Mexico vs. Belize



The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. Left-leaning antiestablishment politician and former mayor of Mexico City (2000-05) Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR, from the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), became president in December 2018.

The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.

Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1862. Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992 and the two countries are involved in an ongoing border dispute. Both nations have voted to send the dispute for final resolution to the International Court of Justice. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current concerns include the country's heavy foreign debt burden, high crime rates, high unemployment combined with a majority youth population, growing involvement in the Mexican and South American drug trade, and one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Central America.


LocationNorth America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United StatesCentral America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Geographic coordinates23 00 N, 102 00 W17 15 N, 88 45 W
Map referencesNorth AmericaCentral America and the Caribbean
Areatotal: 1,964,375 sq km

land: 1,943,945 sq km

water: 20,430 sq km
total: 22,966 sq km

land: 22,806 sq km

water: 160 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than three times the size of Texasslightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundariestotal: 4,389 km

border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3155 km
total: 542 km

border countries (2): Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 276 km
Coastline9,330 km386 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatevaries from tropical to deserttropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Terrainhigh, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desertflat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Elevation extremeshighest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

mean elevation: 1,111 m
highest point: Doyle's Delight 1,124 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 173 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timberarable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 54.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)

other: 11.8% (2018 est.)
agricultural land: 6.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 2.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 60.6% (2018 est.)

other: 32.5% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land65,000 sq km (2012)35 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Environment - current issuesscarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
deforestation; water pollution, including pollution of Belize's Barrier Reef System, from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; inability to properly dispose of solid waste
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note

note 1: strategic location on southern border of the US; Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 2: some of the world's most important food crops were first domesticated in Mexico; the "Three Sisters" companion plants - winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans - served as the main agricultural crops for various North American Indian groups; all three apparently originated in Mexico but then were widely disseminated through much of North America; avocado, amaranth, and chili peppers also emanate from Mexico, as does vanilla, the world's most popular aroma and flavor spice; although cherry tomatoes originated in Ecuador, their domestication in Mexico transformed them into the larger modern tomato

note 3: the Sac Actun cave system at 348 km (216 mi) is the longest underwater cave in the world and the second longest cave worldwide, after Mammoth Cave in the United States (see "Geography - note" under United States)

note 4: the prominent Yucatan Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico); formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth's plant and animal species - including the non-avian dinosaurs

only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
Total renewable water resources461.888 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)21.734 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Population distributionmost of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico Cityapproximately 25% to 30% of the population lives in the former capital, Belize City; over half of the overall population is rural; population density is slightly higher in the north and east


Population130,207,371 (July 2021 est.)405,633 (July 2021 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.01% (male 17,111,199/female 16,349,767)

15-24 years: 16.97% (male 11,069,260/female 10,762,784)

25-54 years: 41.06% (male 25,604,223/female 27,223,720)

55-64 years: 8.29% (male 4,879,048/female 5,784,176)

65 years and over: 7.67% (male 4,373,807/female 5,491,581) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 32.57% (male 66,454/female 63,700)

15-24 years: 19% (male 39,238/female 36,683)

25-54 years: 37.72% (male 73,440/female 77,300)

55-64 years: 6.18% (male 12,235/female 12,444)

65 years and over: 4.53% (male 8,781/female 9,323) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.3 years

male: 28.2 years

female: 30.4 years (2020 est.)
total: 23.9 years

male: 23 years

female: 24.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate1.04% (2021 est.)1.67% (2021 est.)
Birth rate17.29 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)21.62 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate5.41 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)3.99 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 11.64 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.18 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 12.64 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.94 years

male: 74.15 years

female: 79.87 years (2021 est.)
total population: 75.56 years

male: 73.96 years

female: 77.24 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate2.17 children born/woman (2021 est.)2.66 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2020 est.)1.2% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican
noun: Belizean(s)

adjective: Belizean
Ethnic groupsMestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)

