence Front or FCN-NACION or FCN [Jimmy MORALES]
National Unity for Hope or UNE [Sandra TORRES]
Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]
Patriotic Party or PP
PODEMOS [Jose Raul VIRGIL Arias]
Political Movement Winaq or Winaq [Sonia GUTIERREZ Raguay]
Reform Movement or MR
Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER (dissolved mid-February 2016)
TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS]
Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Escobar]
Value or VALOR [Zury RIOS]
Vamos por una Guatemala Diferente or VAMOS [Alejandro GIAMMATTEI]
Victory or VICTORIA [Amilcar RIVERA]
Vision with Values or VIVA [Armando Damian CASTILLO Alvarado]
note: parties represented in the last election, but have since dissolved - FCN (2017), LIDER (2016), and PP (2017)
International organization participation
APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Ambassador Martha BARCENA Coqui (since 11 January 2019); note - Ambassador BARCENA Coqui is Mexico'a first-ever female ambassador to the US
 
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas, Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Minneapolis (MN), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section is located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
 
Ambassador Manuel Alfredo ESPINA Pinto (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Del Rio (TX), Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), Miami, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Providence (RI), Raleigh (NC), San Bernardino (CA), San Francisco, Seattle
consulate(s): Lake Worth (FL), Tucson (AZ)
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher LANDAU (since 26 August 2019)
telephone: (011) 52-55-5080-2000
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
FAX: (011) 52-55-5080-2005
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis E. ARREAGA (since 4 October 2017)
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: DPO AA 34024
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of green and red, and does not display anything in its white band

three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue, with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) representing liberty and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles signifying Guatemala's willingness to defend itself and a pair of crossed swords representing honor and framed by a laurel wreath symbolizing victory; the blue bands represent the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea; the white band denotes peace and purity

note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Mozambique

National anthem
name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA

note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed

name: "Himno Nacional de Guatemala" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
lyrics/music: Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE

note: adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911

International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)
golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red
quetzal (bird); national colors: blue, white
Citizenship
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: not specified
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years with no absences of six consecutive months or longer or absences totaling more than a year

Economy

MexicoGuatemala
Economy - overview

Mexico's $2.4 trillion economy – 11th largest in the world - has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force in 1994. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal.

Mexico has become the US' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2017, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $623 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of its trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia, and Chile.

Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, has emphasized economic reforms, passing and implementing sweeping energy, financial, fiscal, and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Since 2015, Mexico has held public auctions of oil and gas exploration and development rights and for long-term electric power generation contracts. Mexico has also issued permits for private sector import, distribution, and retail sales of refined petroleum products in an effort to attract private investment into the energy sector and boost production.

Since 2013, Mexico’s economic growth has averaged 2% annually, falling short of private-sector expectations that President PENA NIETO’s sweeping reforms would bolster economic prospects. Growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Mexico’s economy remains vulnerable to uncertainty surrounding the future of NAFTA — because the United States is its top trading partner and the two countries share integrated supply chains — and to potential shifts in domestic policies following the inauguration of a new a president in December 2018.

Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America with a GDP per capita roughly half the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. The agricultural sector accounts for 13.5% of GDP and 31% of the labor force; key agricultural exports include sugar, coffee, bananas, and vegetables. Guatemala is the top remittance recipient in Central America as a result of Guatemala's large expatriate community in the US. These inflows are a primary source of foreign income, equivalent to two-thirds of the country's exports and about a tenth of its GDP.

The 1996 peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and Guatemala has since pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) entered into force in July 2006, spurring increased investment and diversification of exports, with the largest increases in ethanol and non-traditional agricultural exports. While CAFTA-DR has helped improve the investment climate, concerns over security, the lack of skilled workers, and poor infrastructure continue to hamper foreign direct investment.

The distribution of income remains highly unequal with the richest 20% of the population accounting for more than 51% of Guatemala's overall consumption. More than half of the population is below the national poverty line, and 23% of the population lives in extreme poverty. Poverty among indigenous groups, which make up more than 40% of the population, averages 79%, with 40% of the indigenous population living in extreme poverty. Nearly one-half of Guatemala's children under age five are chronically malnourished, one of the highest malnutrition rates in the world.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$2.463 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.413 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.346 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$138.1 billion (2017 est.)
$134.4 billion (2016 est.)
$130.4 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - real growth rate
2% (2017 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2017 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)
$19,900 (2017 est.)
$19,700 (2016 est.)
$19,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

