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Mexico vs. Belize

Introduction

MexicoBelize
BackgroundThe site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.
Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1862. Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992 and the two countries are involved in an ongoing border dispute. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current concerns include the country's heavy foreign debt burden, high unemployment, growing involvement in the Mexican and South American drug trade, high crime rates, and one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Central America.

Geography

MexicoBelize
LocationNorth America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Geographic coordinates23 00 N, 102 00 W
17 15 N, 88 45 W
Map referencesNorth America
Central America and the Caribbean
Areatotal: 1,964,375 sq km
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km
total: 22,966 sq km
land: 22,806 sq km
water: 160 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than three times the size of Texas
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundariestotal: 4,389 km
border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3,155 km
total: 542 km
border countries (2): Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 276 km
Coastline9,330 km
386 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatevaries from tropical to desert
tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Terrainhigh, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,111 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m
mean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Doyle's Delight 1,124 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 54.9%
arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 41.7%
forest: 33.3%
other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 6.9%
arable land 3.3%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 2.2%
forest: 60.6%
other: 32.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land65,000 sq km (2012)
35 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardstsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana
frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Environment - current issuesscarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico
only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
Population distributionmost of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City
approximately 25% to 30% of the population lives in the former capital, Belize City; over half of the overall population is rural; population density is slightly higher in the north and east

Demographics

MexicoBelize
Population124,574,795 (July 2017 est.)
360,346 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.93% (male 17,155,689/female 16,390,913)
15-24 years: 17.54% (male 11,065,927/female 10,778,382)
25-54 years: 40.81% (male 24,550,848/female 26,282,836)
55-64 years: 7.64% (male 4,362,868/female 5,160,514)
65 years and over: 7.09% (male 3,949,823/female 4,876,995) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 33.95% (male 62,454/female 59,896)
15-24 years: 20.55% (male 37,730/female 36,339)
25-54 years: 36.62% (male 66,880/female 65,082)
55-64 years: 4.99% (male 8,834/female 9,130)
65 years and over: 3.89% (male 6,562/female 7,439) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.3 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 29.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 22.7 years
male: 22.5 years
female: 22.9 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.12% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2017 est.)
Birth rate18.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
24 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.1 years
male: 73.3 years
female: 79 years (2017 est.)
total population: 68.9 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 70.6 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.24 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.85 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.3% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean
Ethnic groupsmestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European)
note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity (2012 est.)
mestizo 52.9%, Creole 25.9%, Maya 11.3%, Garifuna 6.1%, East Indian 3.9%, Mennonite 3.6%, white 1.2%, Asian 1%, other 1.2%, unknown 0.3%
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS220,000 (2016 est.)
4,300 (2016 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 40.1%, Protestant 31.5% (includes Pentecostal 8.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 4.7%, Mennonite 3.7%, Baptist 3.6%, Methodist 2.9%, Nazarene 2.8%), Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, other 10.5% (includes Baha'i, Buddhist, Hindu, Mormon, Muslim, Rastafarian, Salvation Army), unspecified 0.6%, none 15.5% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,200 (2016 est.)
<200 (2016 est.)
LanguagesSpanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%
note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)
English 62.9% (official), Spanish 56.6%, Creole 44.6%, Maya 10.5%, German 3.2%, Garifuna 2.9%, other 1.8%, unknown 0.3%, none 0.2% (cannot speak)
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2010 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2015)
Education expenditures5.2% of GDP (2012)
6.2% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 79.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 43.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.93% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 92.1% of population
total: 96.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 7.9% of population
total: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 74.5% of population
total: 85.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 25.5% of population
total: 14.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.5% of population
rural: 88.2% of population
total: 90.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.5% of population
rural: 11.8% of population
total: 9.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMEXICO CITY (capital) 20.999 million; Guadalajara 4.843 million; Monterrey 4.513 million; Puebla 2.984 million; Toluca de Lerdo 2.164 million; Tijuana 1.987 million (2015)
BELMOPAN (capital) 17,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate38 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
28 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.9% (2015)
4.6% (2015)
Health expenditures6.3% of GDP (2014)
5.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.77 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate28.9% (2016)
24.1% (2016)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,105,617
percentage: 5% (2009 est.)
total number: 27,751
percentage: 40% (2001 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate66.9% (2015)
51.4% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.4
youth dependency ratio: 41.6
elderly dependency ratio: 9.8
potential support ratio: 10.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.8
youth dependency ratio: 50.9
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2015 est.)