note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity
Mestizo 52.9%, Creole 25.9%, Maya 11.3%, Garifuna 6.1%, East Indian 3.9%, Mennonite 3.6%, White 1.2%, Asian 1%, other 1.2%, unknown 0.3% (2010 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS340,000 (2020 est.)3,800 (2020 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)Roman Catholic 40.1%, Protestant 31.5% (includes Pentecostal 8.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 4.7%, Mennonite 3.7%, Baptist 3.6%, Methodist 2.9%, Nazarene 2.8%), Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, other 10.5% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, Mormon, Muslim, Rastafarian, Salvation Army), unspecified 0.6%, none 15.5% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,300 (2020 est.)<200 (2020 est.)
LanguagesSpanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; note -indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
English 62.9% (official), Spanish 56.6%, Creole 44.6%, Maya 10.5%, German 3.2%, Garifuna 2.9%, other 1.8%, unknown 0.3%, none 0.2% (cannot speak); note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2010 est.)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2018)
total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2019)
Education expenditures4.5% of GDP (2017)7.6% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 81% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 46.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 96.6% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 3.4% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 98.6% of population

total: 99.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 1.4% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 99.3% of population

rural: 91.9% of population

total: 97.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population

rural: 8.1% of population

total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 98.8% of population

rural: 95.3% of population

total: 96.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.2% of population

rural: 4.7% of population

total: 3.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population21.919 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.259 million Guadalajara, 4.956 million Monterrey, 3.245 million Puebla, 2.522 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.181 million Tijuana (2021)23,000 BELMOPAN (capital) (2018)
Maternal mortality rate33 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)36 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4.7% (2018/19)4.6% (2015/16)
Health expenditures5.4% (2018)5.7% (2018)
Physicians density2.38 physicians/1,000 population (2017)1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density1.5 beds/1,000 population (2015)1 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate28.9% (2016)24.1% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate73.1% (2018)51.4% (2015/16)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.3

youth dependency ratio: 38.8

elderly dependency ratio: 11.4

potential support ratio: 8.7 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52

youth dependency ratio: 44.4

elderly dependency ratio: 7.6

potential support ratio: 13.1 (2020 est.)


Country nameconventional long form: United Mexican States

conventional short form: Mexico

local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos

local short form: Mexico

etymology: named after the capital city, whose name stems from the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain
conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Belize

former: British Honduras

etymology: may be named for the Belize River, whose name possibly derives from the Maya word "belix," meaning "muddy-watered"
Government typefederal presidential republicparliamentary democracy (National Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capitalname: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)

geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

note: Mexico has four time zones

etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain
name: Belmopan

geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 46 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the decision to move the capital of the country inland to higher and more stable land was made in the 1960s; the name chosen for the new city was formed from the union of two words: "Belize," the name of the longest river in the country, and "Mopan," one of the rivers in the area of the new capital that empties into the Belize River
Administrative divisions32 states (estados, singular - estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)21 September 1981 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 16 September (1810)Battle of St. George's Caye Day (National Day), 10 September (1798); Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917

amendments: proposed by the Congress of the Union; passage requires approval by at least two thirds of the members present and approval by a majority of the state legislatures; amended many times, last in 2020
history: previous 1954, 1963 (preindependence); latest signed and entered into force 21 September 1981

amendments: proposed and adopted by two-thirds majority vote of the National Assembly House of Representatives except for amendments relating to rights and freedoms, changes to the Assembly, and to elections and judiciary matters, which require at least three-quarters majority vote of the House; both types of amendments require assent of the governor general; amended several times, last in 2017
Legal systemcivil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative actsEnglish common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)

election results:
2018: Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA (PAN) 22.3%, Jose Antonio MEADE Kuribrena (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRIGUEZ Calderon 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%

2012: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Froyla TZALAM (since 27 May 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Juan Antonio BRICENO (since 12 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister Cordel HYDE (since 16 November 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of:
Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)

Senate - last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 June 2021 (next to be held in July 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MORENA 58, PAN 22, PRI 14, PRD 9, MC 7, PT 7, PES 5, PVEM 5, PNA/PANAL 1; composition - men 65, women 63, percent of women 49.3%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MORENA 197, PAN 111, PRI 69, PVEM 44, PT 38, MC 25, PRD 16; composition - NA

note: as of the 2018 election, senators will be eligible for a second term and deputies up to 4 consecutive terms
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Senate (14 seats, including the president); members appointed by the governor general - 6 on the advice of the prime minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1 each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, non-governmental organizations in good standing, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; Senate president elected from among the Senate members or from outside the Senate; members serve 5-year terms
House of Representatives (31 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