$8,200 (2017 est.)
$8,100 (2016 est.)
$8,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 31.9% (2017 est.)
services: 64.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 13.3% (2017 est.)
industry: 23.4% (2017 est.)
services: 63.2% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line
46.2% (2014 est.)

note: from a food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47%

59.3% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40% (2014)
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
6% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
4.4% (2017 est.)
4.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force
54.51 million (2017 est.)
6.664 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 13.4%
industry: 24.1%
services: 61.9% (2011)
agriculture: 31.4%
industry: 12.8%
services: 55.8% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate
3.4% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)

note: underemployment may be as high as 25%

2.3% (2017 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
48.2 (2014)
48.3 (2008)
53 (2014 est.)
56 (2011)
Budget
revenues: 261.4 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 273.8 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 8.164 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 9.156 billion (2017 est.)
Industries
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Industrial production growth rate
-0.6% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products
corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Exports
$409.8 billion (2017 est.)
$374.3 billion (2016 est.)
$11.12 billion (2017 est.)
$10.58 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities
manufactured goods, electronics, vehicles and auto parts, oil and oil products, silver, plastics, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton; Mexico is the world's leading producer of silver
sugar, coffee, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, manufacturing products, precious stones and metals, electricity
Exports - partners
US 79.9% (2017)
US 33.8%, El Salvador 11.1%, Honduras 8.8%, Nicaragua 5.1%, Mexico 4.7% (2017)
Imports
$420.8 billion (2017 est.)
$387.4 billion (2016 est.)
$17.11 billion (2017 est.)
$15.77 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities
metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts, plastics, natural gas and oil products
fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity, mineral products, chemical products, plastic materials and products
Imports - partners
US 46.4%, China 17.7%, Japan 4.3% (2017)
US 39.8%, China 10.7%, Mexico 10.7%, El Salvador 5.3% (2017)
Debt - external
$445.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$450.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$22.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$21.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates
Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
18.26 (2017 est.)
18.664 (2016 est.)
18.664 (2015 est.)
15.848 (2014 est.)
13.292 (2013 est.)
quetzales (GTQ) per US dollar -
7.323 (2017 est.)
7.5999 (2016 est.)
7.5999 (2015 est.)
7.6548 (2014 est.)
7.7322 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
calendar year
Public debt
54.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
56.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$175.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$178.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: Mexico also maintains access to an $88 million Flexible Credit Line with the IMF

$11.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.156 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance
-$19.35 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.32 billion (2016 est.)
$1.134 billion (2017 est.)
$1.023 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
$1.151 trillion (2017 est.)
$75.62 billion (2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$554.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$473.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.2 billion (2017 est.)
$14.6 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$402.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$480.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$526 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

NA

Central bank discount rate
7.25% (31 December 2017)
5.75% (31 December 2016)
7.53% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate
7.34% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.72% (31 December 2016 est.)
13.05% (31 December 2017 est.)
13.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$431.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$393.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$30.44 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$215.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.23 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money
$215.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.23 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
22.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
10.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
-1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 6.9%
male: 6.5%
female: 7.6% (2018 est.)
total: 5%
male: 3.7%
female: 8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 37.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 86.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 9.7% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 12.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 18.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -26.9% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving
21.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
13.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

MexicoGuatemala
Electricity - production
302.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
12.12 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption
258.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
10.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports
7.308 billion kWh (2016 est.)
1.858 billion kWh (2017 est.)
Electricity - imports
3.532 billion kWh (2016 est.)
747 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production
1.852 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
9,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports
0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports
1.214 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
9,383 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Oil - proved reserves
6.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
83.07 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
279.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production
31.57 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
81.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports
36.81 million cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports
50.12 billion cu m (2017 est.)
0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity
72.56 million kW (2016 est.)
4.605 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels
71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants
17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
31% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels
2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources
9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
28% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production
844,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
1,162 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption
1.984 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
89,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports
155,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
10,810 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports
867,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
97,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy
454.1 million Mt (2017 est.)
17.15 million Mt (2017 est.)
Electricity access
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 1 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 91.8% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 96.8% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 86.4% (2016)