Government

MexicoBelize
Country nameconventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico
etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras
etymology: may be named for the Belize River, whose name possibly derives from the Maya word ""belix,"" meaning ""muddy-watered""
"
Government typefederal presidential republic
parliamentary democracy (National Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capitalname: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)
geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
note: Mexico has four time zones
name: Belmopan
geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 46 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 city* (ciudad); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
21 September 1981 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 16 September (1810)
Battle of St. George's Caye Day (National Day), 10 September (1798); Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2017 (2017)
previous 1954, 1963 (preindependence); latest signed and entered into force 21 September 1981; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts
English common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Colville Norbert YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Dean Oliver BARROW (since 8 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Patrick FABER (since 7 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
note: for the 2018 elections, senators will be eligible for a second term and deputies up to 4 consecutive terms
elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held on 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 June 2015 (next to be held on 1 July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, MC 2, PANAL 1;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 203, PAN 108, PRD 56, PVEM 47, MORENA 35, MC 26, PANAL 10, PES 8, PT 6, independent 1
description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 6 on the advice of the prime minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1 each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives (31 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 4 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - UDP 50%, PUP 47.3%, other 2.7%; seats by party - UDP 19, PUP 12
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms
subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Judicature (consists of the Court of Appeal with the court president and 3 justices, and the Supreme Court with the chief justice and 2 judges); note - in 2010, Belize ceased final appeals in civil and criminal cases to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) and acceded to the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal president and justices appointed by the governor general upon advice of the prime minister after consultation with the National Assembly opposition leader; justices' tenures vary by terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the governor-general upon the advice of the prime minister and the National Assembly opposition leader; other judges appointed by the governor-general upon the advice of the Judicial and Legal Services Section of the Public Services Commission and with the concurrence of the prime minister after consultation with the National Assembly opposition leader; judges can be appointed beyond age 65 but must retire by age 75; in 2013, the Supreme Court chief justice overturned a constitutional amendment that had restricted Court of Appeal judge appointments to as short as 1 year
subordinate courts: Magistrate Courts; Family Court
Political parties and leadersCitizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Enrique OCHOA Reza]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Carlos Alberto PUENTE Salas]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Andres Manuel LOPEZ Obrador]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN (vacant)
New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Alejandra BARRALES Magdaleno]
Social Encounter Party (Partido Encuentro Social) or PES [Hugo Eric FLORES Cervantes]
Belize Progressive Party or BPP [Patrick ROGERS] (formed in 2015 from a merger of the People's National Party, elements of the Vision Inspired by the People, and other smaller political groups)
People's United Party or PUP [Johnny BRICENO]
United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean Oliver BARROW]
Political pressure groups and leadersBusinessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church
National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUCB [Floyd NEAL]
International organization participationAPEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Geronimo GUTIERREZ Fernandez (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas, Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Minneapolis (MN), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section is located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Daniel GUTIERREZ (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Roberta JACOBSON (since 20 June 2016)
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
telephone: (01-55) 5080-2000
FAX: (01-55) 5080-2005
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Adrienne GALANEK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Floral Park Road, Belmopan City, Cayo District
mailing address: P.O. Box 497, Belmopan City, Cayo District, Belize
telephone: [011] (501) 822-4011
FAX: [011] (501) 822-4012
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not display anything in its white band
royal blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland of 50 mahogany leaves; the colors are those of the two main political parties: blue for the PUP and red for the UDP; various elements of the coat of arms - the figures, the tools, the mahogany tree, and the garland of leaves - recall the logging industry that led to British settlement of Belize
note: Belize's flag is the only national flag that depicts human beings; two British overseas territories, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands, also depict humans
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional Mexicano"" (National Anthem of Mexico)
lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as ""Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra"" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed
"
"name: ""Land of the Free""
lyrics/music: Samuel Alfred HAYNES/Selwyn Walford YOUNG
note: adopted 1981; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, ""God Save the Queen"" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red
Baird's tapir (a large, browsing, forest-dwelling mammal), keel-billed toucan, Black Orchid; national colors: red, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: not specified
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

MexicoBelize
Economy - overviewMexico's $2.2 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force in 1994. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal.