Senate -  last appointed 11 November 2020 (next appointments in November 2025)
House of Representatives - last held on 11 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2025)

election results: Senate - all members appointed; composition - men 9, women 5, percent of women 35.7%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PUP 59.6%, UDP 38.8%, other 1.6%; seats by party - PUP 26, UDP 5; composition -  men 27, women 4, percent of women 12.9%; note - total percent of women in the National Assembly 20%

Judicial branchhighest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president, and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve 15-year terms; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts

Note: in mid-February 2020, the Mexican president endorsed a bill on judicial reform, which proposes changes to 7 articles of the constitution and the issuance of a new Organic Law on the Judicial Branch of the Federation
highest courts: Supreme Court of Judicature (consists of the Court of Appeal with the court president and 3 justices, and the Supreme Court with the chief justice and 10 justices); note - in 2010, Belize acceded to the Caribbean Court of Justice as the final court of appeal, replacing that of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal president and justices appointed by the governor-general upon advice of the prime minister after consultation with the National Assembly opposition leader; justices' tenures vary by terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the governor-general upon the advice of the prime minister and the National Assembly opposition leader; other judges appointed by the governor-general upon the advice of the Judicial and Legal Services Section of the Public Services Commission and with the concurrence of the prime minister after consultation with the National Assembly opposition leader; judges can be appointed beyond age 65 but must retire by age 75; in 2013, the Supreme Court chief justice overturned a constitutional amendment that had restricted Court of Appeal judge appointments to as short as 1 year

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts; Family Court
Political parties and leadersCitizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTANEDA]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
It's For Mexico (Va Por Mexico) - alliance that includes PAN, PRI, PRD
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Carlos Alberto PUENTE Salas]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Andres Manuel LOPEZ Obrador]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Damian ZEPEDA Vidales]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Manuel GRANADOS]
Together We Make History (Juntos Hacemos Historia) - alliance that includes MORENA, PT, PVEM
Belize Progressive Party or BPP [Patrick ROGERS] (formed in 2015 from a merger of the People's National Party, elements of the Vision Inspired by the People, and other smaller political groups)
People's United Party or PUP [Johnny BRICENO]
United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean Oliver BARROW]
Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Hubert ENRIQUEZ]
International organization participationAPEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Esteban MOCTEZUMA Barragan (since 20 April 2021)

chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas, Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Milwaukee (WI), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Saint Paul (MN), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section is located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia

chief of mission: Ambassador Lynn Raymond YOUNG (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008-2826

telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York (consular services temporarily suspended beginning 18 December 2020)

consulate(s): Miami
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie SYPTAK-RAMNATH (since 20 July 2021)

embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, CDMX

mailing address: 8700 Mexico City Place, Washington DC  20521-8700

telephone: (011) [52]-55-5080-2000

FAX: (011) 52-55-5080-2005

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Leyla MOSES-ONES(since August 2021)

embassy: Floral Park Road, Belmopan, Cayo

mailing address: 3050 Belmopan Place, Washington DC  20521-3050

telephone: (501) 822-4011

FAX: (501) 822-4012

email address and website:

Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of green and red, and does not display anything in its white band
royal blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland of 50 mahogany leaves; the colors are those of the two main political parties: blue for the PUP and red for the UDP; various elements of the coat of arms - the figures, the tools, the mahogany tree, and the garland of leaves - recall the logging industry that led to British settlement of Belize

note: Belize's flag is the only national flag that depicts human beings; two British overseas territories, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands, also depict humans
National anthemname: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)

lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA

note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed
name: Land of the Free

lyrics/music: Samuel Alfred HAYNES/Selwyn Walford YOUNG

note: adopted 1981; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: green, white, redBaird's tapir (a large, browsing, forest-dwelling mammal), keel-billed toucan, Black Orchid; national colors: red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: not specified

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


Economy - overview

Mexico's $2.4 trillion economy - 11th largest in the world - has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force in 1994. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal.