Telecommunications

MexicoGuatemala
Telephones - main lines in use
total subscriptions: 20,602,668
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,461,109
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2017 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular
total subscriptions: 114,326,842
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2017 est.)
total subscriptions: 19,986,482
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2017 est.)
Telephone system
general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable; two main MNOs despite efforts for competition; preparation for 5G and LTE-M services; Mexico’s first local Internet Exchange Point opens in Mexico City (2018)
domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 17 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 92 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)
general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala; one of the lowest teledensities in the region especially in the country; state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opened the way for competition; steady improvement of fixed-line which has also spurred growth in mobile-cellular and broadband; open regulatory framework coupled with competion and greater disposable household revenue spurs growth (2018)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 15 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity about 129 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 502; landing points for the ARCOS, AMX-1, American Movil-Texius West Coast Cable and the SAm-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that, together, provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
Internet country code
.mx
.gt
Internet users
total: 73,334,032
percent of population: 59.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 5,241,952
percent of population: 34.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast media
telecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 821 TV stations and 1,745 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks
4 privately owned national terrestrial TV channels dominate TV broadcasting; multi-channel satellite and cable services are available; 1 government-owned radio station and hundreds of privately owned radio stations (2019)

Transportation

MexicoGuatemala
Railways
total: 20,825 km (2017)
standard gauge: 20,825 km 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified) (2017)
total: 800 km (2018)
narrow gauge: 800 km 0.914-m gauge (2018)
note: despite the existence of a railway network, all rail service was suspended in 2007 and no passenger or freight train currently runs in the country (2018)
Roadways
total: 398,148 km (2017)
paved: 174,911 km (includes 10,362 km of expressways) (2017)
unpaved: 223,237 km (2017)
total: 17,621 km (2016)
paved: 7,489 km (2016)
unpaved: 10,132 km (includes 4,960 km of rural roads) (2016)
Waterways
2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
990 km (260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season) (2012)
Pipelines
15,986 km natural gas (2019), 10,365 km oil (2017), 8,946 km refined products (2016)
480 km oil (2013)
Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz
oil terminal(s): Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal
cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada
container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (2,830,370), Lazaro Cardenas (1,149,079) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada
major seaport(s): Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
Merchant marine
total: 617
by type: bulk carrier 6, general cargo 11, oil tanker 35, other 565 (2018)
total: 9
by type: oil tanker 1, other 8 (2018)
Airports
total: 1,714 (2013)
total: 291 (2013)
Airports - with paved runways
total: 243 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 12 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 86 (2017)
under 914 m: 33 (2017)
total: 16 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
under 914 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 1,471 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 42 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 281 (2013)
under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)
total: 275 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 77 (2013)
under 914 m: 195 (2013)
Heliports
1 (2013)
1 (2013)
National air transport system
number of registered air carriers: 21 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 357 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 45,560,063 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713,985,467 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 93,129 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 455,520 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix
XA (2016)
TG (2016)

Military

MexicoGuatemala
Military branches
Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)); Ministry of Security and Citizen Protection: Federal Police, National Guard (2019)
Note:  the National Guard was formed in 2019 and consists of personnel from the Federal Police and military police units of the Army and Navy
Army of Guatamala (Ejercito de Guatamala):  Land Forces (Fuerzas de Tierra), Naval Forces (Fuerza de Mar), and Air Force (Fuerza de Aire). (2019)
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for compulsory military service (selection for service determined by lottery), conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2012)
all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are eligible for military service; in practice, most of the force is volunteer, however, a selective draft system is employed, resulting in a small portion of 17-21 year-olds conscripted; conscript service obligation varies from 1 to 2 years; women can serve as officers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
0.54% of GDP (2018)
0.47% of GDP (2017)
0.56% of GDP (2016)
0.66% of GDP (2015)
0.66% of GDP (2014)
0.35% of GDP (2018)
0.36% of GDP (2017)
0.39% of GDP (2016)
0.43% of GDP (2015)
0.45% of GDP (2014)

Transnational Issues

MexicoGuatemala
Disputes - international

abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

annual ministerial meetings under the Organization of American States-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to half of Belize, but agrees to Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution, but this vote was suspended indefinitely; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US

Illicit drugs
major drug-producing and transit nation; Mexico is estimated to be the world's third largest producer of opium with poppy cultivation in 2015 estimated to be 28,000 hectares yielding a potential production of 475 metric tons of raw opium; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market
major transit country for cocaine and heroin; it is estimated that 1,000 mt of cocaine are smuggled through the country each year, primarily destined for the US market; in 2016, the Guatamalan government estimated that an average of 4,500 hectares of opium poppy were being cultivated; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 5,155 (El Salvador) (2018); 62,363 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
IDPs: 338,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2018)
stateless persons: 13 (2018)
IDPs: 242,000 (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2018)

Source: CIA Factbook