Mexico has become the US' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2016, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $579 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia, and Chile.

Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, has emphasized economic reforms, passing and implementing sweeping energy, financial, fiscal, and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Mexico began holding public auctions of exploration and development rights to select oil and gas resources in 2015 as a part of reforms that allow for private investment in the oil, gas, and electricity sectors. Mexico held its fourth auction in December 2016 and allocated 8 of 10 deepwater fields, demonstrating Mexico’s capacity to attract investment amid low oil prices. The government allocateed additional fields in 2017.

Since 2013, Mexico’s economic growth has averaged 2% annually, falling short of private-sector expectations that President PENA NIETO’s sweeping reforms would bolster economic prospects. Growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Over the medium-term, the economy is vulnerable to global economic pressures, such as lower external demand, rising interest rates, and low oil prices - approximately 10% of government revenue comes from the state-owned oil company, PEMEX.
Tourism is the number one foreign exchange earner in this small economy, followed by exports of sugar, bananas, citrus, marine products, and crude oil.

The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in 1999-2007, however GDP growth slowed to 1% in 2015, and 0% in 2016. Oil discoveries in 2006 bolstered this growth and oil exploration continues, but production has fallen in recent years and future oil revenues remain uncertain and are offset by Belize’s growing imports of refined oil.

Although Belize has the third highest per capita income in Central America, the average income figure masks a huge income disparity between rich and poor, and a key government objective remains reducing poverty and inequality with the help of international donors. High unemployment, a growing trade deficit and heavy foreign debt burden continue to be major concerns. Belize faces continued pressure from rising sovereign debt, and a growing trade imbalance.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$2.406 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.356 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.303 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$3.23 billion (2017 est.)
$3.151 billion (2016 est.)
$3.176 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.1% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2017 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$19,500 (2017 est.)
$19,300 (2016 est.)
$19,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$8,300 (2017 est.)
$8,400 (2016 est.)
$8,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.9%
industry: 31.6%
services: 64% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 13.8%
services: 62.2% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line46.2%
note: from a food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2014 est.)
41% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40% (2014)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.9% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2017 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force54.51 million (2017 est.)
120,500
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 13.4%
industry: 24.1%
services: 61.9% (2011)
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 18.1%
services: 71.7% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate3.6% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)
note: underemployment may be as high as 25%
10.1% (2017 est.)
11.1% (2016 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $292.8 billion
expenditures: $314.9 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $500 million
expenditures: $550 million (2017 est.)
Industriesfood and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
garment production, food processing, tourism, construction, oil
Industrial production growth rate0% (2017 est.)
-2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
bananas, cacao, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber
Exports$406.5 billion (2017 est.)
$374.3 billion (2016 est.)
$483.4 million (2017 est.)
$442.7 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmanufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood, crude oil
Exports - partnersUS 81% (2016)
Burma 30.7%, US 22.6%, UK 19.3% (2016)
Imports$417.3 billion (2017 est.)
$387.4 billion (2016 est.)
$944.4 million (2017 est.)
$916.2 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmetalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports - partnersUS 46.6%, China 18%, Japan 4.6% (2016)
US 37.2%, China 11.6%, Mexico 10.8%, Guatemala 7% (2016)
Debt - external$480.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$450.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.326 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.338 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratesMexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
18.26 (2017 est.)
18.664 (2016 est.)
18.664 (2015 est.)
15.848 (2014 est.)
13.292 (2013 est.)
Belizean dollars (BZD) per US dollar -
2 (2017 est.)
2 (2016 est.)
2 (2015 est.)
2 (2014 est.)
2 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 April - 31 March
Public debt51.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
91.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$189.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$178.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: Mexico also maintains access to an $88 million Flexible Credit Line with the IMF
$368.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$376.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$19.81 billion (2017 est.)
-$22.97 billion (2016 est.)
-$145 million (2017 est.)
-$163 million (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.142 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.819 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$402.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$480.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$526 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate6.25% (28 February 2017)
5.25% (28 February 2016)
9.86% (1 September 2016)
10.01% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate7.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.72% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.84% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$510.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$393.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.278 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$235.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$186.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$737.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$735.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$772.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$603 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.311 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.475 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
27.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-2.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 7.7%
male: 7.2%
female: 8.8% (2016 est.)
total: 18.9%
male: 12.1%
female: 29.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 68%
government consumption: 12.5%
investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
investment in inventories: -1.3%
exports of goods and services: 37.4%
imports of goods and services: -38.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 75.6%
government consumption: 14.1%
investment in fixed capital: 23%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 57.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.5% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
11% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