Mexico has become the US' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2017, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $623 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of its trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia, and Chile.

Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, has emphasized economic reforms, passing and implementing sweeping energy, financial, fiscal, and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Since 2015, Mexico has held public auctions of oil and gas exploration and development rights and for long-term electric power generation contracts. Mexico has also issued permits for private sector import, distribution, and retail sales of refined petroleum products in an effort to attract private investment into the energy sector and boost production.

Since 2013, Mexico's economic growth has averaged 2% annually, falling short of private-sector expectations that President PENA NIETO's sweeping reforms would bolster economic prospects. Growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Mexico's economy remains vulnerable to uncertainty surrounding the future of NAFTA - because the United States is its top trading partner and the two countries share integrated supply chains - and to potential shifts in domestic policies following the inauguration of a new a president in December 2018.

Tourism is the number one foreign exchange earner in this small economy, followed by exports of sugar, bananas, citrus, marine products, and crude oil.

The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in 1999-2007, but GPD growth has averaged only 2.1% from 2007-2016, with 2.5% growth estimated for 2017. Belize's dependence on energy imports makes it susceptible to energy price shocks.

Although Belize has the third highest per capita income in Central America, the average income figure masks a huge income disparity between rich and poor, and a key government objective remains reducing poverty and inequality with the help of international donors. High unemployment, a growing trade deficit and heavy foreign debt burden continue to be major concerns. Belize faces continued pressure from rising sovereign debt, and a growing trade imbalance.

GDP (purchasing power parity)$2,525,481,000,000 (2019 est.)

$2,526,859,000,000 (2018 est.)

$2,472,586,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$2.734 billion (2019 est.)

$2.726 billion (2018 est.)

$2.671 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-0.3% (2019 est.)

2.19% (2018 est.)

2.34% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2017 est.)

-0.5% (2016 est.)

3.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$19,796 (2019 est.)

$20,024 (2018 est.)

$19,816 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars
$7,005 (2019 est.)

$7,118 (2018 est.)

$7,109 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.9% (2017 est.)

services: 64.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 10.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 21.6% (2017 est.)

services: 68% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line41.9% (2018 est.)41% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 40% (2014)
lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.6% (2019 est.)

4.9% (2018 est.)

6% (2017 est.)
1.1% (2017 est.)

0.7% (2016 est.)
Labor force50.914 million (2020 est.)120,500 (2008 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 13.4%

industry: 24.1%

services: 61.9% (2011)
agriculture: 10.2%

industry: 18.1%

services: 71.7% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate3.49% (2019 est.)

3.33% (2018 est.)

note: underemployment may be as high as 25%
9% (2017 est.)

8% (2016 est.)
Budgetrevenues: 261.4 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 273.8 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: 553.5 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 572 million (2017 est.)
Industriesfood and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourismgarment production, food processing, tourism, construction, oil
Industrial production growth rate-0.6% (2017 est.)-0.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productssugar cane, maize, milk, oranges, sorghum, tomatoes, poultry, wheat, green chillies/peppers, eggssugar care, oranges, bananas, maize, poultry, rice, sorghum, papayas, grapefruit, soybeans
Exports$491.593 billion (2019 est.)

$484.595 billion (2018 est.)

$457.693 billion (2017 est.)
$457.5 million (2017 est.)

$442.7 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiescars and vehicle parts, computers, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, insulated wiring (2019)raw sugar, bananas, fruit juice, fish products, crude petroleum (2019)
Exports - partnersUnited States 75% (2019)United Kingdom 27%, United States 24%, Spain 6%, Jamaica 5%, Ireland 5% (2019)
Imports$480.886 billion (2019 est.)

$485.211 billion (2018 est.)

$458.381 billion (2017 est.)
$845.9 million (2017 est.)

$916.2 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesintegrated circuits, refined petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, office machinery/parts, telephones (2019)refined petroleum, cigarettes, recreational boats, natural gas, cars (2019)
Imports - partnersUnited States 54%, China 14% (2019)United States 36%, China 13%, Mexico 12%, Guatemala 10% (2019)
Debt - external$456.713 billion (2019 est.)

$448.268 billion (2018 est.)
$1.315 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.338 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesMexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -

19.8 (2020 est.)

19.22824 (2019 est.)

20.21674 (2018 est.)

15.848 (2014 est.)

13.292 (2013 est.)
Belizean dollars (BZD) per US dollar -

2 (2017 est.)

2 (2016 est.)

2 (2015 est.)

2 (2014 est.)

2 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year1 April - 31 March
Public debt54.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

56.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
99% of GDP (2017 est.)

95.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$175.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$178.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: Mexico also maintains access to an $88 million Flexible Credit Line with the IMF
$312.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$376.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$4.351 billion (2019 est.)

-$25.415 billion (2018 est.)
-$143 million (2017 est.)

-$163 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1,269,956,000,000 (2019 est.)$1.854 billion (2017 est.)
Credit ratingsFitch rating: BBB- (2020)

Moody's rating: Baa1 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2020)
Moody's rating: Caa3 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: CCC+ (2020)
Ease of Doing Business Index scoresOverall score: 72.4 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 86.1 (2020)

Trading score: 82.1 (2020)

Enforcement score: 67 (2020)
Overall score: 55.5 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 72 (2020)

Trading score: 68.2 (2020)

Enforcement score: 50.1 (2020)
Taxes and other revenues22.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)29.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 7.2%

male: 6.7%

female: 8% (2019 est.)
total: 15.3%

male: 9.5%

female: 24.8% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 37.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 75.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.5% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 49.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -63.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving23.7% of GDP (2019 est.)

23.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

23.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

8.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

10.8% of GDP (2017 est.)


Electricity - production302.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)280 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption258.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)453 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports7.308 billion kWh (2016 est.)0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports3.532 billion kWh (2016 est.)243 million kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production1.852 million bbl/day (2018 est.)2,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports1.214 million bbl/day (2017 est.)1,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves6.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)6.7 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves279.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - production31.57 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption81.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports36.81 million cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports50.12 billion cu m (2017 est.)0 cu m (2017 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity72.56 million kW (2016 est.)198,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)51% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)27% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production844,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)36 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.984 million bbl/day (2017 est.)4,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports155,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports867,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)4,161 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2020)electrification - total population: 99.5% (2018)

electrification - urban areas: 98.2% (2018)

electrification - rural areas: 100% (2018)


Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 22,717,180

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17.82 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 18,500

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4.72 (2019 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal subscriptions: 122,040,789

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95.75 (2019 est.)
total subscriptions: 254,919

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 65.01 (2019 est.)
Internet country code.mx.bz
Internet userstotal: 82,843,369

percent of population: 65.77% (July 2018 est.)
total: 181,660

percent of population: 47.08% (July 2018 est.)
Telecommunication systemsgeneral assessment:

with a large population and relatively low broadband and mobile penetration, Mexico's telecom sector has potential for growth; adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; relatively low broadband and mobile penetration, potential for growth and international investment; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable; 5G development slow given the existing capabilities of LTE; IXP in Mexico City; exporter of computers and broadcasting equipment to USA, and importer of same from China (2021)


domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 18 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 95 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations (2019)

international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the ARCOS-1 and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

general assessment: Belize's fixed-line tele-density and mobile penetration is lower than average for the region, due to insufficient competition, underinvestment in services, and lax standards; mobile accounts for 90% of all phones; operator aims to provide cheaper prices and customer retention through investment in broadband to over 80% of premises and LTE infrastructure; operator launched safe cities project to fight crime; government distributed tablets to students to promote e-learning; submarine cable to Ambergris Caye enables FttP service in San Pedro; importer of broadcast equipment from the United States (2021) (2020)

domestic: 5 per 100 fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 65 per 100 persons; mobile sector accounting for over 90% of all phone subscriptions (2019)

international: country code - 501; landing points for the ARCOS and SEUL fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments
Broadband - fixed subscriptionstotal: 19,354,980

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.19 (2019 est.)
total: 29,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7.55 (2019 est.)
Broadcast mediatelecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 821 TV stations and 1,745 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks8 privately owned TV stations; multi-channel cable TV provides access to foreign stations; about 25 radio stations broadcasting on roughly 50 different frequencies; state-run radio was privatized in 1998 (2019)