MexicoBelize
Electricity - production292.7 billion kWh (2015 est.)
248 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption245.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
413 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports7.308 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports392 million kWh (2016 est.)
230 million kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production2.187 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
2,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports1.224 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
3,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves7.64 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
6.7 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves355.7 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production40.37 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption418.9 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports31 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports36.47 billion cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity65.45 million kW (2016 est.)
191,000 kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels72.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
52.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants18.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
28.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels2.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources8.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
19.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1.043 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
33.05 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption2.027 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
3,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports181,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports751,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
3,638 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy455 million Mt (2013 est.)
700,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,231,667
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2012)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MexicoBelize
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 19,599,886
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 23,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 111,724,654
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2016 est.)
total: 227,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)
general assessment: above-average system; trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
domestic: fixed-line teledensity of only about 6 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 65 per 100 persons
international: country code - 501; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2016)
Internet country code.mx
.bz
Internet userstotal: 73,334,032
percent of population: 59.5% (July 2016 est.)
total: 157,735
percent of population: 44.6% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediamany TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)
8 privately owned TV stations; multi-channel cable TV provides access to foreign stations; about 25 radio stations broadcasting on roughly 50 different frequencies; state-run radio was privatized in 1998 (2009)

Transportation

MexicoBelize
Roadwaystotal: 377,660 km
paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)
unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)
total: 2,870 km
paved: 488 km
unpaved: 2,382 km (2011)
Waterways2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz
container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (1,992,176), Lazaro Cardenas (1,242,777) (2012)
oil terminal(s): Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada
cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada
major seaport(s): Belize City, Big Creek
Merchant marinetotal: 622
by type: bulk carrier 5, general cargo 9, oil tanker 32, other 576 (2017)
total: 756
by type: bulk carrier 53, container ship 3, general cargo 373, oil tanker 55, other 272 (2017)
Airports1,714 (2013)
47 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 243
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 86
under 914 m: 33 (2017)
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 1,471
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 281
under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)
total: 41
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 29 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 21
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 357
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 45,560,063
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713,985,467 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 28
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 935,603
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,463,420 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefixXA (2016)
V3 (2016)

Military

MexicoBelize
Military branchesSecretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)
Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, BDF Air Wing; Belize Coast Guard; Belize Police Department (2017)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1; initial service obligation 12 years (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.58% of GDP (2016)
0.67% of GDP (2015)
0.67% of GDP (2014)
0.62% of GDP (2013)
0.59% of GDP (2012)
1.17% of GDP (2016)
1.09% of GDP (2015)
1.06% of GDP (2014)
1.1% of GDP (2013)
0.97% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

MexicoBelize
Disputes - internationalabundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty
Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to approximately half of Belize, but agrees to the Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution, but this vote was suspended indefinitely; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty
Illicit drugsmajor drug-producing and transit nation; Mexico is estimated to be the world's third largest producer of opium with poppy cultivation in 2015 estimated to be 28,000 hectares yielding a potential production of 475 metric tons of raw opium; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market
major transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis, primarily for local consumption; offshore sector money-laundering activity related to narcotics trafficking and other crimes

Source: CIA Factbook