Roadwaystotal: 398,148 km (2017)

paved: 174,911 km (includes 10,362 km of expressways) (2017)

unpaved: 223,237 km (2017)
total: 3,281 km (2017)

paved: 601 km (2017)

unpaved: 2,680 km (2017)
Waterways2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz

oil terminal(s): Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal

cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada

container port(s) (TEUs): Lazaro Cardenas (1,318,732), Manzanillo (3,069,189), Veracruz (1,144,156) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada
major seaport(s): Belize City, Big Creek
Merchant marinetotal: 668

by type: bulk carrier 6, general cargo 10, oil tanker 34, other 618 (2020)
total: 790

by type: bulk carrier 50, container ship 4, general cargo 401, oil tanker 67, other 268 (2020)
Airportstotal: 1,714 (2013)total: 47 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 243 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 12 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 32 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 80 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 86 (2017)

under 914 m: 33 (2017)
total: 6 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)

under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 1,471 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 42 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 281 (2013)

under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)
total: 41 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)

under 914 m: 29 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 16 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 370

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 64,569,640 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,090,380,000 mt-km (2018)
number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 28

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,297,533 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3.78 million mt-km (2018)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixXAV3


Military branchesSecretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, SEDENA): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, SEMAR): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)); Ministry of Security and Citizen Protection: Federal Police (includes Gendarmerie), National Guard (2021)

note: the National Guard was formed in 2019 and consists of personnel from the Federal Police and military police units of the Army and Navy; while the Guard is part of the civilian-led Ministry of Security and Citizen Protection, the Defense Ministry has day-to-day operational control; in addition, the armed forces provide the commanders and the training
Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, Air Wing; Belize Coast Guard (independent from the BDF, but under the Ministry of Defense) (2021)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service for males (selection for service determined by lottery); conscript service obligation is 12 months; conscripts remain in reserve status until the age of 40; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2019)18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1; initial service obligation 12 years (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.5% of GDP (2019)

0.5% of GDP (2018)

0.5% of GDP (2017)

0.6% of GDP (2016)

0.7% of GDP (2015)
1.2% of GDP (2019)

1.2% of GDP (2018)

1.3% of GDP (2017)

1.3% of GDP (2016)

1.2% of GDP (2015)
Military and security service personnel strengthsinformation varies; approximately 250,000 active personnel (180,000 Army; 60,000 Navy, including 20-25,000 marines; 8,000 Air Force); approximately 90-100,000 National Guard (2021)the Belize Defense Force (BDF) has approximately 1,300 active personnel; approximately 300 Belize Coast Guard (2021)
Military equipment inventories and acquisitionsthe Mexican military inventory includes a mix of domestically-produced and imported equipment from a variety of mostly Western suppliers; since 2010, the US is the leading supplier of military hardware to Mexico; Mexico's defense industry produces naval vessels and light armored vehicles (2020)the BDF's inventory is limited and consists mostly of UK- and US-origin equipment (2020)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to approximately half of Belize, but agrees to the Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution, but this vote was suspended indefinitely; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Illicit drugsmajor drug-producing and transit nation; Mexico is estimated to be the world's third largest producer of opium with poppy cultivation in 2015 estimated to be 28,000 hectares yielding a potential production of 475 metric tons of raw opium; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US marketmajor transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis, primarily for local consumption; offshore sector money-laundering activity related to narcotics trafficking and other crimes


Air pollutantsparticulate matter emissions: 20.08 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 486.41 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 135.77 megatons (2020 est.)
particulate matter emissions: 21.23 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.57 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.55 megatons (2020 est.)
Total water withdrawalmunicipal: 14.23 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 6.814 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 66.8 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
municipal: 11.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 21.2 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 68.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)
Revenue from forest resourcesforest revenues: 0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)forest revenues: 0.31% of GDP (2018 est.)
Revenue from coalcoal revenues: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
Waste and recyclingmunicipal solid waste generated annually: 53.1 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2.655 million tons (2013 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5% (2013 est.)
municipal solid waste generated annually: 101,379 tons (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook